sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Livorno's origin is disputed, although it has been populated since the Neolithic period, as can be seen from the bone, coins of bronze and ceramics found on the Livorno hills in a cavern between Ardenza and Montenero. Livorno's bay was later converted into Livorna before it became Livorno's bay. The bay of Livorno is a sign of the kind of vessel, the Livorno, used by the Romans.
There were 118 households in Livorno according to the results of the local government and 423 people. The only remains of Livorno in the Middle Ages are a small piece of two turrets and a stone walls inside Fortezza Vecchia. During the Italian Renaissance, Livorno was conceived as an "ideal city" when it was governed by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the House of the Medici.
At the end of the 1580' Ferdinando I. de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, proclaimed Livorno a free harbour (porto franco), which means that the goods sold here were free of customs duties within the city's-controlled area. In order to manage this commerce, the ducal government founded the Leggi Livornine in 1593. The arrival of the latter began at the end of the 16th Century with the Alhambra Decree, which led to the eviction of the Jews from Spain and Portugal - while Livorno granted them titles and privileges; they added to the commercial fortune and science in the area.
It became an urban enlightenment in Europe and one of the most important harbours in the Mediterranean. A lot of foreign Europeans came to Livorno. Ferdinando I de' Medici raised Livorno to the status of a town on 19 March 1606; the wedding took place in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Francis of Assisi.
Livorno's intolerance became a prey of the religious battles in Europe. But in the previous epoch the traders of Livorno had built a number of trade nets with Protestant Europe, and the Netherlands, Britons and Germans worked to preserve them. Livorno experienced a great phase of development and development at the end of the seventeenth cenury.
Once the harbour of Pisa had sanded in the thirteenth centuries, its remoteness from the ocean grew and it became less dominant in commerce. It was Livorno that took over the role of the principal harbour in Tuscany. Elizabeth Ann Seton, the first American-born Saint, went from Protestantism to Catholicism while she visited Livorno's Italy at the beginning of the nineteenthury.
Bird's perspective of Livorno in the middle of the 19. c.. Napoleon's forces invaded Livorno with the remainder of Tuscany during the Italy campaign of the Revolutionary War of the 18th Centuy. Within the continental system, the people of France banned commerce with Great Britain, and the Livorno region was hit hard. Italy managed to wage its reunification battles in 1861 and Livorno and Tuscany became part of the new Kingdom of Italy.
As Livorno became a free harbour, its economic importance decreased. During the Second World War, Livorno sustained severe damages. Livorno's inhabitants have become famous in recent centuries for their left-wing policies. Livorno was the birthplace of the Italian Communist Party in 1921. In Livorno there is a hot-summery mediterran climatic (Köppen climatic class Csa).
Alongside the channels, the buildings had towers from which it was possible to see the vessels coming to the harbour, and camps at channel height to make it easier to unload goods from the vessels. Venezia Nuova preserves much of its urban and architectonic heritage, such as ancient buildings such as footbridges, small streets, noble homes, Santa Caterina da Siena and San Ferdinando church and a tightly knit system of channels that once connected its camps to the docks.
Acquedotto Leopoldino and the neoclassic Livorno tanks were part of an elaborate plan to supply Livorno with drinking oil. The Gran Conserva, or Il Cisternone, on the edge of Livorno in the nineteenth centuries, is the biggest and most famous of the roofed tanks in the area. In the early nineteenth centuries, the need emerged to link the Medici network of the Pentagono del Buontalenti with the new east neighbourhoods on the other side of the Fosso Reale, and the need to demolish the Porta a Pisa.
In 2006, on the centenary of the bicentenary of the Catholic Diocese of Livorno, Fra Angelico's "Christ Worn with Thorns" was exhibited in the Eucharistic Chapel. Madonna Church is located on the road of the same name that connects the center of the town directly with the Venezia Nuova neighborhood through the John of Nepomuk Cross.
Traditionally, the temple was constructed to house the statue of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, which was taken from a Turkic nave. 33 ] The ecclesiastical community was important because it was a place of adoration for foreigners. It was Ferdinando I de' Medici who gave the Basilica to the friar who had the Oratory of Saints Cosmas and Damian near by.
It began on 25 March 1607 according to a design by Alessandro Pieroni and was finished in 1611; the chapel was initially devoted to Saint Mary, Saint Francis and Saints Cosmas and Damian, but in 1638, after an extension of the Immaculate Conception Palace, it was extended. Situated in the centre of Via of the Madonna, not far from the parish of Gregory the Illuminator and the Madonna parish churches, the Holy Annunciation Chapel is the most important one.
It is also known as the United Greeks because it was the place of worship for the Byzantine rite Greeks who once inhabited Livorno. In the late sixteenth centuries many Greeks came to Tuscany to serve on board the St Stephen's Order galleries. Alessandro Pieroni designed the chapel, which was constructed in 1601, finished in 1605, and inaugurated on 25 March 1606.
