??? Madinah) is a city in Saudi Arabia, north of Mecca.
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ªMedina (; Arabic: ??????? ???????, al-Mad?nah al-Munawwarah, "the shining city"; or alma?di?na, al-Mad?nah (Hejazi pronounced:[alma?di?na]), "the city"), also translated as Mad?nah, is a town in the Hejaz area of the Arabian Peninsula and seat of administration of the Al-Madinah area of Saudi Arabia". Al-Masjid an-Nabawi ("the Mosque of the Prophet"), the tomb of the Muslim prophesy Mohammed and the second highest town in Islam after Mecca, is located in the town.
Another name is al-Mad?nah an-Nabawiyyyyah (??????? ???????) or Mad?nat an-Nab? (????? Mad?nat, "the town of the prophet"). Since 2010 [update] the town of Medina has 1,183,205 inhabitants. Later, the name of the town has been renamed to al-Mad?na-tu n-Nab? or al-Mad?natu'l-Munawwarah (??????? Mad?natu "the illuminated town" or "the shining town").
It is also known as the town that has given him and his supporters shelter, making Medina the second most sacred Islamic town after Mecca. In Medina Mohammed was entombed under the Green Cathedral, as were the first two Rashidun-Caliph, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were entombed next to him in the former home of Mohammed.
Médina is 210 nautical mile ( "340 km") from Mecca and about 120 nautical mile ( "190 km") from the Red Sea coastline. This historical town was an old town, encircled by a thick walled, 30 to 40 ft (9. 1 to 12. 2 m) high, from the XII AD, and was bordered by turrets, while on a cliff, was standing a fortress.
On the other side of the ramparts were the western and southern outskirts, which consisted of low buildings, courtyards, parks and plants. Nearly the entire historical town was torn down in the saudian age. This reconstructed town concentrates on the greatly extended al-Masjid an-Nabawi. Due to the saudian government's religion and concerns that historical places might become the centre of worship, much of Medina's Muslim corporeal inheritance has changed.
Medina's importance as a place of worship results from the attendance of al-Masjid an-Nabawi. It was extended by the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a hill just south of Medina which was the scene of the second battles between Moslem and Mekkana. As in Mecca, the town of Medina only allows Muslims to come in, although the area of Medina (closed to non-Muslims) is much smaller than that of Mecca, so many institutions on the periphery of Medina are open to non-Muslims, while in Mecca the area enclosed to non-Muslims goes far beyond the borders of the built-up area.
Every year several hundred thousand Muslims come to Medina during the Hajjgrimage. Al-Baqi' is an important graveyard in Medina, where several members of the Mohammed, caliph and scholar families are grave. And the Prophet said: Medina is a shrine from this place until then. "Their last and most bloody fight was the fight of Bu'ath, which was waged a few years before the advent of Muhammad.
12 ] The end of the fight was unclear, and the vendetta was on. Abd Allah ibn Ubayy, a Khazraj chieftain, had declined to take part in the fight, which gave him a call for justice and peace. He was the most respectable resident of Yathrib until Mohammed arrived. In order to resolve the persistent feuds, worried inhabitants of the town clandestinely gathered with Muhammad in Al-Aqaba, a place between Makkah and Mina, and invited him and his small group of faithful to come to Yathrib, where Muhammad, as a lackadaisical intermediary between the fractions and his fellowship, could exercise his beliefs free.
Mohammed and about 70 Mecanian Muhajirun faithful abandoned Mecca in Yathrib in 622 AD, an incident that changed the town' s religion and politics entirely; the long-standing hostility between the Aus and Khazraj peoples was curbed as many of the two Arabian peoples and some indigenous Jews hugged Islam.
Mohammed, who was connected to the Khazraj through his great-grandmother, was appointed mayor. Muslims convert to Yathrib, regardless of origin - pagan Arabs or Jews - were named Ansar ("the patrons" or "the helpers"), while Muslims would be paying the Zakat taxpayers. Badr was a pivotal fight in the early era of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's fight with his enemies under the Qur' aysh in Mecca.
Mohammed was informed in the early 624s by his secret service resources that a merchant cavalry under Abu Sufyan ibn Harb's command and watched by thirty to forty men was returning from Syria to Mecca. Mohammed assembled an armies of 313 men, the biggest armies that the Muslims had set up on the area.
Many early Islamic springs, however, among them the Koran, suggest that no serious battles were expected and the prospective caliph Uthman ibn Affan remained behind to take charge of his ill wif. When the Medina approaching, Abu Sufyan began to hear from travelers and horsemen about Muhammad's impound. It sent a courier called Damdam to Mecca to alert the Quray sh and get forcements.
Part of the military, however, was later to come back to Mecca before the war. Mohammed had ordered the Muslims to fight with their long-range weaponry and to fight the Quray sh only with close combat weaponry as they throng. "26 ] The Moslem military cried "Y? Y? ¡Ámit!
It took only a few hour and was over in the early afternoons. 26 ] The Koran depicts the power of the Moslem assault in many verse referring to the thousand cherubs who descend from heaven at Badr to kill the Koran. 27 ] Early Islamic springs take this verbatim, and there are several Hadithes in which Mohammed discussed the angel Jibreel and his part in the war.
