sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Kunming's Skyline, Kunming Railway Station, Kunming is the capitol and biggest town of the Yunnan region in the south west of China. 5 ] Known as Yunnan-Fu until the twenties, today it is a prefectural town and the administrative, economical, communicative and culture center of the provinces as well as the headquarters of the local administration.
Due to its climate, Kunming is also known as a spring town. Many of Yunnan's large companies have their head office in Kunming. During World War II it was important as a China army centre, US airfield and traffic terminal for the Burma Road. Kunming lies in the centre of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau at an elevation of 1,900 meters above sealevel and at a parallel degree northern of the Tropic of Capricorn.
From 2014 Kunming has 6,626,000 inhabitants with an urban total of 4,575,000, and is situated on the north shore of the large Dian Sea, encircled by hills and hills with lakes and calcareous stone. The Kunming complex comprises an old town, formerly enclosed by walls, a contemporary business quarter, housing and academic districts.
It has an astronomic observation facility and its universities are Yunnan University, Yunnan Normal University and a University of Medicine. Located near the South East Asia frontier, it serves as a traffic junction in Southwest China, connected by railway with Vietnam and by truck with Burma and Laos.
It is this position that makes it an important trading centre in this part of the country. Although it has almost 2,400 years of experience, its present-day wealth does not date back to 1910, when the Hanoi railroad was constructed. In the course of China's modernisation endeavours, the town has developed apace. Kunming's roads have expanded, while offices and residential developments are being constructed at a rapid rate.
As Kunming has been declared a tourist centre of its own, it offers a wide range of high quality and luxurious accommodation. Kunming was considered the stronghold of Chinese contemporary democratic life during the Second Sino-Japanese War when the National Southwestern Associated University (????????) was inaugurated. Kunming was established in 765 and was known to the Chinese in the eighth and ninth century as Tuodong (??) town in the kingdom of Nanzhao (737-902).
Kunming County was established in 1276 by the Mongolian monarchs and became the province of Yunnan. As a trade centre, the vibrant metropolis expanded between the south-west and the remainder of China. According to scientists, it was the town of Yachi Fu (Duck Pond Town) where humans used cowrie snails as currency and eaten their meats roughly, as described by Marco Polo, a Venice traveller from the thirteenth centuries who travelled to the area and spoke of his interest in the place.
Kunming was reconquered in the fourteenth centuries when the Ming Empire conquered the Mongols who constructed a dam around Kunming. The Ming General Wu Sangui joined the Manchu Inventors 300 years later and paused until his demise in 1678, long after the remainder of China had come under Manchu domination.
Throughout the Ming and Qing period it was the headquarters of the Yunnan higher administrative state. First called Kunming at the time of the fall of the Yuan Empire, the area was later recognized in 1832 as the beginnings of a true town within the ramparts and significant buildings within its boundaries.
The foundation of the town can therefore be regarded as a predominantly 19. cent ury matter. In the same period the town became the most important center of markets and traffic in the area. Many of the city's residents were driven out by the 1833 Kunming quake.
He was under the control of the Du Wenxiu terrorist group, the Sultan of Dali, who repeatedly assaulted and sieged the town between 1858 and 1868. Few of the city's riches survive the Panthay Rebellion of 1856, when most of the Buddhist places in the capitol were destroyed. A few years later Kunming began to be affected by the West, especially the French Empire.
Many workers were put to death in an insurrection against working condition on the Kunming-Haiphong railway line in the 1890s after France supplied arms to oppress the insurrection. In early days Kunming was a communication centre and a hub of two important trade lanes, one to the west via Dali and Tengchong County to Myanmar, the other to the south via Mengzi County to the Red River in Indochina.
There was a tricky road leading east to Guiyang in the Guizhou region and from there to the Hunan region. In the north-east there was a well-developed trading road to Yibin in the Sichuan Yangtze region. In 1912 Kunming returned to the district under the name Kunming and became a commune in 1935.
The opening of the Kunming area began seriously with the construction of the Yunnan Vietnam Railway to Haiphong in Northern Vietnam (part of Franco-Indochina) in 1906-1910. In 1908 Kunming became a contracted harbour, which opened up to international commerce and soon became a trading centre. In Kunming, the importance of industrial production increased during the Second World War.
