sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Demonym(s)(Dutch) Maastrichtenaar; Maastricht (Dutch: [ma??str?xt] (to hear);Limburgisch (incl. Maastrichtian): Archaic Mastrique is a town and community in the south-east of the Netherlands. She is the capitol and biggest town of the Limburg area. The Maastricht lies on both sides of the Maas, at the point where the Jeker River connects.
In Maastricht, a village evolved from a small village to a mediaeval center of religion. It became a military stronghold in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and an early industry center in the nineteenth. The Maastricht Treaty and the birth of the single currency made it famous. Maastricht has 1677 Rijksmonumenten, the second highest number in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam.
Meuse-Rhine is a member of the network of the oldest cites in Europe  and belongs to the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, which comprises the neighbouring Flemish and Germans Aachen, Eupen, Hasselt, Liège and Tongeren. Maastricht derives its name from the Latin Traiectum ad Mosam (or Traiectum Mosae), which means "crossing the Meuse" and refers to the Roman constructed viaduct.
It is not known whether the name Maastricht was officially named during Romans period, but the first time the name was mentioned is in mediaeval documents. One inhabitant of Maastricht is called Maastrichtenaar, while in Maastricht he is either Mestreechteneer or, in colloquial terms, Sjeng (derived from the formerly beloved name Jean).
Some Neanderthal ruins were found in the western part of Maastricht (excavations at Belvédère). It was here that the ancient celts lived around 500 BC, in a place where the Meuse was flat and therefore easily crossed. We do not know when the Romans reached Maastricht or whether the village was established by them.
Maastricht was probably relatively small. Pieces of province-Roman sculpture, as well as coin, jewelry, glass, ceramics and other items from the Maastricht region are on show in the showroom of the Centre Céramique. Legends have it that Saint Servatius, Bishop of Tongeren, a native of Armenia, passed away in Maastricht in 384 and was interred there along the Romans' route outside Caastrum.
It was an early Catholic bishopric until it fell to Liege in the eighth or ninth centuries. Maastricht was part of the Carolingian Empire in the early Middle Ages, along with Aachen and the Liège region. It was an important center for commerce and industry.
In Maastricht, struck Moravian tokens were found in many places throughout Europe. Romance Maastricht sculptures and silversmiths are considered to be the high points of Mosaic work. The Maastricht painter was commended by Wolfram von Eschenbach in his Parzival. At about the same period, the writer Henric van Veldeke was writing a story about Saint Servatius, one of the first works of Dutch literary work.
Both of the principal cathedrals were rich in relicts and the biennial Maastricht pilgrimage became an important one. During the Middle Ages, the medieval center of commerce and production, mainly of wools and leathers, continued, but economical downfall began over time. Maastricht's important strategical position at that time led to the building of an impressing number of fortresses around the town.
Spaniards and Netherlandish Garrison became an important economic element of the town. 1579 the town was plundered by the Spaniards under the leadership of the Duke of Parma (siege of Maastricht, 1579). Over fifty years the King of Spain assumed the position of Duke of Brabant in the common supremacy of Maastricht.
1632 the capital was captured by Prince Frederick Henry of Orange and the Dutch general state substituted the King of Spain for the King of Maastricht. A further besiegement of Maastricht (1673) took place during the Franco-Dutch War. Louis XIV besieged the town in June 1673 because the fighting was over.
It was during this besiege that Vauban, the renowned France army chief of staff, devised a new plan to dismantle the powerful strongholds around Maastricht. Up until the twentieth century, his systematical approaches continued to be the main way of attack on forts. Charles de Batz de Bastelmore, also known as the Count of Artagnan, was assassinated by a missile off Tongerse Poort on 25 June 1673 in preparation for the storming of the town.
From 1673 to 1678, Maastricht was under occupation by various armies. 1748 the town was again captured by the Frenchs during the second siege of Maastricht during the War of the Austrian Succession. In 1794 the town was last captured by the Franks when the cavalry was disbanded and Maastricht was incorporated into the First Kingdom of France (1794-1814).
Maastricht stayed the capitol of the department Meuse-Inférieure for twenty years. Maastricht became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 after the Napoleonic age. In 1830, when the northern part of the empire separated, the Netherlands troops in Maastricht stayed faithful to William I, even though most of the city' s residents were on the side of the Belgians.
