the Lhasa Islands

Tibetan Lhasa (?????

) is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. For over a millennium, Lhasa (?????; ??; L?sà; L?sà; L?sà; literally "place of the gods") has been the center of the Tibetan Buddhist world and remains largely a city of wonders. City of Lhasa, capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region, southwest China. A historical ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa.

class="mw-headline" id="Etymologie">Etymologie[edit]

Tibetan Lhasa (?????) is a municipality and government capitol of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China. The Lhasa metropolitan area is approximately equivalent to the boundaries of the Chengguan District, which is part of the broader Lhasa Plain town, an area formerly governed as a Lhasa Préfecture.

After Xining, Lhasa is the second largest town on the Tibetian Plateau and with an elevation of 3,490 meters (11,450 feet) one of the highest towns in the word. Since the middle of the 17th centuries, the town has been the ecclesiastical and administration centre of Tibet. There are many cultural significant Buddhist places like the Potala Palace, the Jokhang Temple and the Norbulingka Palaces.

The center of Lhasa's influence in the Tibetian area was not in Lhasa from the time of the collapse of the empire in the ninth millennium until the entry of the fifth Dalai Lama. The importance of Lhasa as a place of religion became more and more important over the course of the ages. 19 ] It was known as the center of Tibet, where Padmasambhava held the demons of the world in a magical way and laid the foundations of the Jokhang temple above their hearts.

In Lhasa, two different kinds of Islamic community have been living with different houses, eating and dressing, languages, education, commerce and ancient medicinal herbs. Lhasa became famous in the fifteenth and fifteenth centuries after the foundation of three great Gelugpa convents by Je Tsongkhapa and his students. There are three abbeys, namely Sera, Drepung and Guanden, which were erected as part of the Puritan Buddhist awakening in Tibet.

22 ] The scientific accomplishments and the policy know-how of this Gelugpa line finally returned Lhasa to the forefront. In 1642, the fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682), united Tibet and, with the help of Güshi Khan, transferred the center of his government from Khoshut to Lhasa in 1642. Güshi Khan, the largely unconcerned ruler, the fifth Dalai Lama and his confidants founded a civilian government known by history as the Lhasa State.

Lhasa became the main centre of the country, both in terms of religion and politics. 23 ] The rebuilding of the Potala Palazzo on the Red Hill began in 1645. 24 ] In 1648, the Potrang Karpo (White Palace) of the Potala was finished, and from then on the Potala was used by the Dalai Lama as a conservatory.

25] The Potrang Marpo (Red Palace) was added between 1690 and 1694. Potala derives its name from Potalaka Mountain, the legendary home of the Dalai Lama's godly bodhisattva Avalokite?vara, the Dalai Lama's model. Though some of the woodwork and falls of the Jokhang Temple date back to the seventh centuries, the oldest surviving Lhasa monuments, such as the Potala Palace, the Jokhang and some of the old town's convents and possessions, date back to this second flourishing in Lhasa's past.

At the end of the seventeenth millennium, the Barkhor region of Lhasa was a busy trading area for goods from abroad. In 1716 the Jesuit priest Ippolito Desideri told that the town had a kosmopolitan society of Mongolian, Chinese, Muscovite, Armenian, Kashmiri, Nepali and North India merchants. The Tibetans exported musks, golden, medicinal herbs, fur and Japanese tail to distant countries in return for sugars, teas, saffron, Peruvian cyan, Mediterranean corals and Bernstein.

The Qing Empire troops arrived in Lhasa in 1720, and the Qing administration sent local commissars, known as Ambanians, to Lhasa. On 11 November 1750, the assassination of the ruler by the Ambanians sparked an uprising in the town in which more than a hundred men were murdered, among them the Ambanians.

Following the repression of the insurgents, the emperor reorganised the Tibetian regime and founded the Kashag Councillor of Parliament in Lhasa in 1751. An expeditionary troop headed by Francis Younghusband came to Lhasa in 1904, forcing the surviving low-level Tibetian officers to conclude the Treaty of Lhasa after the flight of the Dalai Lama.

