Liechtenstein

Lichtenstein

sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History[edit] Lichtenstein ( ("listen") LIK-t?n-styne; German: [?l?çtn?

?ta?n]), official host of the Liechtenstein Principality,[7] is a double-enclosed German-speaking micro-state in Central Europe.... Under the leadership of the Prince of Liechtenstein, the principalities are a constitutionally monarchic state.... In economic terms, Liechtenstein has one of the highest per capita GDPs in the history of the global economy,[11] and the highest, after adjustment for PPP,[11] and the highest, after adjusting for PPP....

At 1.5%, the jobless figure is one of the lowes in the whole word.... In the past, Liechtenstein was known as a multi-billion dollar oasis of taxes, but is no longer on the black lists of non-cooperative oasis of taxes states ("Taxes" section). Liechtenstein is an alpine region that is mainly hilly and therefore a target for snow sports.

It has a large finance industry based in Vaduz. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association and the Council of Europe, and although it is not a member of the European Union, it takes part in both the Schengen area and the European Economic Area.

In Liechtenstein, the oldest evidence of man's life dates back to the Middle Ages. Then Liechtenstein was incorporated into the Raetia region of Rome. In 1264, when the Kyburg Empire collapsed, the Habsburgs under King Rudolf I (Holy Roman Emperor 1273) expanded their territories to the east of the Alpine plains, which also encompassed Liechtenstein.

13 ] This territory was assigned to the Counts of Hohenems until the foundation of the Liechtenstein House in 1699. Originating from the Lower Austrian castle Liechtenstein, the name of the princedom originates from the Liechtenstein Castle, which it owned from at least 1140 to the thirteenth centuries (and again from 1807).

Liechtensteiners purchased properties, mainly in Moravia, Lower Austria, Silesia and Styria. Since all these areas were feudally owned by higher rulers, in particular various Habsburg branch, the Liechtenstein House could not fulfill a prime condition for inclusion in the Reichstag.

Although several Liechtenstein sovereigns acted as advisors to several Habsburg sovereigns, without a region being directly owned by the emperor's throne, they had little sovereignty in the Holy Roman Empire. At the beginning of the seventeenth centuries, Charles I of Liechtenstein was appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias as sovereign after he joined him in a joint war.

Charles VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ordered the unification of Vaduz and Schellenberg on 23 January 1718, after the acquisition of the land, and raised the new area to the dignity with the name "Liechtenstein" in honor of "his real valet, Anton Florian of Liechtenstein". On this day, Liechtenstein became a Sovereign Member of the Holy Roman Empire.

The fact that the Princes of Liechtenstein have not been to their new princedom for almost 100 years is proof of the purely politically expedient nature of the acquisition. In general, contemporary literature attributes Liechtenstein's independence to these incidents. to an overlord. As of 25 July 1806, when the Federation of the Rhine was established, the Reigning Prince of Liechtenstein was a member of the hegemonic stylised patronage of the French Emperor Napoleon I until the Federation was dissolved on 19 October 1813.

Shortly afterwards Liechtenstein became a member of the German Confederation (20 June 1815 - 24 August 1866), which was led by the Emperor of Austria. 1818 Prince Johann I gave the region a restricted constitutional charter. That same year, Prince Aloys became the first member of the House of Liechtenstein to be admitted to the princedom named after him.

In 1868, the Liechtenstein army was dissolved for monetary grounds. In 1872, a railroad was built through Liechtenstein between Switzerland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Liechtenstein was initially in close contact with the Austrian Empire and later with Austria-Hungary until the end of the First World War; the rulers still largely came from goods in the Habsburg lands, and they devoted much of their lives to their two Viennese castles.

As a result of the ravages wrought by this conflict, the economy was obliged to close a tariff and currency alliance with its other neighbor, Switzerland. When the Austrian-Hungarian Kingdom was dissolved, it was reasoned that Liechtenstein, as a feud of the Holy Roman Empire, was no longer tied to the newly formed sovereign state of Austria, since the latter did not consider itself to be the assignee of the Reich.

