Mayan HistoryMaya History
Maya-Classic - 300-900 A.D.
They originate from Yucatan around 2600 B.C. and became known around 250 A.D. in present-day South Mexico, Guatemala, Westhonduras, El Salvador and North Belize. Based on the heritage of past civilisations' discoveries and concepts, such as the Olmec, the Mayas invented astrophysics, calendar based system and hieroglyphics. They were also known for their lavish and beautifully designed ceramic architectural styles, which included pyramid temples, buildings and observation rooms, all of which were constructed without the use of metallic implements.
Mayans were as skilful as ancient wavers and pots, clearing paths through jungle and marshes to promote vast trading nets with remote races. A lot of folks believe that the Mayan tribe passed over the Bering Strait at least 20,000 years ago. In the archaic time of 5000-1500 B.C. there is proof for the settlement in Mexico - maize growing, base ceramics and stoneworking.
Its first real civilisation was founded with the ascent of the Olmecs in the pre-classical era 1500 BC - 300 AD. Mayans are considered the creators of many facets of Mesoamerican culture, as well as the first calendars and hieroglyphics in the West Sphere. Archaeologists have not regulated the relations between the Olmecs and the Maya, and it is a puzzle whether the Maya had their offspring, trade partner or any other one.
There is agreement that the Mayans have created a complicated diary and the most sophisticated type of hieroglyphs in America, both of which are derived from the Olmec Version. The Mayans seem to have invaded Yucatan from the western side. In the beginning it is hard to distinguish the legend from history, as its oldest mention endowed guide and divine character, Itzamná, is regarded as one of the sun-gods of Mayan civilisation.
This second, which seems historical, was conducted from the western side by Kukulcan, a wonderful preacher and preceptor who became the creator of the Mayan Empire and civilisation. Quite good authoritarianism, founded on the studies of the Mayan chronics and the calendars, puts this beginning near the end of the second cent. of the Christendom era.
Kukulcan himself was part of the first Kukulcan familiy, who built his residency in Mayanspan, which thus became the country's capitol. For the Chele, the inherited high clergy was named, and their town became the holy Mayan town. Mayapan was later reconstructed and was again the capitol of the country until about the mid-15th centuries, when it was eventually demolished following a general uprising against the ruling dictatorship and the empire was divided into a number of small sovereign states, eighteen of which were in existence when the Spaniards arrived on the mainland.
As a result of this civilian conflict, part of the Itzá migrated southwards to the Petén Sea in Guatemala, where they founded a empire with their capitol and holy town of Flores Island in the area. The majority of art and culture achievements were made in the classical era from 300 - 900 AD.
Mayan civilizations evolved a hierarchically structured societies, subdivided into class and profession. Mayans centres bloomed in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras and El Salvador. Some of the most important classical towns were Tikal (Guatemala), Palenque and Yaxchilán (Chiapas, Mexico), Copán and Quirigua (Honduras). Most of the Mayan people were living in the middle lowland of Mexico and Belize.
Northern Yucatan (where Cancun is today) was thinly settled for most of the classical era, with few towns like Dzibilchaltún (near Mérida) and Xpuhil, Becán and Chicanná (near Chetumal). In the course of the ninth millennium, the centres of populations in the lowland region fell sharply. An anthropologist contrasted the "peaceful" Mayas with the bloody Aztecs of the Aztecs.
Though the Mayan did not consider man sacrifices as important as the Aztecs, they did have a great part in their faith. Mayans were belligerent and attacked their neighbours by country, people and prisoners. Mayan civilisation was the culmination of pre-Columbian civilisation. Beginning around 3114 BC before the Mayan civilisation began, the Mayans' calendars were able to gauge the period well into the distant years.
Writing in-depth stories and using their calendars to forecast the outlook and amazing happenings. In 1562 Fray Diego de Landa, second Yucatán priest, ordered the massive extermination of Mayansn literature and only three survivors. The Mayans emigrated to the Yucatán Penninsula after the Classical Age. There, they evolved their own characters, although their achievements and works of art are not as impressing as the Mayans.
The majority of the remains that can be seen south of Cancun date from this area. The three most important post-classical towns were Chichen Itza (near Valladolid), Uxmal (near Merida) and Mayanspán (west of Chichen Itza). The Confederacy was relatively quiet from around 1000-1100 A.D. when Mayanspán crushed the Confederacy and reigned for over 200 years.
1441 the Mayans, who had previously reigned Uxmal, ruined the town of Mayanspán and established a new town in Mani. War was waged between competing Mayans groups around the area until the area was captured by the Spaniards. First Chichen Itza was settled between 500 and 900 A.D. by Maya and for some reasons left around 900, then the town was moved 100 years later and then raided by Toltecs from the north.
The two Mayan deities include Chac and the four goddesses, Quetzalcoatl included. The town was left around 1300 for some strange reasons. Had the Spaniards not made it a politics to murder all Mayan clergymen and incinerate all the Mayan clergy when they got to Mexico, we would all have some more responses.
During his second journey, Columbus belonged to Yucatan as a faraway land of dressed men. During his fifth journey (1503-04), southwest of Cuba, he met a canoeload of Indians in exchange for civilized civilizations, who said they came from the old Mayan world. In 1517 Córdoba spotted the Isla Mujeres and sails down the Gulf of Yucatán, where he sustained severe casualties from the Maya.
1526 Francisco Montejo started to take over the Yucatan. For 20 years the Mayans struggled against the intruders, but finally conquered. Though the Mayans were butchered during the fighting with the Spaniards, importing Europe's disease depleted the people. Mayans were transferred to towns and pay high tax to the Spaniards.