By 1831 the Netherlands was assigned the role of the capital by means of referendum. Neither the Dutch nor the Belgians approved, however, and the agreement was not put into effect until the Treaty of London of 1839. Maastricht became an early industry centre during this isolated time. Due to its excentric position in the south-east of the Netherlands and its geographic and culture closeness to Belgium and Germany, the Dutch accession of Maastricht and Limburg was not easy.
For most of the nineteenth part of the 20th centuries Maastricht kept a clearly non-Dutch look, and it was not until World War I that the capital was compelled to look north. In the second half of the 20th-century traditional industry (such as the renowned Maastricht potteries) decreased and the city's economic system turned into a services-oriented one.
The University of Maastricht was established in 1976. A number of different EU bodies are based in Maastricht. The Maastricht summits were in 1981 and 1991, the latter a year later with the signature of the Maastricht Treaty, which led to the establishment of the Union and the single currency. Much of the town has been renovated since the 1990', among them the areas around the central train terminal and the Meuse boulevard along the Meuse, the Entre Deux and Mosae Forum malls, and some of the most important malls.
On the site of the former Société Ceramique plant near the city center, a representative district was created with the new Bonnefanten Museum, a municipal lending house and a theater. Maastricht looks much more intelligent as a consequence. The Maastricht district is made up of five parts (stadsdelen) and 44 parts (wijken).
Itteren, Borgharen, Limmel, Amby, Heer, Heugem, Scharn, Oud-Caberg, Sint Pieter and Wolder were once separated communities or towns until they were incorporated into Maastricht in the course of the twentieth centuries. On the outskirts of the following towns you will find the commune of Maastricht.
Maastricht's urban boundary has an internal frontier with Belgium. Maastricht is a multilingual town, also due to its position at the interface of several languages and its large numbers of students. The Dutch version is the official and primary Dutch as well as the official Dutch version (with the exception of internationally recognised institutions).
In Maastricht, Flemish is often pronounced with a strong Limburg emphasis, which should not be mistaken for the Limburg one. Formerly, French was the teaching medium in Maastricht. Between 1851 and 1892 a francophone paper (Le Courrier de la Meuse) appeared in Maastricht. Because of its geographical closeness to Germany and the large number of Germans studying in the town, Deutsch is widespread.
It is the teaching medium for many classes at Maastricht University and Hogeschool Zuyd. The English is also a compulsory course in primary and middle school. Maastricht's biggest religious tradition is Christianity at the age of 65. A number of EU and EU bodies have made Maastricht their basis since the 80s.
More and more expatriates live in the Maastricht area and are finding work. In the Netherlands and beyond, Maastricht is known for its vibrant plazas, winding alleys and historic townhouses. In 1677 the municipality has monuments to Rijks (national cultural sites), more than any Flemish town outside Amsterdam. All of the inner town is a sheltered urban landscape ("beschermd stadsgezicht").
Maastricht is one of the most important places of interest: Maas, with several park and promenade along the riverside and some interesting bridges: Servaasbrug Sint, partially dating from the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries; the oldest Dutch viaduct; Hoge Brug ("High Bridge"), a contemporary footbridge planned by René Greisch; urban ramparts, including...: Remains of the first and second mediaeval walls and several spires (13th and 14th cent.); Helpoort ("Gate of Hell"), an impressive double -towered door constructed just after 1230, the oldest Dutch gates; Waterpoortje ("Small Water Gate"), a mediaeval Wyck door used to access the town from the Maas, torn down in the 19 th cent. but reconstructed just afterwards; Hoge Fronten (or...):
Inner city: Inner urban area with pedestrian zones such as Grote and Kleiner Staat as well as high-end retail areas Stokstraat and Maastrichter Smedenstraat. Maastricht's most important attractions as well as a multitude of cafes, bars and eateries are located around the three major plazas in the inner city: The Vrijthof, the biggest and most famous plaza in Maastricht, with many famous bars and eateries (including two - one former - gentlemen's clubs).
The Spaans Gouvernement ("Spanish Government Building"), a former cannon shed from the sixteenth and sixteenth centuries that was also used by the Brabant and Habsburg emperors and today houses the Museum à la le d'Vrijthof; the Hoofdwacht ("Main Guard"), a soldier s guardhouse from the seventeenth and seventeenth centuries that is used for exhibition purposes; the Generaalshuis ("General House"), a neo-classical manor building, today the town' s principal theatre (Theater à la d'Vrijthof).
