sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
The center of Lille. This is a land register in France that rules out 1 square kilometre (0.386 square metres mi or 247 acres) of lake, pond, glacier and estuary. Rysel (Lille) is a town on the north tip of France, in Flanders, France. Located on the Deûle, near the Belgian frontier with France, it is the capitol of the Hauts-de-France area, the Nord district and the metropolitan area of Lille in Europe.
In 2009, Lille had 226,827 inhabitants within its borders, and an urban total of 1,015,744, making it the fifth biggest city in France after Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Toulouse. Archaeological excavations seem to show the area that was already populated in 2000 B.C., especially in the current quarters of Fives, Wazemmes and Vieux Lille.
Lydéric and Phinaert" legends determine the founding of the town of Lille around 640. Lille's name is Rijsel, which comes from ter issel ( on the isle ). It has the same significance as the name: the same: the French equivalence: I' Lille comes from l'île. In 1054, there was an important battle at Lille.
Beginning in the twelfth centuries, the glory of the Lille Shroud Mass began to flourish. Earls of Flanders, Boulogne and Hainaut met with England and Eastern Franconia and tried to reconquer the territories of Philip II of France after the demise of Henry II of England, a battle that ended with the defeat of France at Bouvines in 1214.
Ferdinand Infante, Count of Flanders, was arrested and the earldom quarreled: it was his Jeanne Countess of Flanders and Constantinople who governed the town. It was considered very popular by the inhabitants of Lille, who at that point had 10,000 inhabitants. Jeanne in 1235 gave a town right, according to which the town administrators are elected each All Saints' Congress by four commissars elected by the sovereign.
The Countess Hospice (Hospiz Comtesse) was established on 6 February 1236 and is still one of the most attractive monuments in the old town of Lille. In her honor, the Regional Medical University of Lille Regional Medical Clinic was renamed the "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the twentieth cenury. From 1304 to 1369, after the Franco-Flemish War (1297-1305), Lille came under French domination.
Thus Lille became one of the three Duchy Capitals alongside Brussels and Dijon. Until 1445, Lille had about 25,000 inhabitants. Philipp the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was even more mighty than the King of France and made Lille an administration and finance city. One year after the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks, on 17 February 1454, Philip the Good organized a Pantagruel feast in his Lille Palazzo, the still-acclaimed " Pheasant Festival ".
In 1519 Lille came under the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Until 1668 the town was under Spanish Habsburg domination. The landscape around Lille was marked by iconic rage in 1566. Four month later they were taken away by a Catholic Walloon regime, and between 1581 and 1582 they tried several attempts to conquer the town of Lille, all in exchange for nothing.
Antoine Tack was the first printmaker to settle in Lille in 1594. In 1641 and 1645, failed attempts were made by the Romans to attack the town. 1667 Louis XIV of France (Sun King) managed to besiege Lille, so that it became in 1668 after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle become France, which led to dissatisfaction among the inhabitants of the wealthy town.
Between 1667 and 1670, a series of important works of art, such as the Citadel (built by Vauban) and the Saint-André and la Madeleine quarters, allowed the king to win the trust of his new Lille citizens, some of whom still felt Flemish, although they had always spoke the Roman Picard dialect.
From 1708 to 1713, during the War of the Spanish Succession, the Dutch invaded the town for five years. In the course of the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries, Lille was deeplyatholish. She participated little in the French Revolution, although there was unrest and the devastation of church. The first local election took place in the town in 1790.
After the French Revolution in 1792, the Austrians besieged Lille in the United Provinces. Even though the Austro-Hungarian ordnance was destroying many buildings and the city's central chapel, the town did not give up and the Austrians went after eight whole day. Lille grew further and had about 53,000 inhabitants around 1800, so that Lille became the district capital of the Département Nord in 1804.
A railway line between Paris and Lille was constructed in 1846. In the early nineteenth centuries, Napoleon I's continent-wide stalemate against the United Kingdom resulted in Lille's textiles sector becoming even more developed. Known for its cottons, the town was also known for its cities of Roubaix and Tourcoing.
There were 63 drink and song club, 37 cards club, 23 Bowling club, 13 Kegel club and 18 bowls club. 1858 Lille joined the neighbouring cities of Fives, Wazemmes and Moulins. Lille's populace was 158,000 in 1872 and grew to over 200,000 by 1891.