Kunming was a fortified town until 1952. In 1952, the municipal administration ordered hundred of young men to demolish the Berlin walls and build a new highway to North-South with their tiles. In order to show their recognition to the youngsters who tore down the eastern walls, the municipal authorities renamed the new building after them.
Also there are less evident links to the Berlin Wall, such as Qingnian Lu (???,'Youth Road'), which was once the eastern face of Kunming. Kunming quickly evolved after 1949 into an industry capital with the building of large ferrous and non-ferrous metal and chemicals centers as well as Chongqing, Chengdu and Guiyang in the South-West.
In the 1950' a minority institute was established to foster reciprocal comprehension and accessibility to higher learning among Yunnan's multi-ethnic populations. During the Vietnam War and the ensuing conflicts at the borders, the town strengthened its role as a powerhouse. Kunming was by and large regarded as a secluded boarder town until Mao Zedong's passing, and until then it served as a place for the authorities to send exiled persons who had been disgraced by politics, especially during the Cultural Revolution.
1957 the railway connection from Kunming to Hanoi (after the interruption in the Second World War) was resumed. The second summit of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) took place in Kunming in July 2005, attended by representatives of governments from China, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. There China consented to loan its neighbours more than 1 billion dollars for a number of different ventures.
Then China promoted GMS co-operation as a first stage towards the establishment of a future China-ASEAN free trade area. With the help of Switzerland, the town centre was reconstructed in its present "modern" form in the eighties and nineties to make an impression on the 1999 World Garden Show audience. The Kunming is situated in the eastern European Yunnan region.
The area lies between the northerly latitudes of 24°23' and 26°22' and the eastern longitudes of 102°10' and 103°40' and covers a surface area of 21,600 km2 (8,340 km2). Kunming is set in a lush sea basins on the northerly shores of Dian Sea, flanked by hills to the west, south, and eastern. Kunming has always been central to communication in southwest China.
Dian Sea, called "the pearl of the plateau", is the 6th biggest freshwater sea of China, is the biggest of Yunnan's lakes and has an area of about 340 sq km. Kunming's highest point is the Mazong Ridge of Jiaozi Mountain in Luquan at 4,247 meters (13,934 feet), and its deepest point is the connection of the Xiao River and Jinsha River in Dongchuan District at 695 meters (2,280 feet).
Approximately 96 kilometers south east of the center of the city lies the stone forest in Shilin County, a karstic formations that has evolved as a tourism destination of cliff caverns, archways and gazebos. Kunming lies at an altitude of 1,890 meters on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau with a narrow width and high altitude and has one of the warmest climate zones in China, characterized by brief, cold, dry winter with balmy weather and clear night as well as long, hot and wet summer, but much colder than the plains.
Kunming with its eternal spring-like wheather, which offers the perfect environment for flora and fauna, is known as the "City of Eternal Spring". Throughout the year the whole village is full of blooms and luxuriant bush. It has an average of 15.52 C (59.9 F) per year, 979 mm of precipitation (almost three-fifths from June to August) and a frost-free 230-day time.
From 30% in July to 69% in February and March, the average percentage of solar radiation per month is 2,198hrs a year. Extremely high urban temperature was between -7. Minerals includes phosphorous, salts, magnesium, titan, carbon, quartz sands, clays, silicon dioxide and coppers. The Kunming is a major horticulture centre in China, offering produce such as cereals, beans, maize, potatoes and fruits such as peppers, apple, oranges, grape and chestnut.
Kunming is renowned the whole over for its quality bouquets and the export of them. In Kunming more than 400 varieties of plants are cultivated. Camellias, Yulan Magnoléolie, azaleas, primroses, lilies and orchids are known as the six renowned urban floral species. In 1983 the Kunming municipality certified the chamellia as a municipal plant.
Out of the more than five million inhabitants of Kunming in 2006, more than four million were Han. With more than 400,000 inhabitants, the Yi were the most prominently in town. Kunming's least representative ethnical minorities were the 75 Dulong who lived in the town.