Marienbasilika, a basilica from the eleventh centuries, one of the most important Romance churches in the Netherlands with an important treasure. Pieter Post's townhall was erected in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and is one of the high points of Dutch baroque music. Close by is Dinghuis, the mediaeval townhall and court house with an early Renaissance facade; Mosae Forum, a new commercial center and townhouse based on plans by Jo Coenen and Bruno Albert.
In the Mosae Forum car park there is a small Citroën car park; Jekerkwartier, a quaint quarter of Citroën, taking its name from the small Jeker stream that rises between old homes and remains of fortifications. Most of the west part of the district (also known as the Latin Quarter of Maastricht) is occupied by universities and arts school.
some Gothic style buildings (Old Franciscan Church), others from the Renaissance (Faliezustersklooster), others from the Baroque era (Bonnefanten Abbey; Walloon Church, Lutheran Church); Maastricht Naturhistorischesmuseum ( Maastricht Nature Historical Museum), a small nature study collection in a former cloister; the church of the Holy Roman Emperor, the church of the Holy Roman Emperor, the monastery of the Holy Roman Emperor, the church of the Holy Roman Emperor; The Grote Looiersstraat ("Grote Gerberstraße"), a former channel built in the nineteenth centuries, is bordered by stylish buildings, the city's poor house (now part of the Universitätsbibliothek ) and Sint-Maartenshofje, a typical courtyard in the Netherlands.
Commelkwartier and Statenkwartier, two relatively tranquil inner-city quarters with several impressive convents and universities. Boschstraatkwartier, an up-and-coming district and culture hot spot in the northern part of the town. Wyck, the old town on the right side of the Meuse. The Maastricht train depot from 1913 is located at the eastern end of Stationsstraat.
Èramique, a contemporary quarter on the site of the former Èramique pottery with a garden on the Meuse (Charles Eyckpark). Wiebengahal, one of the few preserved landmarks in the neighborhood and an early example of Dutch contemporary art from 1912; Bonnefanten Museum by Aldo Rossi; Centre Ceramique, a Jo Coenen museum and museum;
Mount Saint Peter": humble hillside and natural preserve situated 171 meters above sealevel in the southern part of the town. Maastricht is the principal recreational area and viewpoint of Maastricht. Maastricht Natural History Museum displays geological, palaeontological and floral and faunal heritage from Limburg.
Vrijthof is a municipal arts and historical centre housed in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries government buildings, with some historic rooms with 17th and eighteenth centuries furnishings, watches, Maastricht silver, china, glassware and Maastricht guns, as well as changing exhibits of works by locally renowned painters and fashion designer. Dieses Natalis, Maastricht University's anniversary, with the relocation of the department to St. John's Church, where titles are conferred.
Karneval (Maastrichtian: Vastelaovend) - a traditionally three-day festivity in the south of the Netherlands; in Maastricht mainly outdoor with Zaate Herremeniekes (February/March). The Amstel Gold Races is an internation bike racing competition that begins in Maastricht (mostly in April). Maastricht Mooiste, an outdoor run and hiking activity (June). Modeclash, one of the most fashionable events in the whole town ( June).
Inkom, the vernacular opening of the study year and initiation for new Maastricht University graduates (August). Netherlands Dansdagen (Netherlands Dansdance Days), a contemporary dancing event (October). Maastricht Jazzfestival, a jazzfestival formerly known as Jeker Jazzfestival (autumn). Maastricht Jumping Indoor, an internationally renowned competition horse jumping (November). Maastricht Magic (Magisch Maastricht), a wintry fair and Christmas fair that takes place at the Vrijthof and other places throughout the town ( December/January).
The Maastricht Exposition and Congress Centre (MECC) also organises numerous activities throughout the year. Stadspark, the Maastricht central garden, partially from the nineteenth centuries, with remains of the mediaeval town wall, part of the Jeker stream, a small animal sanctuary and several statues of Artagnan in Aldenhofpark, an expansion of the 20 th cent. garden.
As of 2014, the area of the former Tapijn army camp will be progressively extended; Jekerpark, a new garden along the Jeker stream, divided from the municipal garden by a heavily trafficked street; Frontenpark, a new garden to the western side of the urban center, comprising parts of the 17th-19th century Maastricht forts; Charles Eykpark, a contemporary garden between the Maastricht Municipal Library and the Bonnefanten Museum on the eastern banks of the Meuse stream, which was built in the 1990' by the Sweden landscaping designer G. Landscaping Designer, at the end of the 1990'.
