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The name Managua has two possible roots. 2 ] Or it could come from the mangue tongue, where the term managua means "place of the great man" or "chief". The inhabitants of the town are known as Managüas, Manuelas or Cityinos. As early as 12,000 BC, Nicaragua was populated by Palaeo-Americans.
The old footsteps of Acahualinca are 2,100-year-old fossils found on the shore of Lake Managua. There are other archeological testimonies, mainly in the shape of pottery and vulcanic rock sculptures, as found on the Zapatera Islands, and petoglyphs found on the Ometepe Islet.
From 1852 to 1930, Managua experienced widespread urbanisation, which became a basis for government, infrastructures and service. 2 ] The town was complicated by great flooding in 1876 and 1885. The devastating 1931 seismic attack and a fire in 1936 devastated much of the town. During the reign of Anastasio Somoza García and his dynasty (1936-1979) the town was reconstructed and began to expand quickly.
It was the town' s evolution that attracted the interest of Irving Fields and Albert Gamse, who wrote a composition about the town that became famous in the 1940' with appearances by Freddy Martin, Guy Lombardo and Kay Kyser. Managua had become the most advanced town in Central America. Today's reference distinguishes Managua before the 1970s by calling it La Antigua Ciudad, which is translated in British as "The Ancient City" or "The Old City".
Managua's advancement came to a complete standstill after a second great quake on December 23, 1972, which devastated 90% of the inner cities and more than 19,120 lives. In those days, Managua's finite natural resource base had to be used for other emergency aid missions. Managua's capacity to deal with the catastrophe was also finite.
Unable to quickly reconstruct, the town instructed rescue forces to quickly remove much of the city's ancient relics, while the dead were buried in massive cemeteries. As they fled the town centre, the seismic survivors found shelter on the edge of the town. Bribery within the Somoza government, which provided part of the aid, hampered the rebuilding of the town centre, which is somewhat insulated from the remainder of the population.
Nicaragua's 1979 revolution toppling the Somoza government and the eleven-year Contra War of the eighties have further ravaged the town and its economies. Following its victory in the 1990 elections, the National Union of Opposition began to rebuild Managua. Alphabetisation, healthcare and rehabilitation programmes were extended in 2006, after the Sandinista National Liberation Front came back to government.
The new government building, art gallery, museum, residential building, square, promenade, monument, Managua Lake cruise, restaurant, nightlife and wide alleys have revived part of the former vibrancy of Málaga. Housing and business premises were built on the edge of the town, in the same places that once served as refugee camp for the victims of the cataclysm.
Because of their closeness to Lake Managua, these boom scenes have worried the state. In May 2009, the building of a new sewerage system and the diversion of wastewater to a new wastewater purification system in Las Mercedes in eastern Managua alleviated old worries about contamination of waters and indigenous wild animals and got some inhabitants nearer to the old town centre and the remainder of the continent.
This work has dispelled old worries about polluted waters and the endangerment of local fauna has taken some inhabitants nearer to the old town and the remainder of the continent. Managua's urban area covers 544 sq km (210 sq miles), mainly just South from Lake Managua's southern shores.
Its shores are 55 meters above sealevel, and the town rises towards the Sierras de Managua further southwards, where it lies over 700 meters aboveelsius. In Managua there are four smaller volcanic ponds or pools within the town.
The lagoon of Asososca in the western part of Managua is the most important spring of potable waters. Forth is the lagoon of Acahualinca, which lies in the northeast near Lake Xolotlan and gives its name to the near area in theheast. Managua, like much of western Nicaragua with the exception of the Sierras in the south, has a temperate temperature range between 28 and 32°C (82 and 90°F).
According to Köppen's climatic classifications, the town has a tropic, humid and arid clima. It is the country's most renowned university and college centre of learning. Following a popular initiative in 2007, the Mayor of Managua and the Sandinista paper named Managua the first Central American capitol to be liberated from the illiterate.
Nicaragua's higher educational system comprises 48 and 113 higher educational institutions, professional and professional schools that support undergraduates in the fields of electronic, computer and natural science, agro-forestry, construction and commercial service. 21 ] 18% of Nicaragua's overall budgets are spent on elementary, high school and higher school. UPOLI (Universidad Politécnica de Nicaragua) is a polytechnic college in Managua, Nicaragua.
The INCAE was formed in 1964 with the assistance of the United States and other governments of Cameroon. Managua's Francisco de Sola in Nicaragua was the first one to be set up (1964), while Walter Kissling Gam was the second in Alajuela, Costa Rica, in 1984. This became the major campsite after the 1980s when the administration received no assistance; in fact, the Managua campsite was mostly inactive.
After the restoration of Nicaragua's democratic system, it was re-opened in 1990, but the central campsite stayed in Alajuela. Mámagua is the business centre and a provider of service to the vast majority of the country. With more than one million residents, the town is home to many large domestic and foreign companies.
30 ] Multinationals such as Wal-Mart, Telefonica, Union Fenosa and Permalat have branches and agencies in Managua. Managua is also Nicaragua's most important centre in terms of politics, society, culture, education and economy. It is also flown to from Augusto C. Sandino Internacional Airfield, the country's most important global gate, as well as from Los Brasiles Régional Airfield and the recently renovated Punta Hueteairbase.
In Managua there are also all the big financial institutions of the country, the Banco de la Producción (BANPRO), the Banco de América Central (BAC), the Banco de Finanzas (BDF), the Banco de Crédito Centroamericano (Bancentro) and its holding Lafise Group. A number of new properties such as Crowne Plaza, Best Western, InterContinental, Holiday Inn and Hilton currently have establishments in Managua.