The Liechtenstein view that the deposed Austro-Hungarian Emperor has still preserved an abstracted legacy of the Holy Roman Empire contradicts this in part. Throughout World War II, Liechtenstein stayed formally independent and looked towards neighboring Switzerland, while domestic artifacts from the dynasties and holdings in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia were brought to Liechtenstein for storage.

By the end of the dispute, Czechoslovakia and Poland, which confiscated what they regarded as Germany's property, had confiscated the entire assets of the Liechtenstein family in these three areas. After the end of the European civil war Liechtenstein found itself in a situation of distress. Among them was the Ginevra de' Benci by Leonardo da Vinci, which was bought in 1967 by the National Gallery of Art of the United States for 5 million US Dollar (37 million US Dollar in 2017), then a remarkable sale was made for a work.

At the end of the seventies, however, it used its low corporation taxes to lure many businesses into the county and became one of the richest nations in the globe. Since September 2008, the Prince of Liechtenstein has been the 8th richest emperor in the entire globe with an assets worth an estimated USD 3.5 billion.

The Principality of Liechtenstein has a constitutionally constituted sovereign as head of state and an electoral assembly that passes the bill. In March 2003, the Liechtenstein Constitution was adopted, superseding the former 1921 constitution, which had previously constituted Liechtenstein as a constituent monarchy under the leadership of the ruling sovereign of the Princely House of Liechtenstein.

There had been set up a system of parliaments, although the ruling prince maintained considerable administrative power. Heads of State and other Cabinet members are nominated by the Prince on a recommendation and approval by his Assembly, thus representing Parliament's party policy equilibrium. 26 ] Members of the administration are jointly and severally accountable to parliaments; parliaments may ask the Prince to dismiss an individual ministry or the whole state.

Liechtenstein's whole west boundary is made up of the Rhine. Judging from southern to northern, the land is about 24 km long. In spite of its alpine position, the predominant southern wind provides a relatively gentle Liechtenstein microclimate. Lichtenstein is one of only two double-enclosed states in the world[40] - an enclosed state completely enclosed by other enclosed states (the other is Uzbekistan).

In terms of surface area, Liechtenstein is the six smallest autonomous country in the entire globe. Liechtenstein is subdivided into 11 municipalities, the municipalities (singular municipalities). In spite of its finite physical assets, Liechtenstein is one of the few nations in the globe with more businesses enrolled than nationals; it has built a thriving, high-industry free trade system and has a low level of economic services and standards of life compared to the metropolitan areas of Liechtenstein's much bigger neighbors in Europe.

Lichtenstein grows grain, maize, milk produce, cattle, milk produce, maize, pigs and wines. Liechtenstein gifts and succession tax varies according to the ratio of the beneficiary to the donor and the amount of the heirship. Liechtensteiner have an approximate lifespan of 80 years at the time of delivery. Nevertheless, most of the local inhabitants understand and speak Switzerland's native German.

Under the Liechtenstein Constitution, Catholicism is the authoritative state of Liechtenstein's religion: There are four major centers for higher learning in Liechtenstein: Nine grammar colleges are open in the state. Liechtenstein Gymnasium in Vaduz. Liechtenstein has about 250 kilometers of asphalt roads, 90 kilometers of which are signposted cycleways.

Austria and Switzerland are connected by a 9.5 km long railroad via Liechtenstein. In nominal terms, Liechtenstein is located in the Vorarlberg [60] fare zone of the Austria transport association Verkehrsverbund Vorarlberg. Liechtenstein has four rail terminals, namely Schaan-Vaduz, Forst Hilti and Nendeln and Schaanwald, which are serviced by the Österreichische Bundesbahnen with an irregular rail connection between Feldkirch and Buchs.