Griendpark, a contemporary amusement park along the riverside with roller blading and a skateboard course. Geusselt Parc in the Maastricht region to the west and J.J. van de Vennepark in the Maastricht region to the west, both with extensive sport grounds. Pietersplas, an man-made pond between Maastricht and Gronsveld, which was the product of quarries on the Meuse.
Between Pietersplas and the administration buildings, the east bed of the stream is a conservation area (Kleine Weerd). Jekertal on the Jeker begins near the center of the town in the Stadspark and goes through the Jekerpark to an area with verdant pastures, fruitful pastures, some vines on the slope of the Cannerberg, several watermills and the Château Neercanne and further southwards to Belgium.
Landgoederenzone, an extensive area in the north east of Maastricht (partly in Meerssen), comprising around fifteen lands such as Severen, Geusselt, Bethlehem, Mariënwaard, Kruisdonk, Vaeshartelt, Meerssenhoven, Borgharen and Hartelstein. Maastricht is played in soccer by MVV Maastricht (Dutch: Maatschappelijke Voetbal Vereniging Maastricht), which (from the 2016-2017 season) plays in the Netherlands first class of the domestic tournament (the second after Eredivisie).
The Maastricht Wildcats, a member of the American Football League and AFBN (American Football Bond Nederland), also live in Maastricht. Maastricht has been the start of the Amstel Gold Races, the only classical bicycle event in the Netherlands, since 1998. Maastricht was also the end of the event for several years, but since 2002 the final has been on the Cauberg in Valkenburg.
Thom Dumoulin was in Maastricht native. Maastricht has been the first town in the Netherlands with a Lake Geneva crew since 2000. Maaslax ", the school sports association, is strongly associated with Maastricht University and a member of NLB (Nederland Lascrosse Bond). Maastricht's municipality comprises a councillor, a major and a number of councillors.
A 39-member executive legislature directly appointed for four years, the Councillor nominates the councillors after each vote on the grounds of a contract of association between two or more political groups. As so often, the 2006 local government general elections in the Netherlands were characterised by political dominance and resulted in a change from right to wrong throughout the state.
At Maastricht, the traditionally wide government coalition of Christian Democrats (CDA), Labour (PvdA), Greens (GreenLeft) and Liberals (VVD) was superseded by a centre-left Labour, Christian Democrats and Greens alliance. In 2005, due to differences of opinion within the VVD, one of the members of the VVD Board resigned from the political parties and founded a new Liberals faction (Liberals Maastricht) in 2006.
In the present municipal government, the other opposing political groups are the Socialist Party (SP), the Democrats (D66) and two municipal political groups (Stadsbelange Mestreech (SBM) and the Senior Citizens' Party). Maastricht's handling of softs drug use is a contentious topic that has been dominating Maastricht policy for many years and has also influenced domestic and foreign policy.
As part of the Netherlands' practical policies on non-enforceability of drugs, under certain circumstances individual citizens can buy and use drugs in "coffee shops" (cannabis bars). Maastricht, like many other frontier cities, has a rising inflow of "drug tourists", mainly youngsters from Belgium, France and Germany, who generate a large part of the income for the coffee shops (around 13) in the urban area.
Municipality, in particular the former major of Leers, has been active in reforming drugs policies to counter the adverse side effect. In 2008, the Municipal Assembly gave its unanimous support to one of the suggestions put forward by then Major Leers, which was to move the coffee shops from the heart of the municipality to the edge of the municipality (partly near the Dutch-Belgian border).
The aim of this action planned was to mitigate the effects of substance abuse on downtown areas, such as park issues and the illicit selling of harder substances near coffee shops, and to better control the sales and consumption of narcotics in areas outside the congested downtown area.
However, the corner plan for Kaffee-Eckenplan meets with strong resistance from neighboring communities (partly in Belgium) and from members of the Netherlands and Belgium parliaments. The European Union Court of Justice confirmed a Maastricht prohibition on the selling of cannabis to non-national visitors on 16 December 2010, which restricts access to cafés to Maastricht inhabitants.
During 2011, the Netherlands authorities implemented a similar system, the Wietpas ("Cannabis Pass"), which restricts Netherlands residents' right to open coffee shops in the Netherlands. Following on-site protest ations by burgomasters about the difficulties in the implementation of the issue of passports, the Netherlands Assembly approved in 2012 to substitute the passport with a residence certificate.
