Matterhorn ( "Matterhorn"[?mat?r?h?rn]; Italian: Mont Cervin[s??v?? s??v??]) is a high-mountain region in the Alps on the boundary between Switzerland and Italy. This is a large, almost symmetric pyramid-shaped top in the extensive Monte Rosa region of the Pennine Alps, whose top is 4,478 meters high and is thus one of the highest peaks in the Alps and Europe.
Remark 3] The four cliffs that rise above the neighbouring ice face the four directions and are divided by the Hörnli, Furggen, Leone/Lion and Zmutt ranges. It dominates the city of Zermatt in the northeast of the Valais and the Aosta Valley in the southwest of the city.
The Theodul Pass lies to the west of the Matterhorn, the principal pass between the two northern and southern side of the valley and a trading lane since the Romans. Matterhorn is mainly made of gneiss (originally remains of the African plate before Alpine orogeny) from the Dent Blanche river nappa, which lie above the ophiolite and Pennine diaper sediment.
Today's form of the hill is the product of karerosion caused by several different types of glacier, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the foot of the northface. The Mount of Mountains has become a landmark of the Swiss Alps and the Alps in general.
From the end of the nineteenth centuary, when railroads were constructed in the area, the hill has been attracting more and more people. Every year a large number of hikers try to ascend the Matterhorn from the Hörnli hut via the northeastern Hörnligrat, the most favourite path to the peak. Also many hikers take the 10-day tour around the mountains.
Since 1983 the Matterhorn has been part of the Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments. The Schalbetter card published by Sebastian Münster in 1545 describes the Schalbetter valleys as Mattertal, but the hill bears the name Mons Silvius in Roman and the name Augstalberg in English, Augstal being the English name of the Aosta valleys (by Augusta Praetoria Salassorum, contemporary Aosta).
Matterhorn has a pyramid-shaped form with four faces that face almost the four directions. There are three of them (north, East and West) on the side of the Switzerland and the Mattertal (border and watershed) and one of them (South) on the Valtournenche (border) side of Italy. On the northern wall is the Ober Gabelhorn (7 km away) overlooking the Zmutt Glacier and the Zermatt River and on the eastern wall the Gorner Glacier system between Gornergrat and Monte Rosa (10 and 17 km away) over the Theodul Pass,
On the western wall you can see the Zmuttgletscher between the Dent Blanche and the Dent d'Hérens (7 and 4 km away respectively) and the southern wall in front of the health spa Breuil-Cervinia and you can see a large part of the Valtournenche. Matterhorn is not a perfectly rectangular structure, as the northern and southern sides are broader than the western and eastern sides.
The latter do not come together on the top but are linked by a 100 metre long western-eastern crest between the northern and southern sides. In the Matterhorn there are cliffy faces with only small areas of glacier and glacier surface; regularly scheduled glacier glaciations are sent to the foot of each side, the biggest of which are the Tiefmatten Glacier in the western part, part of the Zmuttgletscher and the Matterhorn Glacier in the northern part.
There are smaller icebergs at the foot of the southern wall (Lower Matterhorn Glacier) and the eastern wall (unnamed). This is the area where the Swiss-Italian divide meets the most important Alpine divide, dividing the catchment area of the Rhone in the northern (Mediterranean) and the Po in the southern (Adriatic).
On the northern side the Zmuttbach (west and northern side) and the Gornera through the Furggbach (east side), affluents of the Rhone through the (Matter) Vispa are drainage. 23 ] The southern side and wall are dewatered by the stream of marble, the river Po's affluent through the Dora Baltea (or Doire baltée).
At 3,295 meters, the Theodulass, situated at the water divide between the Matterhorn and Breithorn, is the simplest crossing between the two dales and lands (the slightly lower Furggjoch is not used as a pass). For the Romans and the Romanized people of Salassi between 100 BC and 400 AD, the mountain passed through the valley and served as a transition and trading route The area is now strongly glacierized and the northern side is occupied by the Theodul Glacier.
Known faces are the eastern and northern parts, which can be seen from the area of Zermatt, but mostly concealed from the Matter valley through the Weisshorn-Chains. It is 1,000 meters high and, because it is "a long, monotone rocky slope" carries a high danger of falling rocks, which makes the climb hazardous.
It is 1,200 meters high and one of the most perilous northern faces of the Alps, especially because of the danger of falling rocks and wind. From Valtournenche, the southern face is 1,350 meters high and has many different itineraries. At 1,400 meters, the western face is the highest, has the least climbing paths and is located in a more outlying area.
The Matterhorn is the highlight of the Valtournenche in the southern part, but it is only one of the many 4000m peaks of the Mattertal in the northern part. It is surpassed by four great peaks: the Weisshorn (4,505 m), the Dom (4,545 m), the Liskamm (4,527 m) and the second highest in the Alps, Monte Rosa (4,634 m).