There are three large plazas and five large roads in the town centre: The Qingnian Lu, Zhengyi Lu and Renmin Lu are the Kunming core businesses; the most common areas for pedestrians are Nanping Jie, Jingxing Birds-Flowers' Markets and Jinma Biji Fang. Kunming's focal point is the enormous plaza in front of the now torn down Workers' Cultural Hall at the junction of Beijing Lu-Dongfeng Lu, where many people play Taijiquan and play Badminton in the morning.
The real centre of the town, which is quickly being modernised, is to the western side of the plaza opposite the adjoining Panlong River (now more of a canal), in front of the Kunming department store at the intersection of Nanping Lu/Zhengyi Lu, a busy retail area full of clothes and electronic shops. Shuncheng Jie is one of the last old roads in the centre of the town, which used to be a Moslem neighbourhood.
However, under the fast-paced modernization of Kunming, the road was torn down to make room for housing and malls. One of Kunming's most important green areas, Cuihu Gardens (Green Lakes Park) is a green expanse of water surrounding a large expanse of green. On the western side of the reserve is the sculpture of one of Yunnan's most celebrated patients - Nie Er, the Chinese nation hymnist.
The Daguan Park is located at Dian Chi in Kunming's southwest border. Initially designed by the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing Dynasty, it has been altered over the years to incorporate a loud fair, meal stands and department stores, and is a popular meeting place for Kunming's young people. Further Kunming Park are the Black Dragon Pool and the Botanical Garden of Kunming in the northern part and the Wenmiao Tea Garden in the district of Wuhua.
Situated in the northerly outskirts of Kunming, the "Garden of the World Horticultural Exhibition" is six kilometers from the center of Kunming. Kunming organized the World Horticultural Exhibition 1999 from May 1 to October 31, 1999 with the topic "Man and Mother Earth - Awakening into the 21. century". Golden Hall Scenic Zone" on Mingfeng Hill in the northerly outskirts of Kunming is eight kilometers from the center of Kunming.
It' the biggest goddamn cooper house in China. Remarkable Kunming museums: Kunming's biggest buddhistic sanctuary is Kunming's biggest Si. Kunming's biggest and most celebrated sanctuary with the ancient construction erected more than 1,200 years ago during the Tang Dynasty. The Qiongzhu Si (Bamboo Temple) is located 5 miles from the town centre. It was erected in 639 and reconstructed between 1422 and 1428.
will be Kunming's first super strong high-rise. Kunming, the prefectural town of Kunming, is responsible for 14 subdivisions: seven boroughs, one district town, three rural boroughs and three independent boroughs. It is bordered by Kunming Municipality in the eastern part of the country, Honghe Hani and Yi Municipal District in the SW and Yuxi Municipality in the SW, Chuxiong Yi Municipal District in the SW and Zhaotong Municipality in the NE.
The town of Kunming is also bordered by the Panzhihua prefectural plain and the autonomous Liangshan Yi prefectural of Sichuan provincial. Over the next few years Kunming is planning to expand the four quarters (Panlong, Wuhua, Guandu, Xishan) with two new one. Mischian (??) Reisnudeln, which are boiled in cooper saucepans (??) on gasses in a pasta in Kunming.
In Kunming the emphasis of the entertaining quarter is on Kunduplatz with many movie theaters, pubs, nightclubs and pubs. There are several opera groups and local conversations in the town, including dancing a lamplight. Similar performances can be found in the Yunnan Arts Theater on Dongfeng Xi Lu. Kunming's central movie theater is located on the southern side of the Dongfeng Lu/Zhengyi Lu crossroad.
Kunming is very similar to Sichuan and Guizhou, but uses the third note much less than Chinese which is the default. A lot of words are only used in Kunming dialects, like "??", which means "grandiose". Throughout the year Kunming draws national and international visitors. Kunming is located in the centre of Yunnan and as the main city is also a traffic junction for travellers travelling to other parts of Yunnan such as Dali, Lijiang and Shangrila.
The Kunming International Convention and Exhibition Center and the Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Hall are among the Kunming meeting and display locations. Further popular landmarks are the stone forest and the ethnic village of Yunnan. In Kunming one of the main tourist spots is playingolf. Throughout the last six years, Spring City Golf and Lake Resort in nearby Yiliang County has ruled as the best golf course in China and Hong Kong according to US Golf Digest. Here are some of the best places to play tennis in the world.
