Mandalay BurmaSudan Burma
Mandalay, town, north-central Myanmar (Burma), the second biggest in the county (after Yangon[Rangoon]). Situated on the Irrawaddy River, it is at the heart of the Myanmar land and is the hub of local communication, commerce and transport. The Mandalay was mainly constructed in 1857-59 by King Mindon to substitute Amarapura as his capitol.
The last capitol of the Myanmar Empire, it was taken over by English forces in November 1885. The Japanese invaded and almost totally demolished the town during World War II, but it was severely damaged during a 12-day besiege in March 1945, when it was recaptured by the Fourteenth Army of Britain under the command of General Sir William Slim.
The Buddhist people are the overwhelming part of Mandalay, which is "the unbreakable centre of Myanmar". At the centre of the town are the castle Fort Dufferin, the remains of the Nandaw, countless churches and convents and the old government building. The Mandalay Hill, north-east of the canton near the riverbank, is home to relatively young abbeys, pilasters and memorials.
The 730 coupons or Kuthodaw ("Works of Royal Merit") approved by King Mindon as a product of the Fifth Council of Buddhists are located at its doors. Myanmar Buddhists regard Buddhaistic writings as righteous text on 729 tableaux of pure gold arranged in a rectangular space, each of which is sheltered by a small cloister.
It is a traditional sanctuary in the center of the place, the Seven thirty. Mahamuni, or Arakan, is often regarded as the most popular of Mandalay. His 3.7 metre high Buddha, which is thought to be of great ancient times, is one of the countless loot of battle that King Bodawpaya took from the Arakan coast in 1784.
It is a grid-like town to the east of the building. Shwe Kyimyint is one of the many beautiful Shwe Kyimyint marquees in this part of the town. It was constructed by King Minshinsaw in 1167. The southbound Mandalay is connected by rail and plane to Yangon and northbound to Myitkyin? and Lashio, where the Burma Road begins.
Ava, Amarapura and sagaing are close to Mandalay. Arts and Science University, formerly part of Yangon University, became an autonomous institution in 1958. There is also a local history centre and clinic. It is the only newspaper in the whole of Yangon outside of Yangon. Saygin Hills near Madaya supply aluminium oxide in Mandalay, engraved in Buddha pictures.
Watering is substantial; the Mandalay Canal waters 90,000 acre (36,400 hectares). Mingon, just south of Mandalay, has one of the biggest bell in the whole wide range, which weighs about 70tonnes.