EuroCity and other long haul train services also run on the line, but they do not usually run at railway stops within the Liechtenstein area. The Liechtenstein Coach is a daughter company of the Postbus system, but is operated as a separate entity and is connected to the coach system at Buchs and Sargans.

There is no Liechtenstein international airfield. The Friedrichshafen International Airports also offers Liechtenstein entry, as it is 85 km away. Due to its small dimensions, Liechtenstein is strongly affected by outside culture, especially from the South German region of Europe, among them Austria, Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Switzerland, especially Tyrol and Vorarlberg.

Historical Society of the Principality of Liechtenstein" contributes to the preservation of the cultural and historical heritage of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein's biggest is the Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, an internationally renowned institution for present-day and present-day arts with an important collections of works of international renown. It is also the Liechtenstein Provincial Fine Arts Collections.

Another important institution is the Liechtenstein National Museums with a long-term collection on the culture and nature of Liechtenstein as well as temporary exhibits. Liechtenstein State Library is the public institution that holds a statutory security bond for all public access to Liechtenstein publications. One of the world's premier privately-owned galleries, the Prince of Liechtenstein's Personal Collection of Fine Arts can be seen at the Liechtenstein Museums in Vienna.

The Liechtenstein Musikgesellschaft, the yearly Guitar Days and the International Josef Gabriel Rheinberger Society are just some of the many musical organisations that perform in two large thematres. Telecom Liechtenstein, based in Schaan, is the Liechtenstein's premier ISP and wireless carrier. Only one TV station exists in the state, the 1FLTV commercial station, founded in 2008.

Founded in 2004, L-Radio is a Liechtenstein radios broadcaster headquartered in Triesen. has a listenership of 50,000 and began on 15 October 1938 as "air radio Liechtenstein". Liechtensteiner also has two major newspapers; Liechtenstein folk newspaper and Liechtensteiner Vaterland. ManaMedia, headquartered in Vaduz, is the most important multi-media enterprise in Liechtenstein.

In contrast to practically every other country, however, Liechtenstein does not have its own ITU-code. Lichtenstein based sports clubs compete in the Schweizer Fussball-Leagues. Vaduz FC, a side in the UEFA Europa League, the second league in Switzerland soccer, is the most victorious side in the trophy and achieved their greatest European championship victory in 1996, when they competed 1-1 and 4-2 against Latvia's FC Universitate Riga, beating them 4-2, and then entered a profitable match against Paris Saint-Germain F.C., which they won 0-3 and 0-4-4.

Liechtenstein's international side is seen as an easily achieved goal for any side that is exhibited against them; this was the foundation for a novel by Charlie Connelly about Liechtenstein's failed qualification for the 2002 World Cup. The Liechtenstein side travelled to Luxembourg four clearings later, where they beat their home side 4-0 in a 2006 World Cup qualifier.

Liechtenstein defeated Latvia 1-0 in the qualifying phase of the 2008 European Championship, leading to the retirement of the Latvia coaches. In Glasgow on 7 September 2010, they came within seconds of a 1-1 tie against Scotland after leading 1-0 in the second half, but Liechtenstein fell 2-1 in the second half thanks to a Stephen McManus 97 minutes strike.

Liechtenstein beat Lithuania 2-0 on 3 June 2011. Liechtenstein beat Moldova 0-1 with Franz Burgmeier's later free shot at Chi?in?u on 15 November 2014. Liechtensteins are an ideal mountain region for skiers and snowboarders, especially for those who enjoy snow sports: Malbun is the only resort in the area.

Liechtenstein has won more per head Olympics than any other national with a total of ten gold medals overall (all in downhill skiing). Further important Liechtenstein skiers are Marco Büchel, Willi Frommelt, Paul Frommelt and Ursula Konzett. Lichtenstein is also home to Stephanie Vogt, a female pro who plays female court game. Lichtenstein takes part in the U16 Cup tournament Switzerland, which gives young talents the chance to compete against top teams.

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