St. Giovanni Battista is a Baroque-Mannerist Rome Catholics Orthodox Cathedral at the intersection of Via San Giovanni and Via Carraia in the centre of Livorno. The Santa Maria del Soccorso is a neo-classical Marienvotivkirche in the centre of Livorno. At the end of Via Magenta, the high facade of the building, made of bricks, is surrounded by a garden.
Established around 1645, it contains over 300 Carrara burial marbles of important personalities from 10 different nations. Livorno, on the Fosso Reale channel between Piazza Repubblica and Piazza Cavour, is home to the Temple of the Netherlands -German Community, more commonly known as the Dutch-German Church.
Livorno Synagogue is the most important place of religious cult in Livorno, in Piazza Elijah Benamozegh. Vecchia Fortress is a solid fortress finished on 1 April 1534 under Alessandro de' Medici; it was constructed of solid stone, with slanting sides and clear stone in between, with a 1500-metre square structure and 24 guns to guard each side.
In 1544 Cosimo I de' Medici erected an impressive building with a view of the Vecchia Darsena, above the Pisan quarter devastated by the Second World War. Francesco I de' Medici's follower constructed a small building towards the seaside, later Porto Mediceo, on the top of the Canaviglia stronghold at the entry of the Vecchia Darsena.
Opposite, a temple consecrated to Saint Francis was constructed, where on 19 March 1606 Ferdinando I de' Medici declared Livorno the centre of the town. With the arrival of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine in 1737, Fortezza Vecchia transformed its role into a defence school for Tuscan army officials (1769) and then into a troop headquarters (1795).
1594 it was agreed to construct a vast plaza half way to Via Ferdinanda where the Neustadt Cathedral would be located. Constructed in a privileged location on the southern side of Piazza d'Arme, later Piazza Grande, the Cathedral was finished in 1602 under the supervision of Antonio Cantagaliina and Alessandro Pieroni.
The Piazza d'Arme was finished and extended with the old Porticciolo dei Genovesi (Port of Genovesi), full of soil, to make room for the Tre Palazzi (Three Palaces); the plaza was decorated with a row of arcade marbles attributable to Alessandro Pieroni. Livorno's Naval Academy is a mixed-gender defence academy that provides engineering education for Naval Defence Forces.
In 1591 Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, enacted a charter which encouraged the Armenians to establish themselves in Livorno in order to expand their commerce with the Ottoman Empire and West Asia. At the beginning of the seventeenth millennium, the Armenians ran 120 stores in the city. In 1701 the Armenia Communion, which was a member of the Apostolic Body of Armenia, was authorised to construct its own chapel devoted to Gregory the Illuminator.
Giovanni Battista Foggini carried out the design and the building was finished a few years later, but it did not open until 1714. 53 ] The temple had a Latin crucifixion and a cupola at the junction of the aisle and the shed. Livorno's first Greeks, who established themselves at the beginning of the sixteenth millennium, were former soldiers of the Cosimo de' Medici navy and their heirs.
Livorno became one of the most important centres of Mediterranean commerce in the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds. Livorno had a powerful strategical location until the end of the nineteenth millennium, due to its free harbour character (Port Franc) and the long period stores built from the end of the sixteenth millennium for the long period storing goods and cereals from the Levant, in connection with Greece's commercial interests in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and the North Atlantic.
During the Napoleonic Wars at the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, the conflict between Great Britain and France, with the associated harbour embours, acts of counterfeiting and seizure of goods, proved to be in favour of those Greeks traders who were prepared to take risks. They founded the Brotherhood of the Holy Trinity (Confraternita of SS. Trinità) in 1775 and the Chiesa of Santissima Trinità, the second non-Roman Tuscan Catholics.
Armenians used to build their own orthodox churches. It established a Greekschool and awards grants for higher education to young Greeks from the Peloponnese, Epirus, Chios or Smyrna. Have a look at the story of the Jews in Livorno. It was a local Judaeo-Italian idiom that was once used by the Livorno Jews.
This was an Italian-based lingua franca evolved with words from Tuscany, Spain, Portugal, Hebrew and Yiddish; the existence of words in Portugal and Spain is due to the origins of the first Jews who came to Livorno after being driven from the Ibérico at the end of the fifteenth cenury.
Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Livorno Aquarium re-opened its doors to the public and only moved to Villa Henderson in 1980. It and its harbour have become an important tourist and tourist attraction, attracting travellers to its historical monuments and surroundings. It handles tens of millions of cruise passangers from the next line:
Livorno has been known for its Cantiere naavale nratelli Orlando since 1866. Former Whitehead Alenia Sistemi Subacquei (WASS) Livorno facility produces large and small weight Torpedos, anti-torpedo countermeasures for U-boats and vessels, and submarine monitoring and sonar equipment. 69 ] The company was established in 1875 by Robert Whitehead in Fiume, then Austria-Hungary, and for the first of its kind manufactured torque vehicles that were marketed all over the United States.
