Mekkah ("Makkah" in Arabic) is the center of the Islamic world and the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad and the religion he founded.
Mekka | History & pilgrimages
Mecca, Arab Makkah, old Bakkah, town, westerly Saudi Arabia, situated in the ?ir?t mountains, upcountry from the Red Sea coastline. Mohammed, the Islamic founding father, was borne in Mecca, and Muslims turn to this center five days a day in their prayers. Muslims try a mecca at least once in their lives for a majj.
Only Muslims may come into the town. The town experienced an enormous upswing in the twentieth and twenty-first century. Areas around the church christenings were evacuated, the size of the shrine increased, accommodation and sanitary installations increased and transport possibilities better. Mecca can thus welcome the constantly growing number of hajji people.
Mekka is located at an altitude of 277 meters above sealevel in the arid soils of the wadi Ibr?h?m and some of its brief creeks. Southwards of the town, on Mount Thawr (2,490 feet), is the caves where the prophesy hid from his Muslim foes during the Hijra to Medina, the beginning of the Muslim calender.
Access to the town is via four loopholes in the neighbouring hills. Passports run from the north-east to Min?, ?Araf?t and Al-???if, from the north-west to Medina, from the east to Yiddah and from the east to Yemen. These shortcomings have also determined the course of the city's modern growth.
Mecca is endangered by the threat of saisonal torrential waters due to its relatively low altitude despite the low rainfall. Zamzam's centre is the ?aram Moscow, also known as the Great Moscow, where the Ka?bah and the holy well of Zamzam are located. All around the shrine, the old town extends to the south and northwest, but is bordered to the south and the south by the near-abouts.
Major thoroughfares are Al-Mudda?ah and S?q al-Layl in the northern part of the Mosque and Al-S?q al-Sagh?r in the southern part. From World War II, Mecca has spread along the road through the ridges to the northern, northwestern and western parts of the country. Expanding was supported by the building of new highways in the old town.
A number of high-rise buildings were constructed around the church in the 21 st cent. ?aram is a great place in terms of grandeur and architectural design and has been beautified and extended several times over the ages, most recently in a range of major extensions by the Saudi Arabian authorities in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first century.
Each of the mosques can receive one million faithful. The homes near the shrine were destroyed, and it is now encircled by open rooms and broad roads that can be traversed by subterranean corridors to facilitate transport. In the southern part of the ?aram Mosque, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia erected the Abr?j al-Bayt high-rise building project, one of the biggest and highest structures in the whole word, to host accommodation in a hotel, commercial centre and places of worship near the sacred places.
Mecca's buildings are more dense in the old town than in contemporary housing areas. There are still slums in various parts of the town; the majority of the people in the slums are impoverished people who are not able to pay for their returns and who have stayed after their arrival in Mecca either for the hadj or for a smaller sanctuary known as ?umrah
Mecca has a high densely populated area. The majority of the inhabitants are located in the old town, while the highest concentrations in urban areas are found in contemporary housing. The pilgrims came from other parts of Saudi Arabia and other Islamic lands and during the sanctuary months the town grew up with one to two million believers.
Admission to Mecca is restricted to adherents of Islam. But Mecca is one of the most metropolitan towns in the whole wide planet where populations from different parts of the earth are living. Persons of the same nationality are living together in certain parts of the town. Mekka has neither an airfield nor transport by train or sea.
The cobbled streets connect Mecca with the most important towns of Saudi Arabia and the neighboring states. The yearly inflow provides the town with a good source of revenue, but also leads to a transitional populace of about two million or more, all of whom need shelter, nutrition, fresh supplies, power, transport and health care.
In order to alleviate the accommodation issue, the Saharan authorities have built enormous tented towns for the hadj every year, although occasional fire in these refugee centres has claimed a number of lives. According to the itinerary, all travellers must be transferred in the early mornings of the 9th of every week Dh? al-?ijjah from Mecca to ?Araf?t, about 12 mile.