Lille became the first town in France in 1896 to be run by a French citizen, Gustave Delory. Until 1912, Lille had 217,000 inhabitants. It benefited from the industrial revolution, especially through the use of charcoal and engines. On 17 October 1918, Lille was freed by the Allies when General Sir William Birdwood and his forces were received by joyful people.
On 28 October this year, the General was appointed freeman of the town of Lille. It was also the home of the eagle ace Max Immelmann, who was called "the eagle of Lille". At the Pasteur Institute in Lille in July 1921, Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin found the first TB vocalis, known as BCG ("Bacille de Calmette et Guérin").
Opéra de Lille, created by Lille architects Louis M. Cordonnier, was inaugurated in 1923. In 1931 Lille felt the effects of the world economic crisis, and in 1935 a third of the city's inhabitants were living in the poor. Lille was sieged by various Germans for several whole day during the Battle of France.
As Belgium was attacked, the people of Lille, still afflicted by the First World War, began to escape from the town in large numbers. It belonged to the area under the supervision of the French Vichy commandant in Brussels and was never supervised by the Vichy administration in France.
Instead, Lille was inspected under N.France's army regime. Most of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais départements (with the sole exceptions of the coastline, in particular Dunkirk) were freed by English, US, Canadian as well as Poles in five working days, from 1 to 5 September 1944. Germans began to flee Lille on 3 September for fear of the Brits on their way from Brussels.
This town was freed by a troop of English troops, mostly shells. In 1947 rationalisation ended, and by 1948 normalcy had resumed in Lille. The Chambers of Commerce of Lille, Roubaix and Tourcoing were merged in 1967, and in 1969 the Communauté urbaine de Lille (Municipality of Lille) was founded, connecting 87 municipalities to Lille.
In the early 1980' the town began to focus more on the servicesector. 1993 saw the opening of a high-speed Paris-Lille line in one hours. With the opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994 and the Eurostar arriving, Lille became the focal point of a triangular route between Paris, London and Brussels.
In 2004, Lille was chosen as the European Capital of Culture together with the town of Genoa in Italy. Both Lille and Roubaix were affected by the 2005 riots, which affected all French conurbations. Lille was honoured with the "Internet Cité @@@@@@@@@" award in 2007 and 2010. It can be described as a moderate marine environment; summer does not normally achieve high mean termperatures, but winter may drop below freeze temperature but with mean values well above freeze point.
Formerly a large engineering, foodstuffs and textiles production hub and a retailing and financial hub, Lille is at the core of a large metropolitan area, grouping Lille, Roubaix, Tourcoing and Villeneuve d'Ascq, the fourth biggest metropolitan area in France, with a 1999 resident over 1 year. Over half a Century, Lille's workforce has evolved from a dominant industrial sector to higher level jobs and service industries.
In 2007, Lille was home to around 21,000 industrial and services locations. In Lille there are a number of architecture genres with different influences from Flanders, among them the use of bronze and bronze bricks. Furthermore, many neighbourhoods, especially in the Lille area, are made up of 2-3-storey adjoining buildings arranged in a line, with small backgrounds.
In France, these architectonic features, which are often unusual in France, contribute to Lille's contribution to the passage to neighbouring Belgium, the Netherlands and England, where the existence of bricks, as well as semi-detached or semi-detached homes, is much more pronounced. In Lille an official brderie takes place on the first week-end in September.
It is believed that its origin dates back to the 12th millennium and that between two and three million people visit the area. This is one of the biggest meetings in France and the biggest European garage sale. Much of the downtown streets (including much of the Old Town) are enclosed and locals, neighbours and merchants have established sales stands in the area.
The city of Lille is an important hub in the Europe's high-speed train system. TGV's France TGV system is also only one hours from Paris, 38 from Brussels  and links other large cities in France such as Marseille, Lyon and Toulouse. There are two train stops next to each other in Lille:
The Lille-Europe railway line (Gare de Lille-Europe), which mainly operates high-speed lines and provides Eurostar service, and the Lille-Flandres railway line (Gare de Lille-Flandres), which mainly operates low-speed local lines and Belgium local lines. There are five car routes that lead past Lille, the closest junction of motorways in France to Paris: There will be a 6th - the suggested AP24 - to connect Amiens to Lille if it is constructed, but there is resistance to its itinerary.
