Mali MapMap of Mali
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"The Mali of today was once part of three Western Africa Empires that dominated trans-Saharan trade: the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire (named after Mali) and the Songhai Empire. 11 ] At its height in 1300, the Mali Empire occupied an area about twice the area of France today and stretching as far as the western shore of Africa.
During the Scramble for Africa in the latter part of the nineteenth-century France took over Mali and made it part of French Sudan. The French Sudan (at that time still known as Sudanese Republic) became a member of Senegal in 1959 and became an autonomous Mali alliance in 1960. Soon after Senegal's departure from the Confederation, the Sudanese Republic proclaimed itself an IRM.
Following a long reign of one political entity, a 1991 putsch resulted in the drafting of a new treaty and the creation of Mali as a multiparty state. There was an armistice in January 2012 in Mali's south where Tuareg insurgents took over land in the south and in April proclaimed the split of a new state, Azawad.
As a reaction to Islamic territory profits, the Parisian army established the Opération Serval in January 2013. Preselection took place on 28 July 2013, the second round on 11 August and the parliamentary election on 24 November and 15 December 2013. In 180 kg heavy balls for exports to other parts of Africa and France, 26 March 1991 is the date on which the army and peacefully protesting student demonstrators clashed in the massacres of a dozen under the command of then President Moussa Traoré.
31 ][unreliable source?] The putsch will be commemorated as Mali's March Revolution of 1991. Situated in the southwestern part of Algeria, Mali is a hinterland of Western Africa. It borders Algeria to the NE, Niger to the EAS, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire to the SOUTH-WEST, Guinea to the SW and Senegal and Mauritania to the WA.
With 1,242,248 km², Mali is the twenty-fourth biggest nation in the whole wide globe and similar in area to South Africa or Angola. Much of the land is located in the sub-Saharan Sahara, which creates an extreme heat and dusty Sudanese savannah area. 44 ] Mali is largely shallow and rises to sandy, hilly levels in the north.
Situated in the hot area, Mali is one of the hotter nations in the underworld. On the basis of the average daytime temperatures, the thermic balance, which reaches the hotter parts of the earth all year round, traverses the state. 44 ] Most of Mali get insignificant precipitation and drought are very common. 44 ] The end of June to early December is the wet period in the most southern region.
44 ] The wide northerly part of Mali's deserts has a warm deserts climatic conditions (Köppen-Klimaklassifikation ( "BWh")) with long, extreme warm winters and low precipitation, which are decreasing to the south. By March 2012, the Malaysian authorities had given up power over the Tombouctou, Gao and Kidal regions and the north-eastern part of the Mopti region. The National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad on 6 April 2012 made a unilateral declaration of its spin-off from Mali as Azawad, an act that neither Mali nor the entire Mali movement has upheld.
It is also a member of the Organisation for the Harmonisation of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). Mali has a railroad that links it with neighbouring lands. Much of the country's people depend on local transport historical nomads from the north. In addition to French and Bambara, Mali has 12 official dialects, namely Bozo Bomb, Tieyaxo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango.
Mali Presidency: Symbols de la République, L'Hymne National du Mali. Accessed May 4, 2012. Mali Provisional Population Census 2009. Accessed January 12, 2010. Mali. Accessed April 20, 2012. Accessed March 2, 2011. Accessed March 21, 2017. Accessed January 28, 2009. Released September 10, 2017.
August 9, 2012. Accessed September 4, 2013. Muslim Heritage.com (5 June 2003). Accessed October 8, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2012. Mali Empire (ca. 1200-) The black past: Accessed October 8, 2012. UN Security Council sentences Mali military takeover. by telegraph (23 March 2012). Accessed March 24, 2013.
Mali - France has conducted a series of roundups against Islamists. January 12, 2013. Accessed January 13, 2013. Discover the Kingdom of Mali. Historic dictionary of Mali. Aku Adjandeh, Evelyn (July 2014). "READING A PUBLIC PROVERB ON THINGS THAT BREAK UP AND THE SUNDIAL: AN EPOS OF OLD MALI (SUNDIAL)" (PDF).
Mali Impact Assessment, p. 1. Mali countryprofile. Later Mali was the cause of the breakdown of the Islamic slave army from the north. Mali reiterated the Tukuror slave army's failure against the French and Spanish expedition armies in the 19th century ("Blanc et memoires").
Mali. Mali Countryprofile, p. 3 "Mali's March Revolution (1991)". Archiveed from the orginal on June 16, 2011. Accessed March 1, 2012. "Mali's March to Democracy." threadster.com. Archiveed from the orginal on 24. March 2012. Accessed March 1, 2012. Mali p. 4.
