Map of Myanmar PdfMyanmar Pdf Map
prev iew=map&lang=engl. PDF] PDF Map of Myanmar (Burma) Journal: My father made this book and I recommended to understand this pdf. For Myanmar, solar maps were created for use in solar energy. Have a look at the PDF map of Myanmar (Burma) Journal:
Satelite-based photovoltaic map of Myanmar
For Myanmar, the company created sun charts for use in the field of photovoltaic power. An original satellite-based sun ray modell designed for the tropical regions was enhanced and used for the area. 13 years (1998e2010) of image datasets from GMS 5, GOES 9 and MTSAT-1R spacecraft were used as the primary inputs to the plan.
Also, the absorbtion and dispersion of the sun's rays through various atmospherical components was taken into consideration. Absorbance of sunlight by steam was assessed from the precipitation data base of the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP), USA. TOMS/EP and OMI/AURA spacecraft used the complete pillar Ozon to determine the absorbance of sunlight by an ozon.
Observations at weather observatories in Myanmar and neighboring states were used to assess aerosol exposure to the sun. Pyranometry sites were set up in various Myanmar areas at the University of Myanmar at the University of California, ?ve, and for two years these sites used information to verify the models.
In addition, sunlight from 10 different locations in a neighboring state was used for validating. We found that the mean total irradiance obtained from the measurement and the estimate from the cast was in good accordance with a quadratic mean of 9.6% on a month-by-month basis.
Following remediation, the method was used to assess the mean Myanmar irradiance on a month-by-month basis and the results were presented as suncharts. Cards showed that the geographic dispersion of the sun's rays was strongly influenced by the geography of the land and the tropic monsun. No sun irradiation information for the creation of suncharts.
Alternatively, this issue can be solved by using a sunlight irradiation assessment tool from spacecraft observations. The backscattered sunlight from the Earth's atmosphere system recorded by weather stations can be related to the sun light entering the Earth's atmosphere either in statistical or physical terms, and the relationships can be used to assess superficial radiations, as long-term spacecraft information about Myanmar is available.
This work has enhanced a satellite-based sun ray modell and used it to assess the sun's irradiation in Myanmar. 13-year time frame of spatial satellites was used as the primary inputs in the project. In Myanmar, five pyranometre sites were set up and a two-year sunlight exposure from these sites was used to verify the work.
Then it was used to create Myanmar sun mapping the absorbance of sunlight by various buoyant elements in the atmosphere of the Sun Ray ignored in the initial plan. Estimating the extent of this absorbance, the incorporation of the absorbance into the cast results in a 1e4% reduction in the estimate of sunlight on the face, according to location and month, in comparison to that computed from the earlier release of the cast.
That will make the scheme more workable. Schematic representation of the atmospheric absorbance and dispersion of the sun's rays from the enhanced models is shown in Fig. 2. In order to describe the style, the parameter with prime subscript designate their value in the satellites bands: Untreated parameter refers to their value in the wide sunband (0.3e3. 0 mm).
Following the example, when the sun's rays reach the top of the Earth's surface, they are diffused by atmospheric particles and cloud with the dispersion coef?cientrA as they pass through the Earth's surface (see Fig. 2(a)). Residual sunlight is adsorbed by a0o; a0g; a0w or aerosol and gas, steam and aerosol with an absorbance of a0o; a0g; a0w oraer.
Residual sunlight reaches the floor and a small part of r0G, the interface www.r0g, is www back into the Earth's interior and outer spaces. As with down-welling, the buoyancy rays are again adsorbed by steam, airborne particles, gas and oxygen and scattered by molecules of wind, cloud and aeration.
Although the GMS 5 and MTSAT-1R visual range contains a small portion of the near infra-red sun spectral range absorbing light from the cloud, this absorbance was considered insignificant. Furthermore, the effect of the multiples of re?ections between soil and rainfall has not been taken into consideration in the cast, as soil aldo is relatively small in the tropical regions.
On the basis of this observation and the above named process, the Earth's atmosphere from the point of view of the spacecraft can be described as follows: An example of Myanmar's whole area covered by satellites from the website recti?ed Equivalent (2) can be used to calculate a0EA; r0G; a0o; a0; a0g; a0w; a0aaer, and r0aer from soil and spacecraft information, which will be discussed in the next section.