The new system has resulted in a small decrease in drugs tourists in the Maastricht stores, but also in an increased trafficking of drugs on the streets. From Maastricht there are freeways A 2 and A 79. From Brussels and Cologne the town can be reach in about one and a half minutes and from Amsterdam in about two and a half minutes.
Despite several large basement garages, weekend and holiday parkings in the center of the town are a big issue due to the high number of traffic. Intentionally high charges apply so that guests can use local transportation or outside the center.
The inner cities, suburbs, shopping areas and train stops are connected by scheduled coaches. De Lijn local busses link Maastricht with Hasselt, Tongeren and Maasmechelen, and a coach links Maastricht with Liège, run by TEC. The airport of Maastricht Aachen Airport (IATA: MST, ICAO: EHBK) in near Beek serves Maastricht and is named after it.
Corendon Dutch Airlines and Ryanair fly to the area. It is about 10 kilometers from the center of the town. In Maastricht there is a harbour (Beatrixhaven) and it is linked to Belgium and the Netherlands by the Meuse, the Juliana Canal, the Albert Canal and the Zuid-Willemsvaart.
Though there are no frequent ferry services to other towns, various organised tourist cruises link Maastricht with Belgian towns such as Liège. University of Maastricht (Dutch: Universiteit Maastricht or UM) including: Zuyd Polytechnic (Dutch: Hogeschool Zuyd, also has divisions in Sittard and Heerlen) including: The Maastricht is a partnership with:
Hop up "Mrs. Annemarie Penn-te Strake" [Mr. Annemarie Penn-te Strake] (in Dutch). Maastricht Municipality. Statline CBS (in Dutch). Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Statline CBS (in Dutch). Statline CBS (in Dutch). Leap to the top ^ The metropolises Maastricht, Liège, Hasselt-Genk, Sittard-Geleen, Heerlen-Kerkrade and Aachen-Düren essentially form the heavily settled inner city of the Euroregion Meuse-Rhine.
Hop up "Zicht on Maastricht". zichtopmaastricht.nl. "Charlemagne The Economist: Maastricht return'' 8 October 2011'. Leap up ^ As an urban treiectin, "the town of Trajectum ", in Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum, 2, 5 (late sixth century). About 77% of the relatively small Maastricht Jew church with 505 members did not live through the outbreak of the Great Wall.
P.J.H. Ubachs & I.M.H. Evers (2005): Historical Encyclopedia Maastricht, pp. 256-257. EU after Minsk and Maastricht. Maastricht from our reporter. Skip up ^ ^ ^ ^ "Maastricht climate table, long-term averages, 1981-2010 period" (PDF) (in Dutch). The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute. Skip up ^ ^ ^ "Climate label Maastricht, longjarige extrememen, dijdvak 1971-2000" (PDF) (in Dutch).
The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute. Skip high ^ "Population; gender, age, nationality and region, 1 January (in Dutch)". Leap up ^ "Population on 1 January; age, country of birth and region (in Dutch)". "Maastricht Dialect" (PDF). Nijmegen University, Centre for Language Studies. Maastricht, Maestricht, Mestreech. Hilversum, Niederlande: Uitgeverij Verloren, S. 11-12.
Skip up ^ "Category:Parks in Maastricht - Wikimedia Commons". Skip up ^ "Category:Maas in Maastricht - Wikimedia Commons". Journalist from the Netherlands on the effects of the behaviour of Onno Hoes. "Hoes, Maastricht's major, is resigning in the middle of the sexual abuse campaign", NL Times, Amsterdam, 10 December 2014.
Hop up ^ "Annemarie Penn installed as mayor of Maastricht". Hop up ^ "Olaf Penn's holding the Senior Maastricht Party". Skip to ^ "Annemarie Penn new Mayor of Maastricht - NU - The latest news first on NU.nl". www.nu.nl. Skip up ^ Cafes Get Nudge to the edge of a Netherlands city [permanent blind link], The New York Times, 20 August 2006.
The Burgemeester van Maastricht, Case C-137/09". Skip up ^ "A2maastricht. nl - Homepage A2 Maastricht". www.a2maastricht.nl. "The tramway between Maastricht and Passelt will run 2023." "The tramway connection Hasselt-Maastricht until 2018". Leap up ^ Municipality of Maastricht (2008). "Town of Maastricht: Maastricht Folk Song". N.A. Maastricht.