Mandalay ClimateClimate of Mandalay
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The Mandalay (or Burmese: ?????? ?; MLCTS: manual. le: [mà?d?lé]) is the second biggest town and the last imperial capitol of Myanmar (Burma). The town is situated 716 km from Yangon on the eastern shore of the Irrawaddy River and has 1,225,553 inhabitants (2014 census). andalay is the commercial center of Upper Burma and is regarded as the center of Burma's cultural life.
4 ] Despite Naypyidaw's recent ascent, Mandalay continues to be the most important trade, education and healthcare centre in Upper Burma. Established in 1857, the official name of the imperial town was Yadanabon (???????,[j?d?nàbò??]), a lending of the Pali name Ratanap?ra (??????) "City of Gems. "It was also Lay Kyun Aung Myei (???????????????????, [lé d???? d???? d???? d???? d???? ??), "Victorious Land over the Four Islands") and Mandalay Palace (??????????????, [mja ná? ná? t??? ], "Famed British Emerald Palace").
Situated in the new area of the capitol was 66 km², enclosed by four creeks. There was a 144 m2 large 144 m2 boulder pattern in the fortress, with a 16 m2 large king's building anchoring it in the middle of Mandalay Hill. Mandalay was to be the last kingly capitol of the Konbaung dynasty for the next 26 years, the last remaining sovereign Burma empire before its definitive annexation by the British Empire.
MNDALAY stopped being the capitol on November 28, 1885, when the capturing Britons Thibaw Min and his Empress supaya lettuce exiled and ended the Third Anglo-Burmese War. Mandalay remained the capitol of Upper Burma during Britain's Colonisation, but its economic and civic importance had irrevocably moved to Yangon.
Britain's vision of the Mandalay (and Burma) developments was mainly trade. Whereas railway traffic arrived in Mandalay in 1889, less than four years after it was annexed, the first Mandalay College was not founded until 40 years later, in 1925. 14 ] The Brits plundered the castle with some of the treasure still on show at the Victoria and Albert Museum and renamed it Fort Dufferin and used it as a shelter for warriors.
Mandalay remained the most important centre of Upper Burma in terms of culture, political and economical development after the war. Up until the early 90s, most of our Upper Burmese college graduates went to Mandalay to study at a school. Up to 1991, Mandalay Univeristy, the Univeristy of Medicine, Mandalay and the Defence Services Academy were the only three in Upper Burma.
Few other towns had Degree Colleges at Mandalay University, which provided a restricted number of courses. Today, the town is attracting a small percentage of college graduates, as the army regime demands that they visit their own university in order to decrease the student population. While Burma's regime turned a blank cheek, many Yunnan (and Sichuan) immigrant workers from China flocked to Upper Burma in the 1990' and many landed there.
In the 1990' alone, an estimation of 250,000 to 300,000 Yunnanese emigrated to Mandalay. 24 ] There is a grievance that Mandalay is becoming little more than a Chinese spacecraft and that the old Mandalay's UK romantic colonialism has long since disappeared. Mandalay has been the most important trade, education and healthcare centre in Upper Burma despite the ascent of Naypyidaw, the nation's capitol since 2006.
The Mandalay is situated in the Irrawaddy Rivers main arid area of Burma at the age of 21. Waters near Mandalay are Mandalay Kantawgyi, a small pond and the Irrawaddy Riviera in the western part of the town. Many of Mandalay's places of worship are 240 metres (790 ft) high. was reconstructed as a true to life reproduction of the fire damaged master.
Yunnanese Buddhist Temples and Association in Mandalay is an important China Buddhist one. A sacred Buddha tooth relic was kept in the Mandalay Swedaw Wooden Table on Maha Dhammayanthi Hill in Amarapura Parish. It has been constructed with financial contributions from Burmese people and Buddhist donators from all over the globe under the auspices of the State Peace and Development Council.
On December 13, 1996, the agencies and donators raised Buddha's replica Tooth Relic Pagoda Mandalay's Shwe Htidaw (Holy Gold Umbrella), Hngetmyatnadaw (Holy Flag of Birds) and Seinhpudaw (Holy Diamant Bud). Close to the south entrance to Mandalay Hill is the Kyauktawgyi Buddha painting, which King Mindon made in 1853-78. Gautama Buddha's picture in Mahamuni Buddha Temple is said to have been poured during the lifetime of Gautama Buddha and that Buddha hugged it sevenfold and thus brought it to being.