25] This is where the Kunming legend of the Omega China Tour takes place. The most important sport complexes include: There are three economical benefits of Kunming over other southwestern Chinese cities: significant indigenous resource, a large supermarket and a temperate environment. Located in the centre of Yunnan, one of China's biggest manufacturers of agriculture, mineral and hydropower power, Kunming is the most important trading centre for most of the province's resource base.
Kunming was granted the status of an open town by the State Council in May 1995. Until the end of 1995, the town had authorized 929 companies financed abroad with a combined 2.3 billion dollars invested, of which 1.1 billion dollars were external funds. The Kunming has two main areas of growth, the Kunming Hightech Industrial Zone (biological medicines, new material, information electronics, photoelectrons, agriculture) and the Kunming Economic and Technology Zone (mechanical devices, biology and foodstuffs, information industries, software).
Among the biggest are: The Kunming Haikou Industrial Park. Since 2008 [update] Kunming has been home to 65 of the top 100 companies in Yunnan County. Smoking continues to be the biggest industry in the region. China Kunming Import & Export Commodities fair (known as "Kunming Fair") is a regionally based exhibition supported by seven South East Asia based government agencies, among them Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Tibet, Chongqing and Chengdu.
The Kunming Fair has been successfully carried out every year for fourteen years. Also see the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), the principal organizational group. Kunming government has drawn up a plan for the individual districts of Chenggong. While Kunming's administration has already relocated to Chenggong, some important Yunnan University institutions, such as Yunnan University and Yunnan Normal University, are also moving to the area.
Chenggong is already home to Kunming International Airport and Kunming International Flora Auction Trading Center Co. Ltd. and has therefore established itself as one of the most important flowers manufacturers in China. Part of the overall infrastructural fabric, the roads between Kunming and Laos will soon [when? ] be ready and part of a trans-national motorway that will finally connect Yunnan with Thailand.
This and Pan-Asian Railways - a daring 5,600-kilometer long railway line connecting Kunming to Singapore via Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, which is to be completed in the next few years, should make Kunming an important logistical location. The Kunming East Station is currently the only Yunnan Provincial Containers Terminal with connections to only three provinces: Guangdong, Guizhou and Sichuan.
Jiaying Depot is linked to the new system of motorways connecting Yunnan to the ever more important Southeast Asian market, facilitate low-cost China's export to the area, and provide resource-poor China with better opportunities to tap the region's vast natural resources. As a result, Yunnan has become an important area of railway logistic in the southwest, both in relation to domestic and foreign logistic.
Every morning Kunming supplies 1,560,000 tonnes of tapwaters. Kunming has been an economical backwarder for the last three centuries due to its remoteness. This was before the dramatic increase in Chinese trading with Southeast Asia and the Chinese local tourist industries as well as the Beijing "Go West" campaign to increase Chinese and international investments in West China.
Yunnan's Yunnan County Government's developed strategy for business growth can be briefly described as the realisation of 3 objectives and the establishment of 5 pillars industry. Often Yunnan presents itself as a " verdant " country with an just as " verdant " business. Kunming began a powerful relationship with its twin town of Zurich, Switzerland twenty years ago to exchange experience in the field of sustainability.
It is a reminiscence of Zurich's support in developing the Kunming city's potable and waste disposal systems. in the People's Republic of China. Kunming and Zurich began their technological collaboration with a cooperative venture in the potable beverage area.
Later, further areas such as "Old Towns Protection", "Wastewater and Wastewater Treatment", "Urban Planning", "Urban and Local Traffic Planning" were added to the cooperation lists. In December 2008, Suntech Power announces that it is working with Yunnan Provincial Power Investment and other investor partners on a joint venture to develop a photovoltaic plant. On 28 December 2009, the 1 MW first stage of the 66 MW Shilin network photovoltaic plant in Kunming began with electricity generation.
The Kunming lies on the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau. Train and plane are the two most important means of transportation to and from Kunming from outside Yunnan. From Kunming there are flight links to several destinations in China and South East Asia. The Kunming terminal is operated by Kunming Changshui lnternational Airports (KMG), which opened at 08:00 on June 28, 2012, and replaces the older Changshui lnternational Airports 4-5 km south-east of Kunming.