Most of the highest mountain ranges in West Europe are concentrated in this section of the Pennine Alps with the Matterhorn, the Zinalrothorn, the Dent Blanche, the Dent d'Hérens, the Breithorn, the Strahlhorn, the Rimpfischhorn and the Alphubel, forming a summit crest around Zermatt. Since 1983, the deep glacier area between the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa (Dent Blanche-Matterhorn-Monte Rosa) has been included in the Federal Inventory of Landscape and Natural Monuments.
There are four faces of the Matterhorn: The Matterhorn is a lonely hill. The Matterhorn is situated at the alpine water divide and is subject to fast changes in temperature. The cliffs of the hill and its isolation also make it susceptible to the development of cloud banners, with the wind that flows around the hill causing turbulence and causing turbulence on the leeward side.
Aside from the foot of the hill, the Matterhorn consists of the Dent Blanche cliff which is an insulated part of the Austroalpine nappe that lies above the Pennine nappe. This is why the Matterhorn became known as the Africa-Hill. Austroalpine diapers are mainly used in the Eastern Alps.
Horace Benedict de Saussure, a scientist and geographer from Switzerland, took his inspiration from the Matterhorn, and foreshadowed the contemporary geological theory of the Africa region. Matterhorn ( "Matterhorn") (and the entire Alpine region) began with the dissolution of the Pangaea continents 200 million years ago in Laurasia (with Europe) and Gondwana (with Africa).
In Laurasia, while the cliffs of Monte Rosa stayed, the cliffs of the Matterhorn were in Gondwana, divided by the new Tethys Ocean. The largest part of the hill is located in the Tsaté nappa, a relic of the Piedmont Ligurian ocean rust (Ophiolite) and its sediments.
Up to 3,400 meters the hill consists of consecutive strata of ophiolite and sandstone. The Alps have been attracting more and more visitors since the 18th cent. Until 1865 the Matterhorn was relatively unknown, but the success of the climb and the terrible tragedy of the Edward Whymper guided excursion resulted in a run on the Zermatt area.
30 ] Since 1930, the town has been directly linked to St. Moritz by the Glacier Express panorama rail. However, there is no link to the hamlet of Breuil-Cervinia on the Italians. For the crossing of the 3,300 metre high, glacierised Theodul Pass, which separates the two ski areas, you have to employ alpine coaches.
Zermatt tells the general story of the area from mountaineering to the tourist industry. A reconstructed hill town in the shape of a local heritage site, the visitor can experience the first and tragical climb of the Matterhorn and see the protagonist's work. 36 ] On July 14, 1865, in the last climb of the age of climbing, he managed to climb the peak with the famous professional climber Michel Croz and the famous Alpinist Peter Taugwalder Sr. and Jr., in the company of the English Lords Charles Hudson, Lord Francis Douglas, Douglas Robert Hadow.
Hadow, Croz, Hudson and Douglas died on the Matterhorn Glacier on the way down, and all but Douglas (whose corpse was never found) are dead in the Zermatt cemetery. Whymper made further experiments in 1862, still from the southern side, on the Löwenkamm (or Italien comb), where the trail seemed simpler than the Hörnli-Kamm (today's standard route).
John Tyndall, along with Johann Joseph Bennen and another leader, overcome most of the problems of the mountain crest, which seemed so huge from below and successfully crossed the shoulders; but at a point not very far below the peak they were halted by a crevice that resisted their greatest effort.
But the Matterhorn was not climbed. In 1863 Whymper went back to Breuil and persuaded Carrel to join him and explore the hill again over the Italians' crest. Whymper came back in 1865 with new maps and decided to invade the Matterhorn via its southern wall instead of the Italians.
Whymper began his climb on 21 June with a group of mountain leaders, but at half height they suffered a heavy rock fall; although nobody was hurt, they chose to give up the climb. I' ve tried to keep everything under wraps, but the guy whose lives depended on the Matterhorn is here, snooping distrustfully into everything.
I' ve taken the best men from him, and yet he's so in love with the hill that he can go with others.... He's here at the motel and I'm trying to stay away from talking to him. This was the meeting of Lord Francis Douglas, a Scotish climber who also wanted to ascend the Matterhorn.
Later, they reached Zermatt at the Monte Rosa Hotel, where they encountered two other UK mountaineers - the Reverend Charles Hudson and his young and unexperienced escort Douglas Robert Hadow - who had recruited the leader of France, Michel Croz, to try the first time up. The two groups agreed to join together and try to climb the Hörnligrat.
Whympers and the Party departed Zermatt in the early mornings of 13 July 1865 and drove to the base of the Hörnligrat, which they arrived 6 hrs later (about where the Hörnlihütte is today). In the meantime, Carrel and six other ltalian leaders have also begun their climb of the mountain range.
In spite of its look, Whymper said that the Hörnligrat was much more easy to ascend than the national one: it was much more easy to climb: Whymper and parties began on the crest after camp for the evening. By the time the partisans got near the peak, they had to step off the crest towards the northern face, because"[the crest] was usually decayed and steeper and more and more complicated than the face".
