Aymara: [?lima]) is the biggest Peruvian town and the capitol of Peru. Along with the Callao marina, it constitutes a coherent conurbation known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. Lima is with more than 10 million inhabitants the most populated metropolis of Peru and after São Paulo the second biggest town of America (in the sense of "city proper").
On 18 January 1535, the conqueror of Spain, Francisco Pizarro, established Lima as Ciudad de los Ceyes. She became the capitol and most important town in the viceroyalty Peru. After the Peruvian War of Independence it became the Peruvian Republic's capitol. In Lima there is one of the oldest universities of the New World.
Established on 12 May 1551 during the period of Spain's Colonial rule, the National University of San Marcos is the oldest continuous working college in America. Lima was selected to be the venue for the 2019 Pan American Games in October 2013. She was also the hosting of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe Election in 1982.
Contemporary scientists are speculating that the term "Lima" has its origin in the Spaniards pronouncing the indigenous name Limaq. Language proofs seem to corroborate this hypothesis, as verbal Spaniards reject stop cosonants in the verbal finale positions. NON-PERUANES may incorrectly interpret the name of a town as the directly translated version of "lime", the lemon-flower.
In 1535 the Town of the Magi (Spanish: Ciudad de los Reyes) was established, because its founding was declared on the 6th of January, the day of the apparition. The name quickly became useless and Lima became the city's preferred name; on Peru's oldest Spain cards both Lima and Ciudad de los Redes can be seen together.
Rímac is the name of the stream that supplies Lima, and many mistakenly believe that its native Inca name is "Talking River" (the Incas used a Quechua upland variant that said the term "talker"[?rim?q]). However, the originally residents of the valleys were not Incas.
The name is an innovative result of the efforts of the aristocracy of Cuzco in the early days of colonisation to standardise the word so that it corresponds to the Cuzco Quechua phonetic system, an important pre-Cuzco center of religion before the advent of the conquerors of Spain, which was an important architectonic characteristic during the colonisation.
Under the Ychsma policies of the pre-Columbian period, today's Lima was populated by tribal groups, which were admitted to the Inca realm in the fifteenth centuries. 1532 a group of Spaniards under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro beat the Incarnate Atahualpa and took over his kingdom. Having been appointed sovereign of the countries he had captured by the Pizarro by the Spanish crown, he selected the Rímac Valley to found his capitol as Ciudad de los Reyes on 18 January 1535.
Rebellious Inca forces under the leadership of Manco Inca Yupanqui sieged the town in August 1536, but were beaten by the Spaniards and their indigenous ally. 1746 another strong seismic event in Lima devastated and devastated Callao, leading to mass reconstruction under Viceroy José Antonio Manso de Velasco. Lima was negatively influenced by the Bourbon reforms during this time, as it was losing its dependency on international commerce and dominance over the Oberperu mines.
In 1820, a joint Argentinean and Chilean patriotic mission under General José de San Martín arrived just outside Lima, but did not affect the town. In July 1821, in the face of a marine embargo and guerrilla actions on shore, Viceroy José de la Serna e Hinojosa evacuated capitol to rescue the Royalist Forces.
Out of fear of a people' s revolt and without the means to enforce order, the San Martín municipal councillor issued an invitation to visit Lima and, at his wish, a declaration of freedom was made. Over the next two years, the town repeatedly change owners. Lima became the Peruvian Republic's capitol after gaining sovereignty, but economical paralysis and turbulence caused cities to stall.
The gap ended in the 1850', when increasing government and personal income from the export of guano resulted in a fast growth of the town. In 1879-1883, during the Pacific War, Lima was invaded by local forces and plundered government museum, library and education facilities. From the 1890s to the 1920s the town was renovated and expanded.
It was during this era that the cityscape was changed by the building of wide alleys that crossed the town and linked it with neighbouring cities. An earthquake  on 24 May 1940 devastated most of the town, which at that date was largely made of clay and quarcha. The 1940s saw the beginning of a fast-growing era in Lima, driven by immigration from the Andes, as the country's peasants searched for employment and training options.