After the riots of Xinhai Lhasa in 1912, all Lhasa forces leave Lhasa and rise above the old town. The Chengguan District lies on the central course of the Lhasa, a branch of the Brahmaputra Rivers, with lands rising along the northern and southern banks of the Lhasa Rivers. The Chengguan district borders Doilungdêqên district to the east, Dagzê district to the East and Lhünzhub district to the north.

The Chengguan district has an altitude of 3,650 meters (11,980 feet) and extends over 525 km2 (203 km2). Lhasa has a warm-summer humid continent due to its very high altitude (Köppen: Dwb), which is very close to a cooling semi-arid region (Köppen: BSk) and a sub-tropical upland region (Köppen: Cwb), with very arid, freezing winters as well as hot, damp summers, although the valleys protect the municipality from intensive coldness or hot weather and fierce wind.

Possible solar radiation per month varies from 53% in July to 84% in November, and the town gets almost 3,000 sun shine hours/year. The Tibetans sometimes call it a "sunlit city". 47 ] Lhasa has an average rainfall of 456 millimeters per year (18. 0 in), with rainfall mainly in July, August and September.

Lhasa's rain falls are mostly at nights and Lhasa is still in the sun during the day, so the rain is considered to be the "best" of the year. During the first half of the twentieth millennium, several West discoverers undertook acclaimed trips to the town, among them William Montgomery McGovern, Francis Younghusband, Alexandra David-Néel and Heinrich Harrer.

The Lhasa was the center of Tibetan Buddhism, with almost half the populace being monks[49], although this number may have included friars from nearby convents who traveled to Lhasa for various ceremonies and did not usually live there. Lhasa Prefecture has a combined civilisation of 521,500 inhabitants (including known migrants but without army garrisons).

53 ] Almost half of the prefectural capital's populace live in the Chengguan District, the unit comprising the Lhasa metropolitan area (i.e. the real city). According to the 2000 Federal People' s Registry Survey, the overall populace was 223,001, of which 171,719 were living in areas managed by municipal road bureaus and district councils.

Censuses were conducted in November, when many of the Han tribal labourers in temporary industry such as building left Tibet without counting the army. One 2011 publication estimates that up to two-thirds of the city's population is non-Tibetan, although the Chengguan District as a whole is still 63% Tibetan.

From 2014 [update], half of the Tibetan Han people lived in the Chengguan District of Lhasa, where bilingual or pure China classes were customary in school. Together with its own economic sector, the highly productive industrial sector plays a pivotal role in the growth of Lhasa. Lhasa's many peasants practise farming and livestock farming.

It is also the centre of the Tibetian trade net. Lhasa's farming and livestock breeding is regarded as at a high level. There are several different types of accommodation in Lhasa. The Lhasa is a 4-star north east of Norbulingka in the west outskirts of the town. Finished in September 1985, it is the flag ship of CITS Tibet installation.

There is space for about 1000 Lhasa people. A further remarkable one is the historic Banak Shöl Guesthouse, situated at Beijing Road 8 in the town. Nam-tso Restaurant is situated near the Lhasa Accommodation and is mainly visited by local people. The Lhasa region contains several important companies.

The Lhasa carpet plant, a plant situated just to the south of Yanhe Dong Lu near Tibet University, manufactures and exports the world' s oldest tradition carpet. There is a state-of-the-art plant, the biggest carpet producer in Tibet and employs about 300 people. There are many historical sights in Lhasa, among them the Potala Palace, Jokhang Temple, Sera Monastery and Norbulingka.

Potala-Palast, Jokhang Temple and Norbulingka are UNESCO cultural monuments. Potala Palazzo, called after Potala Mountain, the home of Chenresig or Avalokitesvara,[69] was the main home of the Dalai Lama. During the Tibetan revolt of 1959, after the Dalai Lama escaped to India, the Dalai Lama's administration transformed the building into a school.

It was used as a place for King Songtsen Gampo's return journey, who in 637 constructed the first Chinese Palaces to welcome his Princess Wen Cheng, a Chinese Tang-brother. In 1645 [24] Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, began building the Potala Palestine, after one of his religious advisors, Konchog Chophel (d. 1646), pointed out that the place was ideally located as a place of worship, as it was between the Drepung and Sera convents and the old town of Lhasa.