In addition to many of Managua's numerous properties, four West styled retail centres such as Plaza Inter, Centro Comercial Metrocentro, Galerias Santo Domingo (es), and Multicentro Las Americas, and many more are under construction. Also known as the Old Managua Cathedral, the Catedral de Santiago was built by Belgium architect and the steel used to form the heart of the church was transported from Belgium.
The building took from 1928 to 1938 under the direction of Pablo Dambach, a Belgium based engineering company based in Managua. After surviving the 1931 quake, the church was badly affected by the 1972 quake, which finally resulted in the building of a new church in another part of Managua. View to the lagoon of Tiscapa and the town of Managua.
Finally, the churches initial concreted and grey area was adopted and Roman Catholics began to hug the churches as it was. There are a number of cosmopolitan dishes, among them national, Spanish and Spanish as well as many Asiatic dishes (South Korea, Taiwanese and Chinese). Managua's most celebrated feast is that of the protector Santo Domingo de Guzmán.
51 ] It begins on the first of August 1st when the "Bajada del Santo" (Descent of the Saint) begins with many happy folk who carry the old Santo Domingo sculpture from the Las Sierritas in southern Managua to another temple in the northern part of the town, in the area devastated by the 1972 quake.
The contestants include "carrosas" (artificial vehicles and trucks) from regional businesses, riders from Nicaragua and other neighboring C. America who will present their horse, their skill and their rider outfits. Nicaragua's National Library has a large number of books and offers a wealth of bibliographical information on Nicaragua's indipendence.
This National Palace of Culture houses an exhibit of preindependence nicaraguana arte. In the interior of the National Palace of Culture there is the National Museum with archeological finds with some samples of pre-Columbian ceramics, sculptures and other finds. There are many kinds of museum in Managua, including the Julio Cortázar Museum and the Archivo Fílmico de la Cinemateca Nacional.
Managua's culture centres are, among others, the Centro cultural Nicaragüense Norteamericano (CCNN) (Nicaraguan-North American culture centre), the Centro cultural Chino Nicaragüense (Chinese-Nicaraguan culture centre) and the Alliance Française de Managua (French Alliance of Managua). There are many pubs, night clubs, casinos, theatres and movie theatres. There are also international missions in Managua to support movie-events.
Dance salt water is a nationwide sport. The nightlife in Managua is pulsating. Managua has numerous nightlife clubs and nightlife clubs, especially in the much-loved "Zona Viva" areas in the "Galerías Santo Domingo" commercial centre, as well as very near "Plaza Mi Vietnam Santo Domingo" and "Plaza Familiar". In addition to these occupations, Managua offers a large choice of luxury retail centres, shops, warehouses and supermarkets.
In the Mercado Roberto Huembes you can find everything from furnishings and handicrafts to fruit and vegetable and attire. Pali, La Union and La Colonia are traditional grocery stores located in several parts of the town, selling locally and importantly. Though the promotion or practice of gays was legal in Nicaragua, there is a humble homosexual community in Managua.
It is Nicaragua's most favoured sports by far, followed by football and ping. Dennis Martínez Nationalstadion hosts many of the Managua Boer team's ball game. When it was built at the end of the 60s, it was the most advanced arena in Central America. Managua has two major greens, the most famous of which is Nejapa Gulf & Country Club.
It is home to most of the country's TV networks and large nationwide papers. There are three nationwide papers, El Nuevo Diario, La Prensa and HOY, which have branches in Managua as well as other smaller papers. Managua has a large number of radios, some of which have either local politics, society or religion.
Managua is one of Nicaragua's best located towns in terms of transport. Nicaragua's major streets are all leading to Managua, and there are good transport links to and from the state. Four major routes to Managua. Pan-American Highway leads into the town from the Northeast and connects Managua with the N and C divisions of Nicaragua.
Situated on the south side of the Pan America motorway, the Northern Superhighway links Managua with the south départements of Carazo, Rivas and others. Carretera A Masaya links Managua with the départements of Masaya and Granada. Carretera A León, recently restored, links Managua with León. The transport infrastructures have been growing in recent years outside Managua and other Pacific coastal towns and wards.
In 2007, a street from the El Rama to Pearl Lagoon in the Autonomous Region of the Southern Caribbean coast was finished. El Rama is linked to Managua by a motorway. The Autonomous Region of the Northern Caribbean also connects Managua and Puerto Cabezas by roads.
The third highway currently under development will link Bluefields, the Autonomous Region of the Southern Caribbean coast, with Managua via Nueva Guinea. Managua has 36 buses. There are also two buses that used to link to the outskirts of Managua, but these have now become part of the town ("Esquipulas" and "Los Vanegas").
Coaches are the most economic way to travel around the town, contributing to a high number of passengers. Managua's top quality position between the North Pan-American and South Motorways makes it an excellent junction for domestic, regional and intercontinental coaches. The TransNica is a nicaraguan coach operator operating internationally scheduled coach connections throughout Central America.
The Managua office acts as the company's transportation platform, with busses from Managua to San José, Costa Rica, Tegucigalpa, San Salvador and Choluteca. Managua's commuters usually take the local public transport (bus or taxi) to and from work. In Managua and Nicaragua there are no railways. The FERISTSA system, however, would most likely circumvent the city and give Nicaragua its first ever global railroad.
A revitalisation scheme for the centre of Nicaragua was presented to the President of Nicaragua, Daniel Ortega. It was possible to build a mono-railway crossing the old centre of the German state, which has remained fairly unaltered since the 1972 quake. Augusto C. Sandino lnternational Flughafen (formerly Managua lnternational Airport) is the biggest and only lnternational Flughafen in Nicaragua.
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