38 ] At this point of the Ascension, Whymper noted that the less skilled Hadow "needed constant help. At that very instant, the Carrel and Partie were about 400 meters underground and were still working on the most challenging parts of the peak. They then began the descend from Hörnligrat. Hudson and Douglas took the heavy men who fell out of their cargo compartments and drew them down the northern wall.
Croz, Hadow and Hudson's corpses were found on Matterhorn Glacier, but Douglas' corpse was never found. Before it was conquered in 1931, the northern face was one of the last major brick walls in the Alps. In order to be successful on the northern face, good rock- and climber techniques and routing were called for.
Since they had kept their intentions under wraps, their rise was a total astonishment. Furthermore, the two siblings had come from Munich by bike and returned home after their succesful climb. 51 ] The first wintry climb of the northern face was made by Hilti von Allmen and Paul Etter on 3 and 4 February 1962.
25 ] The first Ascension took place in five lessons by Dieter Marchart on July 22, 1959. On February 18 and 22, 1965, Walter Bonatti appeared on the solos "North Face Direct". In the same year, Yvette Vaucher was the first lady to ascend the northern face. From Zermatt the normal way up is with the Schwarzseebahn, hiking tour to the Hörnlihütte.
3,260 meters (10,700 feet), a large rock house at the foot of the crest, and stay overnight. Solvay hut on the crest at 4,003 meters (13,133 feet) can only be used in an emergencys. The Italian (Lion) Grat (AD difficulty level) and the Zmutt Grat (D difficulty level) are other favourite itineraries.
Its four faces and the Furggengrat are the most demanding climbs. One of the six most tricky faces in the Alps is the northern face, as well as the "trilogy", the three toughest of the six, and the northern faces of the Eiger and the Grandes Jurasses (TD+ difficulty level).
The Matterhorn and in particular the history of the first climb of the Matterhorn in the 19th and 19th centuries influenced various artist and movie makers such as Luis Trenker and Walt Disney. Banner in the Sky by James Ramsey Ullman is a work of Edward Whymper's rise. Leap up ^ Despite its importance locally, the Matterhorn is not one of the top 100 Alps in terms of topographical importance.
Take a panorama photo of the Finsteraarhorn in the south. Crucial point is Mount Durand at 3,436 meters between Matterhorn and Weisshorn. Skip up ^ Called up by Google Earth. Jumping high ^ It is the sixth highest peak in the Alps and Europe outside the Caucasus, with a height of at least 300m.
On July 14, 1865, he left this mountain resort with his escorts and leaders and completed his first climb of the Matterhorn. "Jumping up ^ "Community of Zermatt" (map). Matterhorn-Top ("digital"). High jumping ^ Messner, Reinhold (September 2001). From the Eiger north face to the south face of Dhaulagiri.
Jumping up ^ Journal de Genève. Gieri Venzin, éd. "Littérature sur la montagne des montagnes" (en allemand). High Jumping ^ Eade, Catherine (September 18, 2014). "With a torch on their heads, mountaineers make haunting traces in a moving homage to the first climb of the Matterhorn on the occasion of its centenary. Jumping up ^ "Mat".
Pho's English-German dictionary. The Matterhorn is disguised. Jumping upwards ^ "Swiss mountains - names". www.swissworld.org. Hip up^ Caesar, De Bello Gallico, number three. Skip up to: a to Guido Rey (1907). Matterhorn. High jumping Matterhorn. myswitzerland.com. Leap upwards ^ Col Durand (1:25.000) (map).
Leap up ^ Liskamm (1:25.000) (map). After the Mont Blanc and the Liskamm leap up. Jumping up ^ "Journey through History - Maps". map.geo.admin.ch. Highjump ^ Cherbuliez, Joel (1840). The Vispa, made up of the Matter Vispa and Saaser Vispa, flows only a few kilometers before its end in the Rhone.
Leap up ^ A listing of 109 worlds ^ Matterhorns' Topmodel of the Alpes Archive 2007-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. Jumping up ^ The Matterhorn - Really from Africa? Journal up ^ Internides, Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, University of Lausanne 2009-09-22 filed at Wayback Machine. High jumping ^ Helmut Dumler und Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, Londres :
Jeopardy ^ William Penhall,'Das Matterhorn vom Zmuttgletscher', Alpine Journal, Volume IX, published in Peaks, Passes and Glaciers, ed. Goto ^ Matterhorn in English, Spanish, French as well as in the Swiss Historical Dictionary. Birkett, Bill; Peascod, Bill (1990). Bust borders, one dangerous face at a stretch, Swissinfo.
High Jumping ^ Le Nez de Zmutt, escalade-aventure.com Files 2010-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. Leap up ^ 14, Mark Jenkins PUBLISHED July. "Like the Matterhorn made modern mountaineering 150 years ago". Jumping up ^ Black, Lee (2014). Leap to the top ^ "150 years since the first climb of the Matterhorn".