Initially limited to urban areas in Lima's inner cities, the new immigrants carried out this growth through major incursions into the countryside, which developed into what became known as urban areas known as urbanisations. It falls softly from the Pacific Ocean in deep depressions and mountainsides up to 1,550 metres above sealevel.
Inside the town there are isolate hillocks that are not linked to the nearby ranges such as El Agustino, San Cosme, El Pino, La Milla, Muleria and Pro hillocks. The Lima Metro comprises 2,672. The 88 square km (318. 87 sqm mi) (31%) include the real town and 1,846. Situated on the edge of the town, 40 square kilometers (712,90 square meters) (69%).
Situated 15 km inland on the banks of the River Rímac, a key natural asset for the town, the town centre transports potable drinkable waters to its residents and supplies hydropower to the reservoirs that supply the area with power. Although there is no formal administration description of the town, it is believed to be made up of the 30 main boroughs of the province of Lima out of 43, which corresponds to an area of the town around the historical borough of Cercado de Lima.
It is the heart of the Lima Metropolitan Area, one of the ten biggest metropolitan areas in America. After Karachi, Pakistan and Cairo, Egypt, Lima is the third biggest dessert town in the whole wide range. In spite of its position in the Tropics and in a wilderness, the closeness to the cold Pacific Ocean water results in lower average sea levels than a tropic wilderness, and so Lima can be considered a temperate wilderness region (Köppen: BWn) with low levels of heat.
There are two different seasons: summers from December to April and winters from June to October. 35 ] High air moisture creates short early mornings in early summers and a mostly persistently low cover of clouds in winters (which generally develops in May and lasts until the end of November or even early December).
Lima's predominantly on-shore currents make it one of the most cloudy areas on the whole of Peru's coastline. Only 1284 sun hrs a year, 28. Precipitation, which is very low in precipitation, influences the city's drinking system, which comes from wells and streams in the Andes.
37 ] Inner boroughs get between 1 and 6 cm (2. 4 in) precipitation per year, which mainly collects in the wintry season. Coast-areas get only 1 to 3 cm (1). 2 in). Lima's climatic conditions (like those of most coast Peru) are strongly disturbed at El Niño gatherings.
In the course of the early twentieth centuries came to the town thousand of migrants, among them also humans of Europeans ancestry. For example the American-Peruvian Highschool, the Alianza Francesa de Lima, the Lycée Franco-Péruvien and the Maison de Sante Clinic; the Markham College, the British-Peruvian Highschool in Monterrico, the Antonio Raymondi District Italian School, the Pestalozzi Swiss Highschool and several German-Peruvian Highschools.
Chineses and a smaller number of Japanese came to Lima and settled in the Barrios Altos district near Lima town centre. The Lima people call their Chinatown Calle Capon and the city's omnipresent Chifa eateries - small, seated, mostly Chinese-run eateries that serve the Peruan spins of China's cooking - are found in tens in this encrlave.
It is the capital of the Latin American region and one of the most important centres of finance, home to many domestic businesses and hotel chains. It has the biggest exporting economy in South America and is a local freight hubs. Since 2003 [update], Lima has achieved 53% of GNP.
54 ] Most overseas enterprises in Peru established themselves in Lima. Lima's finance centre. It is the capitol of the Republic of Peru and the Lima region. It is the home of the three Peruvian government departments. There are all the government departments in the town. Seated in the Palace of Legislation, the Legislature hosts the Congress of the Republic of Peru.
Lima is about the same as Lima, which is divided into 43 counties. Metropolitan municipalities have control over the whole town, while each borough has its own indigenous governments. In contrast to the remainder of the state, the Metropolitan municipality, although a province community, operates as a county council and has similar roles since it does not form part of any of Peru's 25 provinces.
Every one of the 43 boroughs has its own county community, which is responsible for its own county and coordinates with the big town community. Section 27867 of the Law on Regional Governments of 16 November 2002, 87 The current policy organisation continues in the spirit that a Governor is the policy body for the Office and the Town.
