sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Suffering (; Netherlands pronunciation:. ?l?i?d? (n)] (list) is a town and community in the South Holland region of the Netherlands. Leiden had 123,856 residents in August 2017, but with its Oegstgeest, Leiderdorp, Voorschoten and Zoeterwoude neighbourhoods of 206,647 residents, the town of Leiden constitutes a closely linked area.
Katwijk continues to be admitted to the conurbation by the Dutch Central Statistical Office (CBS), so that the overall metropolitan area of Leiden has a size of 270,879, and the bigger conurbation of Leiden also has Teylingen, Noordwijk and Noordwijkerhout with a combined 348,868 people. Situated on Oude Rijn, Leiden is about 20 km from The Hague in the southern part and about 40 km from Amsterdam in the northern part.
Kagerplassen, the recreation area of the Kaag lakes, is situated north-east of Leiden. Leiden, a college town since 1575, has been one of the most important science centers in Europe for more than four hundred years. The city is a vibrant cosmopolitan metropolis with universities all over the country and a large number of college graduates from all over the globe, giving it a busy, lively and cosmopolitan feel.
Here many important scholarly findings were made, from which Leiden's slogan "City of Discoveries" emerged. Leiden is home to Leiden Univeristy, the oldest univeristy in the Netherlands, and Leiden Univeristy Medical Center. With thirteen Nobel Prize laureates, Leiden is one of the leading European institutions. A partnership has been established with Oxford, the site of Britain's oldest campus.
The University of Leiden and the Leiden University of Applied Sciences (Leidse Hogeschool) together have around 35,000 pupils. At the beginning of the eighteenth centuries, Boerhaave began in Leiden with contemporary research and teachings in medicine. Suffering is a town with a wealth of culture not only in terms of knowledge, but also in terms of art. Rembrandt, one of the most renowned painter of the time, was borne and trained in Leiden.
Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan Steen are other Leiden artists. % p.a. Leiden originated on an man-made mound (today Burcht van Leiden) at the junction of the Oude and Nieuwe Rijn streams. A landowner of Leiden, who is in a fortress on the mound (Motte), was first subordinated to the bishop of Utrecht, but around 1100 the graves were subordinated to the earldom of Holland.
Holland or Holtland. In 1047, Leiden was plundered by Emperor Heinrich III. At the beginning of the thirteenth centuries Ada, Countess of Holland, took shelter here when she fought in a civilian conflict against her niece William I, Count of Holland. In 1266 Leiden was granted town charter. By 1389, the total number of people had risen to around 4,000.
During the swastika fight and the cod war in 1420, Duke John III of Bavaria walked with his troops from Gouda towards Leiden to capture the town, as Leiden did not paid the new Count of Holland Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut, his only daughter and nephew of Count William VI of Holland.
Burggraf Filips von Wassenaar and the other Hook fraction nobles believed that the Duke would first lay siege to Leiden and sent out small troops to capture the nearby fortifications. June 24th, the armies arrived outside the Leiden wall. After two months of besieging, the town gave itself to Johann von Bayern on 17 August 1420.
Suffering flourished in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, partly because Flanders fugitives gave impulses to the textiles sector. Whereas the 1574 besiege caused the loss of about a third of the city's 15,000 population, in 1622 it quickly rebounded to 45,000 and in 1670 it was probably close to 70,000 by 1670.
Leiden was the second biggest town in Holland after Amsterdam during the Golden Age. 1842 the Leiden to Haarlem train was opened and a year later the train to The Hague was finished, which led to a certain degree of socioeconomic improvements. Probably the most important part of the Netherlands' past that Leiden brought was the Constitution of the Netherlands.
In April 1848 Johan Rudolf Thorbecke (1798-1872) signed the Dutch Constitution in his home at Garenmarkt 9 in Leiden. In 1896 Leiden began to grow beyond its water ditches from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the number of inhabitants rose to over 50,000 in 1900. In 1920, new industrial sectors were founded in the town, such as the cannery and metals industry.
Throughout the Second World War, suffering was severely affected by bombing by the Allies. Leiden has important function as a commercial and commercial center for municipalities throughout the town. Leiden University is known for its many inventions, among them the Snells Act (by Willebrord Snellius), the renowned Leydener Glas, a condenser made of glas, discovered in Leiden in 1746 by Pieter van Musschenbroek.
Einstein also Albert of Einstein of Leiden spend some period at the University during his early to intermediate careers. Eurotransplant, the multinational organisation in charge of mediating and allocating donor processes in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Slovenia, is also located in the town. The Leiden site is also home to the Airbus head office, a globally pan-European aviation, space and defense group and a world leader in defense and defense services.