25] The castle was restored between 1989 and 1994, cost RMB 55 million (USD 6,875 million) and was included in UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1994. Chokpori, which means "iron mountain", is a sanctuary situated to the southern side of the Potala. One of the four holiest mountain ranges of Tibet, it represents together with two other Lhasa mounds the "Three Protectors of Tibet".

75 ] It was the seat of the most celebrated Tibetan medicine academy, known as Mentsikhang, which was established in 1413. Lobsang Gyatso, the "great" fifth Dalai Lama, designed it and finished it just before 1697 by the regent Sangye Gyatso (Sangs-rgyas rgya-mtsho)[76]. Ringkhor is a holy pathway that is most often used to name the external pilgrimage in Lhasa that corresponds to its inner Gemini, Barkhor.

Lingkhor in Lhasa was 8 kilometers long and surrounded old Lhasa, Potala and Chokpori Mt. It used to be full of men and woman who settled in prostration, begging and pilgrimage, who approached the town for the first and foremost. Most of Lingkhor has been wiped out by New Lhasa, but one route still lies just westwards of Chokpori.

Norbulingka Palestine and the surrounded parkland are located on the western side of Lhasa, only a few steps away from Potala Palestine to the SW and are regarded as the biggest artificial gardens in Tibet with an area of about 36ha. 79 ] and functioned as a tradition site for the Dalai Lamas until the self-imposed exiles of the fourteenth century.

At its fourth Tibet meeting in 2001, the Central Committee of the Government of China decided to return the Tibetan government building to its former splendour. Jokhang is situated at Barkhor Square in the old part of Lhasa. It is the holiest and most important Tibetan sanctuary for most Tibetans.

Together with the Potala Palace it is probably the most beloved touristic destination in Lhasa. Part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Historical Ensemble of the Potala Palace", it is a Lhasa spirit center. The Ramoche Tempel is the most important Lhasa sanctuary after the Jokhang Tempel.

It is located in the northeast of the town, eastwards of the Potala and northerly of the Jokhang[82] with a combined area of 4,000 sqm (almost one hectare). The lower part is said to have been found in a garbage dump in Lhasa and the top half in Beijing in 1983.

The Tibetan Institute (Tibetan: ??????????????????????????????) is the most important institute of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Campsite is situated in Chengguan District, Lhasa, eastern of the downtown area. The Lhasa Gonggar International Airports (IATA: LXA), constructed in 1965, is the air traffic junction of Tibet. It' situated just South of the actual town. The journey by road via the Lhasa airport express way will take about half an hours; the journey to the Lhasa international destination took over an hours until the express way was completed in 2011.

The Lhasa Airport is the center of Tibet Airlines, which provides local flights to other Tibetan cities such as Nyingchi Prefecture, Ngari Prefecture, Shigatse Prefecture and Qamdo Prefecture. Nathu -La Passport provides China businesses with direct entry to the Calcutta harbour (Calcutta), located about 1,100 km from Lhasa, for transhipments to and from Tibet.

Masterplan Lhasa City. gov.cn. Lhasa and the Soul of Tibet. www.stephenbatchelor.org. Lhasa and the Soul of Tibet. www.stephenbatchelor.org. Lhasa, legend and history', in Françoise Pommaret-Imaeda (ed.)Lhasa in the 17th century: the Dalai Lama's main town, BRILL, 2003, pp. 15-38, 21-22.

& Anne-Marie Blondeau and Yonten Gyatso, 'Lhasa, Legend and History', pp. 21-22. In Françoise Pommaret (ed.) Lhasa in the 17th century: the Dalai Lama's Capitol, Brill Tibetan Studies Library, 3, Brill 2003, pp. 15-38, pp15ff. Past and Present of Tibet p. 28.

Tibet's historic state. Lhasa, legend and history' in Lhasa in the seventeenth century: Capital of the Dalai Lama, 2003, pp. 24-25. "Lhasa, legend and story. 17th century Lhasa: Capital of the Dalai Lama. "of Buddhism and Bon in Tibet."