The international Lille Lesquin International Park is 15 min drive from the center of the town ( 11 km ). Mainly the airports connect other towns in France and Europe (some with low fare airlines). It is the third biggest harbour after Paris and Strasbourg. The Lille region is one of the leading centres of higher education in France with over 110,000 enrolled at university.
Rooted  from 1562 to 1793 as University of Douai (Université de Douai), then as Université Impériale 1808, the State Université of Lille (Université Lille Nord de France) was founded in 1854 in Lille, with Louis Pasteur as first deacon of the Faculty of Natural Sciences. In 1854 a medical faculty and an engineer training college were also founded in Lille.
Université de Lille was founded in 1887 as an amalgamation of the current departments of education, and in 1970 it was divided into three separate universities, one of which was the Université de Lille: Lille II offers legal, managerial, sports as well as health schools; Charles de Gaulle III offers arts, literary, social and artistic studies.
In early 2018, the three institutions of higher learning fused to become the University of Lille. Arts et Métiers ParisTech, an engineer training college for industry and machine construction, set up shop in Lille in 1900. The Ecole Centrale de Lille is one of the five Centrale graduate schools of engineering in France; it was created in 1854 in the town of Lille, its postgraduate training and research centre was created in 1872 as the Institut Industrie du Nord or IDN, and in 1968 it relocated to a state-of-the-art centre in the Lille district.
Founded in 1894 as the Institut de cimie de Lille, the Ecole nationale supérieure de cimie de Lille supports chemical research as a supporter of Kuhlmann's pioneering work in Lille. Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille, a journalist college founded in 1924. Founded in 1892, Skema is one of the leading French language learning institutions.
In 2009, the Ecole for Computer Science and New Technologies opened in Lille. ESME Sudria and E-Artsup moved to Lille in 2012. ESA - École Supérieure des Affaires is a business management college founded in 1990 in Lille. The IEP Sciences-Po Lille was founded in Lille in 1992. Headquartered in Sitz ebenfalls in Lille, France, the European Higher Education Institution for training through hat seinen action.
ISEG (Institut superérieur européen de- gestion group) was founded in Lille in 1988. Situated in the metropolis of Lille, the European Doctoral College Lille Nord de France comprises 3,000 doctoral candidates assisted by research labs at universities. EDHEC Business School - situated in Roubaix near by - is one of the few Grandes École outside the Paris metropolitan region.
Université Catholique de Lille was established in 1875. One of the best-known is the Institut Catholices d'Arts et Metiers (ICAM), created in 1898 and considered to be the 20 th of the colleges of higher education for civil and mechanical engineer, with the particularity of completing multidisciplinary courses, the Ecole des Hautes Etudes d'ingénieur (HEI), an institute of higher education for civil and structural engineer created in 1885 with 10 specialisations,
The École des hautes etudes commercees du nord in 1906 (EDHEC), the IESEG School of Managment in 1964 (17th place in the Financial Times' latest worldwide rankings among the 90 best Master in Managment, released on Monday 12 September 2016). 28 ] and Skema Enterprises School currently rank among the top 5, top 10 and top 15 French Enterprisesools.
ESJ - a prominent journalist academy - was founded in 1924. Nord Eclair and La Voix du Nord belong to the list of regional papers. Lille OSC, the city's largest soccer team, currently operates in Ligue 1, the highest French soccer team. Lille won the 2010/11 Liga and the Trophy two.
Lille's Stade Pierre-Mauroy was the playing field for the FIBA EuroBasket 2015 finals. In Lille the centenary of the World Congress of Esperanto took place in 2015. But not according to the Lille website. 2010 Urban Unit of Lille (French part) (59702)". INSEE (Institut nationale de la statistique et de Etudes économiques).
"INSEE - Population - Lille Metropolitan Region, a demographically heterogeneous area with many challenges". INSEE (Institut nationale de la statistique et de Etudes économiques). Municipality of Lille (59350)". INSEE (Institut nationale de la statistique et de Etudes économiques). Euromeetropole: Territory (in French). "Eurometropole Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai, the first border town in Europe" (in French).
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