On the same evening they must go to Min?, which is almost two kilometres from Mecca; after three nights they will all be brought back to Mecca. These problems have been addressed through the building of a good street infrastructure, an appropriate vehicle distribution and transport management. It is administered by the emirate of Makkah id?r?yah (county), who is in charge of maintaining order and order both in the town and in the county; he is nominated by the emperor and immediately reports to the RF.
Mekka is the capitol of Makkah ???if to which the towns of Jiddah and Al-???if also belong. Mekka is dependent on the nearby wadi for potable power. Umm al-Qura Univeristy (founded 1979) is situated in Mecca, as are two universities - Madrasat Ahl al-Hadith and the Saudi Arabian Institute for Higher Education.
Despite thorough checks by civil servants, sometimes people in the pilgrimage can carry various diseases, especially cerebrospinal infection and disease, but the healthcare authorities have been able to keep these issues under surveillance. Mecca was an old haven on the old Caribbean trading routes that connected the Mediterranean with South Arabia, East Africa and South Asia.
Situated about halfway between Ma?rib in the southern part and Petra in the northern part, the settlement became an important commercial and religion center in ancient Rome and Byzantium. Ptolemy's admission of Macoraba, a Arab country inland metropolis, to his Geographical Guide was long considered to show that Mecca was known to the Greek underworld.
However, since the end of the twentieth Century, Macoraba's identity with Mecca has been questioned. Mekka' s main place of worship before the rise of Islam in the seventh cent. the cube-shaped stonebuilding was repeatedly demolished and reconstructed. The town was governed by a number of Yemenite clans during pre-Islamic time.
It became a kind of city-state with powerful trading relations to the remainder of Arabia, Ethiopia and Europe under the quray. Mekka became a place of commerce, pilgrimages and indigenous assemblies. In 622 the Prophet had to escape from Mecca, but eight years later he came back and took over the town.
Purifying Mecca from the idol, declaring it the center of the Moslem journey and dedicating it to God. Ever since, the town has been the most important center of Islam. With the demise of the old road, Mecca was no longer of economic importance and has since then mainly been living on the income from each year' s walks and the offerings of the Mayor.
The Umayyad general al-?ajj?j ibn Y?suf looted Mecca, after which the town recognized the might of the Umayyad Kaliphate in Damascus and, after the darkness of this ruling family, the ?Abb?sid Kalifat of Baghdad. In 930, the Qarmatian Empire humiliated the town when the Qarmatian leaders ??hir Sulaym?n plundered Mecca and took the Black Stone from the Ka?bah
From the middle of the 10th cent. the village sovereigns were selected among the Sharif or Mohammed' s offspring, who maintained a powerful influence on the area while often worshipping more powerful statesmen. 1269 Mecca came under the Egyptian Maml?k Sultan. The Ottoman Empire with its capitol in Constantinople (now Istanbul) took over the sacred town in 1517.
The Ottoman invasion after the First World War challenged Mekka' s rule between the sharpifs and ?l Sa??d (the Sa??d family) of a strict, Puritan Islamic religion, known as Wahh?bism, in the Middle East. In 1925 King Ibn Sa??d joined the town and later became part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the capitol Makkah Sa??d_en. Sa??d
During the reign of the Saudis, Wahh?bism became a state creed and the institutions for travellers were upgraded. Mekka experienced a comprehensive economical trend as the oil deposits of Samudi Arabia were explored after the Second World War and the number of annual travellers skyrocketed. In spite of the generous spending of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on the renovation of the town and the area around the mosques in respect of appearance and security, the huge rush of visitors has resulted in several tragedies every year, as in 1990, when almost 1,500 travellers were killed in a footpath, and in 1997, when several hundred others were killed in a tented town and the resulting scare.
The town has also often been hit by unrest and violent events. The Great Mosque was confiscated in 1979 by a group of fighters, mainly from the Kingdom of Qatar, but also from other Muslim states. After an attack by the National Guard of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it was expelled with great forfeiture. In the 80s and 1990s, there were frequent demonstrations by Israeli religious groups, which resulted in collisions with the Sudanese authorities and caused many casualties and injury.