Yucatan Mayans started a great rebellion that began in July 1847 as a caste-struggle. Spaniards were diverted by the US-Mexico conflict and almost completely abandoned the mainland. In 1846, the Mayans invaded Spaniards who had been armored by British colonists from Belize and equipped with rifles to protect the Yucatán Secondession.
Unsurprisingly, at the peak of their pioneering work, the Mayans retreated to their communities - allegedly to grow maize for the year. In 1848 the U.S. conflict ended and reinforcement was sent to the Yucatán, where they led the Mayans back to Chan Santa Cruz. For several years the Mayans fought back, but diseases and a lack of arms compelled them to capitulate in 1901.
The south and east half of the penninsula actually remains a virtually no man's paradise for those outside, where the Mayans were living almost as they like it. Juan Diaz, who at that time was celebrating Holy Mass at the top of one of the pagan temple, is also honored to be the first to do so.
Grijaba made the whole tour on the promontory before he returned after another distressed confrontation with the Mayans near Campeche. Following the 1521 Mexican invasion, Francisco de Montejo arrived on behalf of the Governor of Yucatan (1527) to bring about the invasion of Mexico, but encountered such frantic opposition that after eight years of uninterrupted struggle, every Spaniard had been expelled.
The next year, in a bloodthirsty war at Tihoo, he fully abandoned the might of the Mayan resistors, and a few month later (Jan. 1542) he established the new capitol of Merida on the site of the destroyed town. However, in 1546 there was a general uprising, and only one year later was the seizure secured.
The Indians welcomed them friendly, who came with their kids to be taught, and so the land might have been conquered by religious institutions, but for the crimes perpetrated by a group of Spaniards lawless, forcing the clergy to retreat.
Some of them - apparently nine, all Franciscans - led by Father Luis de Villalpando, were allocated to Yucatan. Like in other cases, the Ayuntamiento opted to defeat the object of this bill; but in 1551 another king's decree freed 150,000 Indians males and their hostages throughout Mexico.
Malchior de Benavente, he went barefooted to the town of Mani in the hills further southwards, where their progress was so great that two thousand conversions were soon busy constructing a temple and an apartment for them. Since the Yucatan Fields were allocated to the Franciscans, all the mission work among the Maya was done by them.
Yucatan became a bishopric in Merida in 1561. In 1562 - the renowned Diego de Landa, Vicarage of the Franciscans, and then Episcopal (1573-79), who realized that the locals throughout the entire Peninsula were still clandestinely appreciating their old rituals, initiated an inquiry which he carried out with such atrocities of tortures and deaths that the trial was suspended on the orders of the Episcopal Toral Franiscan Vicarious of Mexico immediately after his arriving the same summers to invade the Lake of Mérida.
However, before that, as was claimed, two million holy pictures and hundred of hieroglyphics scripts had been ruined - virtually all the bulky indigenous Mayan music. Between 1575-77, a horrible survey of a mystical illness named Matlusal Zahuatl, which only invaded the Indians, was sweeped over Southern Mexico and Yucatan and, as estimate, more than two million human life was wasted.
It was the forth performance since the war. In the end, it was assumed that the entire Mexican people had been cut to about 1,700,000 people. Up to this point, it was assumed that the indigenous Mexican people had been cut by three quarters since their detection through massacres, famines, diseases and repression.
Until 1593 more than 150 Franziskanermönche were active in Yucatan mission. Mayan history in the 17th centuries is mainly one of the revolution, namely 1610-33, 1636-44, 1653, 1669, 1670 and around 1675. 1697 the Itzá' capitol in Lake Petén, Guatemala, was attacked by Governor Martín de Ursua, making it the last centre of the Maya.
By 1847, taking full use of the government's troubles with the United States and their "undeniable hate for their sovereign since the early days of the Spain conquest", the Mayans resurfaced in general insurrection with the stated aim of evicting all the white, half-breed and niggers from the coastline where they were so successfully driven that all the refugees who had left the Great Massacre were fleeing to the coastline, from where most of them were picked up by Cuba' ship.
The Mayan rebels set up their head office in Chan-Santa-Cruz in the east of the mainland in 1851. They fended off two Mayan strongholds, Valladolid was sieged by the Indians, they took over two thousand white men and more than two thousand white men were butchered. Indians were burning and devastating in all directions, nineteen thriving cities were completely extinct, and the populations in three counties were cut from 97,000 to 35,000.
In 1901 - after long preparations, a powerful Mexico troop enters the area of the independant Maya by road and air, storms Chan-Santa-Cruz and drives the defense forces into the marshlands. Despite the advent of overseas tourists, the Mayan civilization has stayed surprisingly untouched. The Yucatan Mayans, whose forebears were hunter, cook and fishermen, now work in the hotel and other touristic establishments.
Over 350,000 Mayans in the Yucatan are Yukatek Mayans and most of them are second Spanish speakers, mainly at university. The Mayans wear hui-pils, plain gowns adorned with embroideries. Though the Mayas in other parts of Central America restrict exposure to external factors, the Mayas who work in the tourism sector are generally open to conversations with courteous foreigners and when asked, they preach one or two Mayan phrases.
Like the Mayan forefathers, the main food in the municipalities of India is maize. Qhuche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi and Mam Mayan languages are still used today, although the most Indians also speaks Spanish. Just like the old Egypt pharaohs, the Mayan emperors populated huge towns with sky-high pyrramids, decorated and extravagant castles embodying the might of the great emperors and their ties to the deities, and astronomic observation stations that assisted them in creating their agendas and planning their deeds.
Someone was unsure what caused the Mayan crash for many years. Maya archeology enters its Golden Age with the help of satellites and photographs. Numerous Mayan towns, monasteries and monasteries are still to be explored. The rainforest between Honduras and Yucatan is home to virtually a thousand Mayan places that are still intact.