Mali. Accessed May 15, 2008. Accessed June 3, 2008. ab Tran, Mark (23 October 2012). "The Malian war threatens the liberty of'slave descendants'." Accessed November 24, 2012. York, Geoffrey (November 11, 2012). "Confusion in Mali leads to enslavement, persecution." Mali collides with 120 000 men from the houses.
Nachrichten24 (February 22, 2012). Accessed February 23, 2012. Callimachi, Rukmini (April 3, 2012) "Post-Coup Mali met with penalties from neighboring Africa". Accessed May 4, 2012. Tuareg insurgents declaring Northern Mali independent. April 6, 2012. Accessed July 28, 2012. Synchro: ^ Belmoko Dialoglo; Adama Diarra (June 28, 2012). Accessed July 28, 2012.
Mali -Islamists want Shariah instead of independence". June 20, 2012. Archiveed from the orginal on December 16, 2012. Accessed July 28, 2012. Mali Opportunities and Challanges for Transitional Justice in Mali". January 9, 2014. Accessed August 25, 2016. January 30, 2013. Accessed January 30, 2013. The last Islamic fortification left in Mali is conquered by France.
Mali Conflict: 2 February 2013. Archiveed from the orginal on February 2, 2013. Accessed February 4, 2013. Mali Countryprofile, p. 5. Accessed March 24, 2013. Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (November 22, 2012) An independent technical report on the mineral resources of the Falea uranium, copper and silver deposit, Mali, West Africa.
Accessed March 24, 2013. Report of the Secretary General on the Malian state of affairs" (PDF). March 28, 2016. Accessed February 21, 2017. Two new regions in Mali". January 21, 2016. Accessed February 21, 2017. Report of the Secretary General on the Malian state of affairs" (PDF). Accessed February 21, 2017.
Tuareg insurgents declaring Azawad, just off Mali, independent. April 6, 2012. Accessed April 6, 2012. U.S. condemn Mali putsch amid stories of plunder. by telegraph (22 March 2012). Accessed March 24, 2013. Mali p. 14. Constitution of Mali, Art.
Constitution of Mali, Art. Constitution of Mali, Art. Mali Countryprofile, p. 15. Constitution of Mali, Art. Mali: "Final legislative results". Accessed June 24, 2008. Constitution of Mali, Art. Constitution of Mali, Art. Constitution of Mali, Art.
Mali p. 17. Mali suspended for the putsch. March 23, 2012. Accessed March 23, 2012. "Mali." Accessed January 12, 2010. Mali Countryprofile, p. 18. Mali".
Accessed June 4, 2008. Mali and the WTO. Accessed March 24, 2013. Accessed March 22, 2009. Mali p. 9. Accessed March 24, 2013. Accessed June 4, 2008. Malnutrition ecology in the French-speaking countries of West Africa and Madagascar. Mali p. 6.
Mali Demographics Profile 2014. Favourite Babynames of MALI, West Africa". Retracted 2017-11-24. Fortin, Jacey (January 16, 2013). Mali is still plagued by slavery, and the uprising could make things even harder. Kayak to Timbuktu, Original National Geographic Adventure articles about slavery in Mali". MacInnes-Rae, Rick (November 26, 2012).
"Al-Qaida makes anti-slavery drives in Mali more difficult." See, for example, Mali's Confrontation and a'War for the Color', Afua Hirsch, The Guardian, Friday 6 July 2012. Mali. Accessed May 4, 2012. August 9, 2012. Accessed June 2, 2014. Mali p. 7 ^ a g d e f f g h i j k l Country profile.
Accessed January 10, 2013. OPEN DOORS World Watch 2012 schedule. Accessed March 24, 2013. University of Bamako, Mali. Archives from the orginal on 13 May 2013. Accessed July 8, 2013. Mali Guidebook on page 8. April 30, 2013. Accessed May 4, 2012.
Accessed January 18, 2013. Mali: Crabill, Michelle and Tiso, Bruce (January 2003). Surfing on Mali Resource Website. Accessed June 4, 2008. Republic of Mali Embassy in Japan. Archives from the orginal on July 8, 2013. Accessed July 8, 2013. This is The Rough Guide to West Africa. Accessed June 3, 2008.
"that Ruiz wants to bolster Mali before Beijing." FIBA.com (13 March 2008). Accessed June 24, 2008. "Mali Culture". www.best-country.com. Retracted 2016-09-18. "The Malian Constitution" (PDF). Pictures of Mali. "The Malian Countries" (PDF). as of January 2005. Myanmar (in French). Mali. "Mali."