When Tibet was designed as a demon that lay on her back and the places for the Temple were chosen meticulously according to the laws of China accupuncture applicable to the Demon's bodies, Songtsen-gampo was hoping to neutralise any opposing to his reign by malicious ghosts. From the thirteen Buddha churches, the great temple was built eighty leagues from the empire's capitol at what later became known as "Lhasa" (Lha-sa, the place of the gods).

Occidental scientists are speculating that the emperor was talked into not constructing the temple in the capitol in order not to hurt the traditionally god. History of Tibet: Talks with the Dalai Lama, p. 175. < < < Yeh < Emily T. Yeh, <Living together in Lhasa. >: ETHNICAL RELATIONS, COMPULSIBILITY AND SUBALTERN Cosmopolitanism", in Shail Mayaram (Ed.) The Other World Town, Taylor & Francis US.

Dilemmas of a Kashmir Muslim in Early 19th Century Tibet" in Anna Akasoy, Charles Burnett, Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (Ed.)Islam and Tibet: Interactions along Musk Routes, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. < < < Yeh < Emily T. Yeh, <Living together in Lhasa. >: Heinrich Harrer, Seven Years in Tibet, Penguin 1997 p. 140, quoted in Peter Bishop, The Shangri-La Myth: Tibet, Travelling Letters and the West's Sacred Creation, University of California Press, 1989 p. 192.

They had been subject from the time of their birth to pro-China publicity and the Dalai Lama's and his government's renunciations, before the People's Liberation Army (PLA) marched into the land in 1950. A March 1959 insurrection in the Lhasa city led to a mass intervention in which the Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935), escaped into exile.

< < < Yeh < Emily T. Yeh, <Living together in Lhasa. >: Robert Barnett, Lhasa: Robert Barnett, Lhasa: "Today, with the exception of the Dalai Lama's Summer Palace, a small part of Shugtri Lingka (now called Volkspark ) and Lukhang, these gardens have vanished. "< Emile T. Yeh, living together in Lhasa. >:

<font color="#c400c4">(newscaster) ab Emily T. Yeh, living together in Lhasa: Lhasa: Roads with recollections. It'?s the other big town. Lhasa People's Government Official Website - "Administrative Departments" filed on August 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Xinhua, "Tibet Tourist Warmth in Spring" Archives on 07.11.2012 at Wayback Machine. "The Tourist Offensive Destroys Tibet."

Lhasa Hotel in Lhasa, China - Lonely Planet. Lhasa beers from Tibet make their US début. Tibetian Sun. USA Lhasa beers. Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa. unesco. The Sera Monastery and its many monasteries, many of which look out over Lhasa from the mountain valley in the north, and the Drepung Monastery, among many others of historic importance, are located in the nearby Lhasa Préfecture.

Central Tibet: The Pilgrim Guide, (1988) pp. 8-13. History of Tibet: Talks with the Dalai Lama, pp. 345-351. Central Tibet: The pilgrim guide, p. 49. Norbulingka Palace. Travel to Tibet. Central Tibet Power Places: The Pilgrim Guide, pp. 40-41. Central Tibet Power Places: The Pilgrim Guide, p. 59.

The Tibet Museum. Tibet China Information Center. Tibet Museum. Memorial to the peaceful liberation of Tibet revealed. Tibet China Tourist Office. "Platoon 27, Now Arrived in Tibet, in a Great Leap West." Lhasa Tibet Express, What You Can Expect. Sure. Tibet China news. Extension of the Tibetan railroad line to Kathmandu, Nepal narrates China".

New motorway connecting Lhasa with the Gonggar airport to be built". "The Chengguan District of Lhasa." Crimson tragedy: How the Dalai Lama conquered the world, but failed to fight China. "Interpret urbanization in Tibet." Tibet Footprint Manual. Central Tibet Power Places: The Pilgrim Guide, p. 59. Jianqiang, Liu (2006). China Dialogue - Preservation of the Story of Lhasa (Part One).

"Unesco is afraid for Lhasa's World Heritage Site as the Chinese try to attract 10 million tourists a year by 2020". Old Tibetan Story (1961). Tibetian and its story. Lhasa. Lhasa to the Caravan: Kathmandu trader in traditional Tibet. Portrait of the lost Tibet.

Temples of early central Tibet. Commons Wikimedia has created Lhasa-related news outlets.

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