By the end of the First World War, the plant was in an economical downturn and was bought by Giuseppe Orlando, one of the proprietors of the Cantiere Negale Nratelli Orlando of Livorno, as Whitehead Torpedo, in 1924, when the Treaty of Rome was ratified and Fiume was handed over to Italy. In Livorno, Whitehead Torpedo founded the Società Moto Fides, which started producing motorbikes, but shifted towards producing torque.
Leonardo S.p.A., which was re-named Leonardo in 2018, now owns it. Until 2010, the Touaca liquor was manufactured in Livorno; the renowned still was shut down and the company was taken to the United States by the new proprietors. Alfredo Cappellini Nautical Institute was founded on 13 December 1863 by royal law and was the first technical institute in the province of Livorno.
Tirreno is a local paper produced and produced in Livorno and circulated in Tuscany. Vernacoliere is a month -long Satirical journal established in 1982 in Livorno and marketed in Italy. Fabrizio Mori, 400-metre hurdle winner of the 1999 FIFA Women's World Championships, and Aldo Montano, olympic champions in swordplay, will be coming from Livorno to the top of the list.
The A. S. Livorno Calcio squad is currently in Serie B. Their games take place in the Armando Picchi stadium. The Pallacanestro Don Bosco Livorno, established in 1996, is an American basketball association that has been gold in the C Series since April 2017. And Livorno also has its own hockey and handball clubs.
Livorno Port is one of the biggest ports in Italy and the Mediterranean. This port has frequent scheduled services between the following port operator and the following cities: Livorno is serviced from the main railway in Livorno. And Livorno is a partner: Spring up ^ de Blij, H. J.; O. Muller, Peter; Nijman, Jan (2010).
Hop up ^ Macdonald, A.M. (ed.) (1972). Twentieth Century Dictionary. Skip up ^ Collins Concise Dictionary (Revised Third ed.). Hop up "Leghorn" in the Oxford Dictionaries Online. Skip up to: a p d e d e f g g "LIVORNO in "Enciclopedia Italiana"". www.treccani.it. by e-mail. Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop to "Il Libertie di Livorno".
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Official website of tourism in Livorno. Returned on August 4, 2018. Leap up ^ "Cathedral of Livorno (Cathedral of Saint Francis) - Livorno". guide.travelitalia.com. Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up fotolabronico, Pubblicato da. "Old Livorno, old pictures on photos and postcards from the city collection." Returned on March 30, 2018.
Leap up ^ "Cathedral or Cathedral of St. Francis of Livorno - guide and information: Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up "Chiesa dolla Madonna". The Livorno of Nations. Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up ^ Calabi, Donatella (March 30, 2018). Available on 30 March 2018 - via Google Books. Leap to the "Church of the United Greeks (the Holy Annunciation)".
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Hop up "Comune di Livorno". Returned on May 24, 2015. Skip up ^ Itinerari Scientifici Archives on May 24, 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Skip up ^ "Fortezza Nuova: Guide to Sightseeing in Livorno". www.geoplan.it. Returned on March 30, 2018. Skip to top ^ babilonia61 Posted on May 28, 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
Skip up ^ "Buontalenti and military architecture". vasaribuontalenti-memo.blogspot.it. Returned on March 30, 2018. Skip up to: a to " architectto livorno". Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up ^ "Granducato. com - IL PENTAGONO". www.granducato.com. Returned on March 30, 2018. Skip to the top ^ Admin. Returned on March 30, 2018. Jumps to the Armenian church of St. Gregor the Illuminator.
Returned on March 30, 2018. Vlami, D. (undated) "Filopatrides kai filogeneis Hellenes tou Livorno", part of the serial The Greece of Benefactors, Hemeresia Zeitung, pp. 1-64. COS' IL VERNACOLIERE. Skip up ^ Itinerari scholarlyi Archives on June 26, 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Leap up ^ Cultura Toscana Filed on June 26, 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
Skip up ^ "Livorno aquarium, Tuscany's biggest Acquario di Livorno aquarium". www.acquariodilivorno.com. Returned on March 30, 2018. Spring up ^ "Museo Fattori - Art of Tuscany in Livorno's Villa Mimbelli - Livorno Now". www.livornonow.com. Returned on March 30, 2018.
Hop up ^ subweb.it. "Giovanni Fattori Museum in Livorno". www.tuscany-charming.it. Returned on March 30, 2018. Skip up ^ "Museo Ebraico, Museum in Tuscany, Italy". www.summerinitaly.com. Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up "Livorno esbraica " Museo esbraico". moked.it. Returned on March 30, 2018. Skip up ^ "PortoLivorno2000 - Crociere". www.portolivorno2000.it. Returned on March 30, 2018.
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Ascent " Villa Fabbricotti - Giardini Livorno - Tuscany Region ". www.regione.toscana.it. Returned on March 30, 2018. Hop up "Biblioteca Labronica F.D.Guerrazzi". Livorno Comune. Returned on August 4, 2018. The television and film actress Lydia Biondi has died. Returned on July 11, 2016. Livorno Storia Illustrata. Livivivoyage has a guidebook for you.