Worshipped as the most sacred of Mandalay pagodas, it was erected by King Bodawpaya in 1784. This large picture is the largest in Burma, along with the Shwedagon pit. Visiting Mandalay is not complete without visiting the Mahamuni Puagoda. And Mandalay Hill: This is a sacred mountain for a long time.
According to mythology, the Buddha had predicted during his stay that a large town would be built at the bottom of the town. 230m high Mandalay Hill offers a wonderful panoramic views of the town and the surroundings. Completion of a highway to the top of the mountain.
The Mandalay Palace: During the Second World War, the entire splendid castle grounds were devastated. The beautifully constructed castle ramparts, the doors with their coronating wood pavillons and the ditch around them still form an imposing setting for the Mandalay building "Mya-nan-san-kyaw Shwenandaw", which was reconstructed by work.
There is a Mandalay-Palast, Nanmyint-saung and the Mandalay Culture Museum on the same area. Known for its complex woodcarvings, this convent is a shattered memory of the old Mandalay building. It was actually part of the old castle that King Thibaw relocated to its present location near Atumashi Abbey in 1880.
Mandalay Chinese Temple: The Chinese temple, known for its ancient art architecture and artefacts, mirrors Mandalay's ancient past. Between Mandalay Palace and Mandalay Hill. Mandalay Municipality is the Mandalay MCDC. Mandalay district is made up of seven districts. Mandalay's central Burma strategically located makes it an important transportation centre for goods and man.
It is linked to other parts of the state as well as China and India by several means of transport. The Mandalay International ( "MDL") was one of the biggest and most advanced Myanmar International Ports until the modernisation of Yangon International in 2008. 32 ] Myanmar's recent opening to the tourist industry means that the international community is now attracting a rising number of tourists from Bangkok and Chiang Mai.
There is an international motorway 45 km away from the town. The cost is US$8 to/from Pyin U Lwin, US$6 to/Mandalay and US$30 to/from Pyin U Lwin. Mandalay collection mini buses cost US$5 each (stops where required)[quote required]. Mandalay Chanmyathazi International has been the major international airfield before this was built.
There are several services to Myanmar Towns. Ayeyarwady River continues to be an important artery for the transport of goods such as rices, coffee and peas, edible oils, ceramics, bamboos and tea. The Mandalay Central Railway Station is the terminal of the Myanmar Railways line from Yangon and the departure point of the Pyin U Lwin (Maymyo), Lashio, Monywa, Pakokku, Kalay, Gangaw and Shwebo, Kawlin, Naba, Kanbalu, Mohnyin, Hopin, Mogaung and Myitkyina in the N.
andalay has no urban subway system. Mandalay's former tramway has been closed down. Mandalay had almost 81,000 licensed vehicles plus an undisclosed number of unlicensed ones in March 2008. Though the number of automobiles in a metropolis is low, Mandalay's road network is very messy as tens of thousand of bicycles and ( "unregistered") motorcycles are roaming the roads at will.
Mandalay, unlike Yangon, where motorcycles, bicycle rickshaw and bikes are not allowed into the city centre and crowded areas, anything is possible. The fact that many of Mandalay's stoplights don't work only contributes to the mayhem. The UN estimates the Mandalay people at almost 1 million in 2007.
39 ] While Mandalay has long been the traditional stronghold of Bamar (Burman) civilization and population, the mass flow of Han Chinese people over the past 20 years has had an effective influence on the ethnic-Bamarian population there. Ludu Daw Amar of Mandalay, the local reporter, had said that it felt like "an un-declared Yunnan colony".
Today, the proportion of Han people, valued at 40% to 50% of the town ( "Yunnanese" are thought to make up 30% of the Mandalay population), is almost as high as that of the Bamar people. 42 ] A large immigrant communities in India also live in Mandalay. Burma is the city's main foreign tongue, while increasing amounts of Mandarin dialect can be found in the city's commercial centres such as Chinatown and Zegyo Market.
Burma's Buddhist culture and religion centre is Mandalay, with more than 700 palagodas and a large number of cloisters. In the Kuthodaw Pagoda at the bottom of Mandalay Hill is the Buddhist Bible, also known as the greatest Buddhist Bible in the whole wide universe. Mandalay Buddha pictures and Buddha statues were many since King Mandon, who was a pious Buddhist and had been filling Mandalay with them and over the years has become Myanmar's pristine work.