Notice that r0A only applies to the spacecraft tape, i.e. 0.55e0. Following the transformation, rA is used in the wideband atmosphere transmissions. Diagrammatic representation of the absorbance and dispersion of the sun's rays in the model: a) sunlight as it is recorded by a spacecraft b) sunlight as it is recorded by a superficial pyrometer.
Lastly, the sun's rays on the surface (H) can be computed from the extra-terrestrial rays (H0) and the wide bandwidth of the atmosphere (s) as follows: where I0l is the extra-terrestrial sun spectra, it is the spectra transmitted power of the satellites: I0l is the power bandwidth 10 of OZ, 1 and 2 is the power bandwidth of the geo-sens. In this work, all odon coordinates of TOMS/EP and OMI/AURA satellites were used.
This information was presented as a map of OZON with a 1. 0 (latitude) 1. 25 (longitude) res... AURA and the satellite IP travelled over Myanmar only once a daily, so the transfer times were used to display the daily odonata. Absorbtion of steam Vapor of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam of steam.
Estimating the amount of sunlight that the steam absorbs is critical for calculating the amount of sunlight from Myanmar, as the land is in the high rainfall tropical regions throughout the year. In a similar way to the case of the Ozon, the absorbance wwl of steam for satelliteband (a0w) and wideband (aw) was calculated as follows: where wwl is extinguished by steam w is precipitated and mr is atmospheric matter.
This work used precipitation rainwater from the National Centers for Environmental Protection (NCEP), USA (www.cdc.noaa.gov/data/gridded/data.ncep. re-analysis. html) to assess the absorbance of steam over Myanmar. Image and position () of the new sun exposure measuring points in Myanmar were set up in this work.
This is the symbolic station in Thailand, whose irradiation information was also used for validating. Tab. 1 Periods of sun irradiation information and locations of sun irradiation monitorations. Myanmar train station. Railway terminals in Thailand near the MyanmareThai frontier. Hclean is the amount of total irradiation per day in a cleaner environment without aerosol and Hact is the amount of irradiation per day in an aerosol present.
Absorbtion and dispersion of aerosol s The majority of aerosol s are aerosol sourced from the air. An aerosol plays an important part in reducing the amount of sunlight in the atmospher. In Myanmar and neighboring counties, the observable visualization was used and an interference method was employed to measure land clout.
Exhaustion of sunlight by airborne particles is due to absorbing and diffusing effects. In order to divide Daer into the absorbance value wwww. daer (aaer) and the dispersion value www.raer, the SSA ( "Single scattering albedo") of airsols was used. This work used SSA information from NASA's AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) AERONET[ 24] in Myanmar and neighboring states.
Geographic breakdown of the mean sunlight on a regular basis geographic location is analyzed bit by bit and the least significant ones are selected to create the cloudless compound picture for this one. Then the gray value of each single picture was transformed into the Earth's atmosphere Albedo with the help of translation charts from the global observatory.
Finally, the effect of the atmosphere based wwww. atmosphere was eliminated from the cloudless terrestrial atmosphere with the help of the 5S radiation transmission model in order to preserve the upper layer albumdo. Wideband atmosphere www. atmosphere www. atmosphere www. atmosphere in satellitebands (r0A) was transformed into the wideband atmosphere www.atmosphere (rA) using the algorithm empirically formulated by Janjai:
To obtain sunlight irradiation information for pattern validations, we have set up at various sites in Myanmar, namely Yangon (16 460 and 96 100 E), Naypyitaw (19 360 and 96 130 E), Meiktila (20 500 and 95 500 E), Mandalay (21 590 and 96 060 E) and Shwebo (22 350 and 95 430 E) (Fig. 3).
A tilt & zone pyrometer (model CMP11) was used for each unit to determine the sun's shield. A Campbell Scienti?c, Inc (Model CR1000) datalogger records the power supply signals of the multimeter. 10-minute averages were stored in the datalogger's RAM. This information was sent monthly by e-mail to our lab at the University of Silpakorn.
They were transformed into sunlight and incorporated over a whole working week to obtain radiotherapy on a dayly basis. Since the time span of the sun exposure was relatively brief, a longer time span was also used at ten current Thai sites near the Myanmare Thailand frontier (Fig. 3).
Myanmar and Thailand records have undergone QC. Those that violate physics law were rejected from the records. To obtain satellite-based sunlight for validating the models, the monthly mean of the Earth's atmosphere Albedos (r0EA) was calculated from the spacecraft database.