It is the same municipality as the municipality. In Lima is the head office of the Andes Community and other provincial and multinational organisations. Lima is strongly affected by the cultures of Europe, the Andes, Africa and Asia and is a crucible of colonisation, migration and nativeism. It has the highest concentrations of archaeological, anthropological and historical monuments in the nation, the Museum of Art, the Pedro de Osma Museum, the Museum of Natural History, the Museum of the Nation, the Sala Museo Oro del Perú Larcomar, the Museum of Italian Art, the Museum of Gold and the Larco Museum.
This historic centre, consisting of the Lima and Rímac counties, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. This town has sporting facilities for soccer, tennis, soccer, tennis, soccer, tennis, beach volleyball as well as tennis, many of them in privately owned club. One of the favourite Limenos games is Frontton, a racket game similar to Lima's original Squash.
It is home to seven major courses around the world. Equestrian sports are loved in Lima by associations and individuals and at the Hipódromo de Monterrico racecourse. Lima's most favourite sports are soccer, with a team of professionals active in the town. Our seasons run from the end of October to December.
was in Lima. It consists of thirty closely inhabited counties, each of which is managed by a resident major and the major of Lima, whose responsibilities extend to these and the thirteen outlying counties of the Lima area. Cercado de Lima, known in Lima as Lima or "El Centro" ("Downtown"), is the historical center of the town. It is home to most of the remains of the past, the Palacio de Gobierno, the Municipality of Lima and the Council of Metropolitan Municipality of Lima, Chinatown and tens of operational and unserviceable hotel complexes, some of which are the equivalent of the domestic and foreign elites.
Lima Golfslub, a well-known Golfclub, is situated in the area. The other five affluent neighborhoods are La Molina, San Borja, Pueblo Libre District, Santiago de Surco - home to the American Embassy and the Polo Lima Executive Committee - and Jesús María - home to one of Lima's biggest park, El Campo De Marte.
Most of the heavily settled parts of the town are located in the north and south of the town ( Spanish: Cono Norte or Cono Sur) and consist mainly of indigenous migrants, who came in the middle and end of the twentieth centuries in search of a better living and a better financial chance, or as fugitives from the country's domestic conflicts with the Shining Path back in the latter eighties and early nineties.
Cono Norte (now Lima Norte) had in its case developed commercial centres such as Megaplaza and Royal Plaza in the Independencia neighbourhood, on the boundary with Los Olivos (the most populated neighbourhood in the north). The neighbourhood has renowned eateries, musical centres known as " lañas " with the Peruvian coast's folklore tradition ("música criolla" in Spanish) and wonderful Victorian-style cottages.
The Lima is an important station on the Pan-American Highway. Due to its position on the main coastline of the Principality, Lima is an important hub in the network of motorways in Peru. In Lima, three large motorways are being built. More than 1,330 kilometres of the Pan American North Superhighway extend to the Ecuadorian frontier, linking the Nordic counties and many large towns along the southern seaboard of Peru.
Carretera España Carretera Center (Central Highway) links the east boroughs and towns of Peru. It stretches over 860 kilometres with a final stop in the town of Pucallpa near Brazil. South Panamerican highway links south counties and towns on the south shore. There is a large coach station next to the Plaza Norte shopping centre.
There are other terminals serving privately owned buses throughout the town. There are also informational buses stops in the southern, central and northern parts of the town. The maritime traffic within the Lima borders is relatively small in comparison to Callao. Hop up ^ "Peru Heights". Bounced 2014-07-28. Hop up ^ "INEI:
Larepublica.pe. Skip to top ^ "2015 Annual Meetings". Bounced 2017-04-21. Skip up to: a to " Limaq " (PDF). Brought back 2009-10-10. Skip up ^ "Archived copy". Archives from the orginal on 01.07.2005. Bounced 2017-05-15. Skip up to: a at Heralatin.t35. com (Ed.). "The Ciudad de Lima."