Oude Rijn's two eastern arms, which invade Leiden, merge in the heart of the town. In addition, the town is crossed by many small channels with tree-covered docks. The Hortus Botanicus and other parks on the western side of the town stretch along the old Singel, the external channel.
Courtyard Gardens are called after the Lord Mayor of the town, Pieter Adriaansz. Courtyard Gardens (nl), who in 1574 defeated the Spaniards. Town was plagued for month and many die of starvation. In 1807, a boat laden with powdered gunfired guns accidentally exploded, destroying several hundred buildings, among them that of the Elsevier printing house.
Due to the downturn in the economy from the end of the seventeenth through to the mid-nineteenth centuries, much of the inner quarter of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is still in good condition. This is the second biggest urban center of the Netherlands from the seventeenth centuries, the biggest is the center of Amsterdam. The old Burcht château, a round turret on a hill, is located at the strategic crossroads of the two branches of Oude Rijn.
This hill was probably a place of shelter from flooding before a small wood fort was erected on it in the eleventh centuries. Of Leiden's old gateways there are only two remaining, the Zijlpoort and the Morspoort, both from the end of the seventeenth cenury. There is nothing remaining of the ramparts of the city except a small watchtower on the Singel.
Constructed in the thirteenth centuries as a stronghold, it has been used as a home, warehouse and jail ever since. Among Leiden's countless temples are the Hooglandse Kerk (or St. Pancras Chapel, constructed in the fifteenth centuries and with a memorial to Pieter Adriaansz. x Van der Werff) and the Pieterskerk (St. Peter's Chapel (1315)) with memorials to Scaliger, Boerhaave and other renowned scientists.
Further beautiful specimens of his work in Leiden are the Stedelijk De Lakenhal Art Gallery (the town' s visual art museum) and the Bibliotheca Thysiana. Marekerk was the first Evangelical Lutheran building after the Reformation that was erected in Leiden (and Holland).
St. Lodewijkkerk is the first post-Reformation Roman Catholic denomination in Leiden. Catholics were given this temple after the shooting powder blast in 1807, which caused the death of 150 residents and the destruction of a large part of the inner town. One of the later central cathedrals is St. Joseph in Expressionist sty.
Holy Geest Weeshuis (a former orphanage of the Holy Spirit) - a set of houses from the sixteenth centuries. train yards in the community of Leiden: The city of Leiden is located on the proposed RijnGouweLijn line, the first urban train system in the Netherlands. Below you will find a collection of important sufferers throughout history: Wilhelm II, 1228-1256, Earl of Holland, later also Emperor of Germany.
Johannes von Leiden, 1509-1536, head of the Anabaptist rebellion in Münster. Charlemagne de L'Écluse, 1526-1609, plantation engineer, head of Leiden's Hortus Botanicus, where his growing of bulbs lead to the Netherlands bulb production business. Einstein Albert, 1879-1955, teacher / scientist at the University of Leiden, various data between 1916 and 1930. Joke de Vries, 1960, Leiden University Associate and Vice President for the 2002 PVDA election (defeated Wouter Bos).
Suffering is a partnership with: Leiden kept the name " The Coldest Place on Earth " for a while because of the development in a cryogenic lab there. økkelost' ('key cheese') is given its name from the keys in the Leyden emblem, as it is a variant of Leydenkäse.
These places and things are called after this city: Passioncale, for measurement of extremely low temperature. Faktor V Leiden is called after the town of Leiden where it was found in 1994. Stadhuis from Leiden has a verse in the shape of a cryptogram on his facade which shows the date 1574 in the Roman numeral, the year of the "black famine" or the occupation of Spain (W corresponds to two Vs):
The Zorg en Zekerheid Leiden is the Leiden baseball team. wikivoyage has a guidebook for suffering. Common suffering. Returned on August 8, 2013. Returned on August 8, 2013. Climb to ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; region per maand" [Population increase; region per month]. Climb to ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; region per maand" [Population increase; region per month].
Leiden, the town of books". Brought back on August 29, 2010. Brought back on August 29, 2010. "The Leiden International Film Festival is announcing a new US indie competition." Hop up "10 Best Commercials in Leiden". visitleiden.nl. The Lodewijk in Leiden. Leiden, Saint Louis Municipality, 2005. Hop up "Dood van Bledder tompelt Leiden in rouw".
August 9, 2013. Returned on August 9, 2013. This is Oxford City Council. Archives from the originals on 17 August 2013. Miasta Torunia[City Toru? Council] (in Polish). Returned on August 22, 2013. Skip to top ^ "Leiden Information". Leap up ^ Manual to Holland (7th edition). Commons Wikimedia has created medias related to suffering.