A subarray of 3.3 pixel was used to select the information, which is concentrated on the 15 sunlight targeting sites (5 sites in Myanmar and 10 sites in Thailand). Eventually, the broad-band area irradiation (H) for all sites was assessed with the help of Eq. 4. Observations of the mean amount of sunlight per month computed from the cast were made.
Figure 4 shows that the datapoints of all nodes in a small strip are scattered around the 1:1 line. It shows that the estimate and the intensity of radiation are in appropriate accordance. Geographic breakdown of annual mean radiation. Reference  Bosch JL, Batlles FJ, Zarzalejo LF, López G. Solar resource estimates in combination with solar elevation modeling and satelite imaging technologies.
Renewables 2010;35:2853e61. 2 ] Gautier C, Diak C, Mass S. A basic physics modell to assess the incoming sunlight from GOES-equipment. Estimation of sunlight in a tropic area using spacecraft information. Map the sun's rays by a weather satellit. Journal for Renewable Energies 1984;6(1). Modeling of superficial polar irradiation for satellites on a worldwide basis.
6 ] Hirunlabh J, Sarachitti R, Namprakai P. Estimation of sun irradiation on the earth's upper surfaces from spacecraft orbits. 7 ] Ineichen P, Perez R. Derivation of the cluster index of spatial spacecraft and its use in the generation of sunlight and natural light illumination series. 8 ] Perez R, Ineichen P, Moore K, Kmiecik M, Chain C, George R, et al. A new operating concept for satellite-based irradiances: Describing and validating.
Sun Energy 2002;73(5):307e17. 9 ] Zelenka A, Perez R, Seals R, Renne D. Actual precision of hrs radiation intensity. Estimate of day-to-day sun exposition to the sun at the upper layers using GMS-5-Stretch-VISSR observations: the system and the fundamental results. 11 ] Wyser K, O'Hirox W, Gautier C, Jones C. Remote detection of superficial radiation with correction for 3-D-clouding.
Solarenergy 2004;77: 367 e71. 13 ] Vignola F, Harlan P, Perez R, Kmiecik M. Analysis of satellites and overall-radiance. Sun Energy 2007;81:768e72. Estimation of incoming sun rays at the surfaces from satellites' spatial information. 15 ] Schillings C, Mannstein H, Meyer R. Operating procedure for the derivation of high-resolution standard irradiation from satellites.
Sun energy 2004;6: 475e84. 16 ] Beyer HG, Costanzo C, Heinemann D. Modi?cations of the helicosat process for estimating the intensity of irradiation from satellites. Sun energy 1996;56: 207e12. 17 ] Albuisson M, Guillard M, Regas N, Wald L. A methodology for the measurement of sunlight from weather satellites.
Sun Power 1986;37:31e9. 18 ] Chaabane M, Ben Djemaa A. Use of HR Meteosat imagery for modelling Tunisian sunlight: provisional results and comparisons with Wefaximagery. Renewables 2002;25:139e51. Satelite-supported photovoltaic map for Brazil as part of the Swiss Federal Environment Agency (SWERA) projec. Sun Power 2006;81:517e28. Estimation of the sun's rays over India with the help of Meteosat satellites.
Sun Energy 2011;85:2395e406. 21 ] Janjai S, Laksanaboonsong J, Nunez M, Thongsathitya A. Developed a methodology for the generation of operative sun ray charts from spacecraft datasets for a tropic area. Sun Energy 2005;78:739e51. 22 ] Iqbal M. An introductory talk on sunlight. 23 ] Leckner B. The Spectrum of Sunlight on the Elements of the Earth's Surface.
Sun Energy 1978;20(2):143e50. 24] Holben BN, Eck TF, Slutsker I, Tanre D, Buis JP, Setzer A, et al. AERONETa Verbundinstrumentnetzwerk und Datenarchiv zur Aerosolcharakterisierung. 25 ] Janjai S, Wanvong W, Laksanaboonsong J. The identification of Thailand's total land area using satellites. Continuation de l'énergie durable et de l'environnement (SEE2006) Bangkok, Thaïlande ; 2006. 156e61.
Simulating the spacecraft signals in the sun spectra, engineering review. Creation of sun irradiation charts from long-term spacecraft datas. Modelling the sun's rays on the earth's surface: current progress.