Archives from the originals on 10 August 2011. Bounced back on February 11, 2015. Hop up ^ Perú. "Two hymns that no one has ever heard before." Bounced back on February 11, 2015. Andrien 1985, p. 11-13. Skip up ^ Andrien 1985, p. 26. Skip up ^ Andrien 1985, p. 28. Hop up, earthquake of the twentieth century:
Recordings of historical seismic events in Peru". The Lima Easy: The Lima Guide. Returned on March 4, 2014. Hop up "300 Them in Lima Earthquake." Returned on March 4, 2014. Skip up ^ "Average weather for Callao/Lima, Peru". Brought back on December 29, 2014. World Weather Information Service - Lima. Returned on May 15, 2012.
Hop up "BBC Weather - Lima". Returned on May 15, 2012. Skip up to: a by Capel Molina, José J. (1999). "Lima, un clima de desierto litoral" (PDF). Geographical Annals of the Complutense University (auf Spanisch). Archives from the source (PDF) on 29 June 2010. Returned on September 17, 2013.
Hop up ^ Painter, James (2007-03-12). Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ "Climate board of Lima-Callao (Int. Flugh.) / Peru" (PDF). Returned on November 18, 2016. Hop up "Station Jorge Chavez" (in French). Returned on June 27, 2017. Skip up ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Perfil Sociodemográfico del Perú pp. 29-30, 32, 34.
Leapung nach oben ^ Département des affaires économiques et sociales des Nations Unies, Urban Agglomerations 2014. "Climb up ^ Baily, Samuel L; Míguez, Eduardo José (2003). Retracted 2010-04-17. Skip up ^ "The Institute of International Education (IIE)". Archives from the originals on 9 June 2008. Retracted 2010-04-17. Hop up:
Archives from the orginal on 25.11.2004. Brought back 2009-10-10. Skip up ^ Story of Lima. This is Lima Info. Archives 2009-08-29 on Wayback Machine. Skip on ^ Colonial Lima to Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. Skip up ^ "NIVELES SOCIOECONÓMICOS EN LIMA METROPOLITANA Y CALLAO - APEIM" (PDF). Skip to top ^ InfoPase.
Lima. Returned on December 8, 2008. Skip up ^ AttractionGuide. The Lima attractions. Returned on December 8, 2008. Hop up to: a to " study Abroad Peru". Archives from the orginal on 21.11.2008. Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up ^ Bethell, Leslie (1991). Retracted 2010-04-17. Hop up, Port Commerce. Returned on January 13, 2013.
The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. www.cia.gov. Skip up ^ "Bolsa de Valores de Lima" (PDF). Archives from the Genuine (PDF) of August 8, 2007. Retracted 2010-04-17. Bolsa de Valores de Lima. The Bolsa de Valores de Lima. Archives from the originals on 14 July 2008.
Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up to: a to " Republic of Peru " (PDF). Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up, Compañías de Seguros Peru. Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up ^ (in Spanish) Judicial Power of Peru. Supreme Court of Lima. Returned on December 3, 2008. Posted in the Wayback Machine on December 11, 2008. Hop up ^ (in Spanish) Judicial Power of Peru.
Supreme Court of North Lima. Returned on December 3, 2008. Posted on December 1, 2008 in the Wayback Machine. Hop up "Baroque Architecture". Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^  Posted on January 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Skip up ^ History of Cristyane Marusiak / Photos of João Canziani. "Lima, Peru - Travel - dwell.com".
Archives from the orginal on 07.04.2008. Brought back 2009-10-10. Hop ^ "ACAP - L'Association Américaine et Canadienne du Pérou". Archives from the originals on 29 December 2008. Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ Bethell, Leslie (1998). Retracted 2010-04-17. Hop up ^ "Haydee Sangalli Schaerer:: Bienes Raices". Mar Mira Peru. Brought back 2009-07-08.
Skip up ^ "Period 1821-1872 - The Palace and Park of the Exhibition". Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop to "LaRepublica. pe | Jornada de Protestas / Último atis a Michael Jackson / Rómulo León". Archives from the orginal on 23. May 2009. Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ "Lima, Peru - Google Maps".
Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ "Lima (Peru) :....: Cityscape - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up ^ Marmon, Johanna (December 1, 2003). "Koloniales Meisterwerk: Many, who visited Peru, come on the trip to the antique Macchu Picchu. However, the former cold and present capitol Lima is an architectonic and gastronomical "wonderland".
Returned on January 13, 2013. Skip up to: a y Web design from Avtec Media. Hispanic restaurants in Peru". Archives from the originals on 11.01.2008. Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up ^ "Theater in Lima, Peru - LimaEasy (c)". Archives from the orginal on 29.06.2009. Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ "Articles: Koloniales Lima after Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa".
Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up ^ Kokotovic, Misha (2007). Retracted 2010-04-17. Skip up ^ "Information about Peru". Archives from the orginal on 28.12.2003. Brought back 2009-07-08. Get on "World Heritage Centre List". Brought back 2009-07-08. Leap up ^ "LIMA - churches in the historical centre of Lima Perú". Brought back 2009-07-08.
Hop up "Lima - Peru". Archives from the originals on April 9, 2009. Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up to "in". Archives from the originals on 7 January 2009. Brought back 2009-07-08. Hop up "HowStuffWorks Geography of Lima". Brought back 2009-07-08. Cooks in Lima are innovating in their way to bring a merger of traditional and modern dishes with spices from all over the globe to the point.
Brought back 2009-07-08. Skip up ^ "Living Peru" (PDF). Brought back 2009-10-10. Skip up to: a p "Gastronom?a en Lima". go2peru.com. Skip up ^ "APEGA Sociedad Peruana de Gastronomía - Qué es Aperega? Hop high ^ "Mistura Food Fest gives Perú cuisine a shot at shine". Mistura. Pe. Mistura. Pe.
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Archives from the orginal on 25.07.2004. Returned 2014-12-17. Hop up to: a p d e d e f g i g y "EVALUANDO LA GESTIÓN EN LIMA AL 2012" (PDF). Skip up to: a for " Evaluación Censal de Estudiantes 2012 (ECE 2012)". minedu.gob.pe. Archives from the originals on 11.05.2013.
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Brought back 2009-07-08. Jumping up ^ "Come around: Archives from the originals on 16 January 2013. Returned on January 13, 2013. Hop up Metropolitano. Skip up ^ "Archived copy". Archives from the originals, 29 July 2014. Returned on July 29, 2014. Hop up "::::::. Skip up to: a to " Estadísticas Ambientales " (PDF). www.inei.gob.pe.
Skip to Springen Sie hoch zu: a w o "Ciudad Nuestra - Segunda Encuesta Nacional Urbana de Victimización 2012 Perú". ciudadnuestra.org. Archives from the orginal on 06.06.2013. Skip up ^ Cister Cities International, online directory: Peru, America. Brought back on July 14, 2007. Filed on August 29, 2008, in the Wayback Machine. Skip up ^ "Sister Cities International (SCI)".
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Bounced back 2009-06-23. Sister Cities of Manila. Manila City Council. Archives from the orginal on 06.08.2009. Brought back 2009-07-02. Skip up ^ "World Map of Twin Cities". Filmed from the orginal on 26.05.2012. Brought back 2009-10-10. Hop up ^ Prefeitura. S - Decentralized Collaboration Archives on December 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
Leap up ^ "International Relations - São Paulo City Hall - Official Twin Cities". Filmed from the orginal on 21.05.2010. Retracted 2010-04-17. Hop up ^ "Twin Cities, Public Relations." Archives from the originals on 2 March 2012. Returned on March 12, 2013. Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth century. Overthrow of the royal government in Peru.
Urban Poor in Lima, Peru. Lima: A cultural story. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática (in Spanish). This is Lima Metropolitana perforfil socio-demográfico. Lima: INEI, 1996. Peru: Lima, 1850-1940". Design of the capitals of Latin America, 1850-1950. Architectural and aftereffects of the Lima earthquake of 1746". Retracted 2016-07-03. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Parfilho Sociodemográfico del Perú.
Lima: INEI, 2008. Vikivoyage has a guidebook for Lima.