Situated within the old Mandalay town wall, enclosed by a ditch that has recently been reconstructed with jail work, the Mandalay Palace was largely demolished during the Second World War. The website is now being superseded by a replication, the Mandalay Penitentiary and a full army outpost.
Mandalay's sports grounds are pretty bad by comparison internationally, but still the best in Upper Burma. Bahtoo Stadium with 17,000 seats is the biggest in Upper Burma before the Mandalarthiri Stadium was built and consists mainly of grassroots and provincial soccer and athletics events. In May 2009, Mandalay saw the arrival of pro soccer, with Yadanabon FC playing in the new Myanmar National League, the country's first pro soccer alliance.
48 ] A new arena, the Mandalarthiri-Stadion, was constructed in 2013, where the women's football games of the twenty-seventh SEA games were played. andalay is the most important commercial and communication centre for the north and centre of Burma. Most of Burma's foreign exchange with China and India is conducted through Mandalay.
Since the US and the European Union imposed penalties in the 90s, Mandalay's economies have been progressively dictated by China's migrants. Mandalay has the best colleges in Upper Burma for the remainder of those who cannot finance going abroad. Mandalay Medical University, Mandalay University of Dentistry, Mandalay, Mandalay Technological University and University of Computer Sciences, Mandalay are among the most select in the country.
Most of the Mandalay school' s college graduates go to the Free School: the main focus is on the arts: The oldest in Upper Burma, Mandalay and Yadanabon UC. Burma's general condition is bad. 55 ] In 2005, the Mandalay region's healthcare system received over 7. 33 ] Although healthcare is nominal free, in fact people have to afford it, even in community and hospital wards.
andalay is a partner: The sentence "on the way to Mandalay" was taken from the poetry of Mandalay (1890) by Rudolf Kirch. In 1907, the poetry was composed by Oley Speaks as "On the Way to Mandalay". Mandalay Beach Hotel/Casino/Congress Centre in Las Vegas is called after the town, although the town is 500 kilometres from the closest cove, perhaps in relation to the line in Kipling's poetry "An' the Dawn Comes Up Like That That Thunders Outside China'crost the Bahi!
" For a while George Orwell was posted in Mandalay while working for the Imperial Police of India in Burma, and his first novel, Burmese days (1934), was inspired by his experience in Burma. He also authored a number of brief non-fiction books and brief histories about Burma, such as "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936).
Masters has written a pamphlet about his war experience in Burma, The Road Past Mandalay (1961). Myanmar 2014 Census of Population and Housing. Myanmar primary elections. China's ambitions in Myanmar (July 2000). "China's ambitions in Myanmar." The Japan Times. "MANDIALAY Celebrates 150 Years". Myanmar Times.
Mandalay Palace" (PDF). Archaeological Investigations Directorate, Burma. Mandalay. Mandalay: And other cities of the past in Burma. An officer in Burma. "Educational Perspectives in Myanmar". Myanmar's new light. Hiking in Burma. Mandalay Centenary Stamps. eBay. 23,000 homeless people in Burma Fire.
The New York Times about Reuters. Myanmar Fire Mar 1984 UNDRO Information Report 1 - 2. Big fire raging on Myanmar's second biggest store. "Dried air causes fires in Myanmar." Myanmar Times. "against the Chinese way to Mandalay." The Ritsumeikan University. Christophe Vigny; et al. "Current crust deformations around sagaing-faults, Myanmar" (PDF).
a ^ a bar "Station Mandalay" (in French). Meteor Climat. World Weather Information Service - Mandalay. "Mandalay - Myanmar" (PDF). Climatic data for selected stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). "the Mandalay Division is entering a new gold country of oneness and friendship." A new light from Myanmar. Asian Highway in Myanmar" (PDF). unescap.org.
The New York Times. "Solar pick-ups turn back the clock on Mandalay's streets." The Myanmar Times. "domestically owned cars taking over the Mandalay streets." The Myanmar Times. "Myanmar cars." The Myanmar Times. Myanmar launches its second VHF transmitter in the north of the town. "MANDEALAY gets VHF." The Myanmar Times. Mandalay Media. Mandalay Daily Newspaper.
The Mandalay City Development Committee. Myanmar Times. "There is no brighter prospects for my two Myanmar sons." The Straits Times. "The Burmese government is to blame for the disease." "And Mandalay still plays an important part as a health center for the northern hemisphere." The Myanmar Times. The Myanmar Times. George Orwell in Burma. The Wikimedia Commons has Mandalay related newsletters.