During the whole winters and springs of 623 other raids were sent by Mohammed from Medina. And in 625, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, chief of the Quraish of Mecca, who was a regular taxpayer to the Muslim kingdom, once again lead a Mecanian troop against Medina. Mohammed walked out to face power, but before he reached combat, about a third of the forces under Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy retreated.
A smaller troop was needed to help the Islamic armies find a way to overtake. But when the fighting got hot, the Meccans were compelled to withdraw. From the beginning of the war, the front of the war was further and further away from the archery, who had nothing else to do but observe.
Increasingly impatient to be part of the fight, and given the fact that they had gained a certain edge over the Kafirun (infidels), these archery men chose to abandon their post to persecute the retiring Meccans. It was a great benefit for the Muslims, and they had to be attracted by their poles so that the Meccans could turn the game.
But the Meccans did not take full advantage of the situation by marching into Medina and returning to Mecca. Medinanians sustained severe casualties and Muhammad was wounded. During the ten years after the Hijrah, Medina was the basis from which Muhammad and the Moslem armies were invaded and assaulted, and from here he invaded Mecca, where he invaded without a fight in 629 AD, with all sides agreeing to his command.
However, Mohammed then went back to Medina, the most important town of Islam and the capitol of the early Kalifat for several years, despite Mohammed's tribe connections with Mecca and the continuing importance of the Mexican Kaabas for the Muslim journey (Hajj). Among the first three Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman Kalifs, Medina was the capitol of a fast-growing Muslim empire.
Throughout Uthman's time, the Third Kalif, a faction of Arabs from Egypt, angrily assaulted his policy choices, Medina in 656 A.D. and assassinated him in his own house. Ali, the 4th Kalif, moved the Kaliphate's city from Medina to Kufa in Iraq. Afterwards Medina lost its importance and became more of a place of spiritual significance than of publicity.
From 1920 the British described Medina as "much more self-supporting than Mecca". Shortly thereafter, in 1924, he was beaten by Ibn Saud, who incorporated Medina and all of Hejaz into the contemporary realm of Qaeda. Today Medina ("Madinah" formally in official Sami documents) is not only the second most important Muslim pilgrim goal after Mecca, but also an important local capitol of the west Saudi Arab provincial Al Madinah.
Although the holy centre of the Old Town is taboo for non-Muslims, Medina is increasingly populated by Moslem and non-Muslim labourers of other Arabian nations (Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, etc.), Southern Asians (Bangladeshis, Indians, Pakistanis, etc.) and Filipinos. Madinah's land is mainly basaltic, while the southern slopes are covered with vulcanic ashes from the first Paleozoic time.
The Al Madinah Al Munawarah is situated in the eastern part of the Al Hijaz region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at 39º 36' El and 28º 28' N. Madinah is situated in the northwestern part of the Kingdom, just 250 kilometers (160 miles) from it.
It is 620 meters (2,030 feet) above the surface. Its area is about 50 km2 (19 km2). Known as Yathrib in the scriptures of old Maeniand, this is clear proof that the demographic fabric of this deserted haven is a fusion of Northern and Southern Arabs who established themselves there and established their civilization during the thousand years before Christ.
It has a warm deserts clima (Köppen class BWh). Like in most Saudi Arabian towns, Islam is the religious group to which the Medina people belong. Sunni of different colleges (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali) form the main part, while in and around Medina there is a significant Shiite minorities, like the Nakhawila.
There are a considerable number of non-Muslim immigrant and expatriate people outside the center (reserved for Muslims only). Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Airport, opened in 1974, serves the town. The flight to Medina departs from Prince Mohammad bin Abdulaziz Airport (IATA: MED, ICAO: OEMA), about 15 kilometers from the center of the town.
The main streets connecting the town of Medina with other parts of the country: Hwy 15 (Saudi Arabia) - links Medina with Mecca, Abha, Khamis Mushait and Tabuk. Al- Haram Al-Nabawi in Medina, as shown on a porcelain floor slab from the seventeenth c... Southwest Saudi Arabia: Leap up ^ Sandra Mackey's report about her attempted entry to Mecca in Mackey, Sandra (1987).
an A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi. Uh-huh. Leap to the top of the world in 2016 Medina's populace Jews from Moslem origins usually called ryar-king the" Tubba". Concerning views that question the early date of the constitution of Medina, see e.g. Peters 116; "Muhammad", "Encyclopedia of Islam"; "Kurayza, Banu", "Encyclopedia of Islam".
The biography of Muhammad and the ascent of Islam. Enlargement of Islam and early converts, from the takeover of prophetic ministry by Mohammed to the date of the first migration to Abyssinia by William Muir Archived on November 7, 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Hip up ^"The Jews of Arabia". dangoor.com.
In the Islamic world, p. 385 - "Half a hundred years later, 654/1256, Medina was at risk of erupting a volcano. After the plundering of Medina in 1810, when the Prophet's grave was opened and his jewellery and reliquaries were purchased and handed out among the Wahhabi soldiers. Arabia. Leap up ^ "Climate data for Saudi Arabia".
Arabia. Arabia. "Destroying Mecca: The Saud hard-liners are destroying their own heritage."