Yunnan Airports Group is building the terminal. Terminal building is part of the Kunming Air Hub City. Air Hub City is said to have around 200,000 inhabitants. Yunnan Airlines, which no longer exists, had its headquarters in Kunming until it was taken over by China Eastern Airlines. Southwest Airlines previously operated services to and from Kunming until it became part of Air China.
Located in Kunming, Lucky Air is a low-cost carrier that offers regular flights from Dali to Kunming and Xishuangbanna and is planning to enter other regions of China. The China National Highway 108, 213 and 320 cross in Kunming. Motorways connect Kunming with Thailand, Vietnam and Laos and give the Yunnan region easy acces to the sea ports of Southeast Asia.
The Kunming is the most important railway junction in Yunnan County. Chengdu Kunming Railway from Sichuan, Shanghai Kunming Railway from Guizhou and Nanning Kunming Railway from Guangxi meet in Kunming from northern, northeastern and eastern parts. From Kunming in the SE, the Yunnan-Vietnam Railway will run to Hekou and Lao Cai on the Chinese-Vietnam frontier and on to Haiphong. The Kunming-Yuxi Railway will run southwards to Yuxi, where a second railway line to Vietnam will be designed and constructed.
Westwards from Kunming, the Guangtong-Dali line stretches from the Chengdu-Kunming line to Dali (city of Xiaguan). The Kunming has three large stations: The Kunming train depot is located at the south end of Beijing Xi Lu. In comparison to the other train terminal (Nordbahnhof), Kunming serves most of the "conventional" (non high-speed) train routes to other Chinese province locations.
The Kunming South Railway Station, opened at the end of 2016, is situated in the Chenggong District, many kilometres south-east of the historic town centre. This is the west terminus of the Shanghai-Kunming High-Speed Railway and the Guangzhou-Nanning-Kunming High-Speed Railway and has high-speed trains to targets along these routes and elsewhere in the country's high-speed rail system.
Kunming began building the first light railway line, Kunming Line 1 and 2 of the Kunming Transit in May 2010. Kunming Shanghai. The route leads through 6 province capitals: Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanchang, Changsha, Guiyang and Kunming. It would take as much as 3 hrs from Shanghai to Nanchang, 2. 5 hrs from Hangzhou to Nanchang, 4 hrs from Kunming to Changsha, 8 hrs from Kunming to Hangzhou and 9 hrs from Shanghai to Kunming.
Kunming Shanghai. Kunming-Nanning. The Kunming Vietnam about Honghe Prefecture. Kunming-Singapore via Laos, Thailand and Malaysia. Kathmandu Kunming-Chengdu. Chongqing Kunming. One of Kunming's veins, Dongfeng Road. The Yunnan motorway network is extensive, with streets that reach almost every large city in the area. From Kunming there are several daily busses to Dali and Lijiang.
Kunming has four main long-distance coach stops, of which the South and Railway Square are the most important. Located opposite Kunming Station in Beijing Xi Lu, the South Busstation offers regular, luxurious, express and sleeping busses throughout Yunnan and the neighbouring counties.
The Railway Square bus terminal is smaller than the SBS and the vast majority ofthe busses departing from the railway are privately operated. Dali, Jinghong, and elsewhere in Yunnan. Departure from China via the roads to Vietnam and Laos is also possible via the corresponding intersections at Hekou in the southeast of Yunnan or Bian Mao Zhan in Xishuangbanna.
It is the first express route from China to Bangkok via Laos. From Kunming, the 1,800-kilometer Kunming-Bangkok Express Road descends to Ban Houayxay in Laos, then traverses the Mekong River to Chiangkhong in Thailand and finally to Bangkok. In July 2007, at the Fourteenth Ministerial Conference of the Greater Mekong Subregion, China, Laos and Thailand concluded an accord on the building of a new Mekong River Crossing Bridging Authority linking Chiangkhong in Thailand and Ban Houayxay in Laos with the Kunming-Bangkok Highway.
Planned to be finished in 2011 with investment from China and Thailand, the project is the last motorway connection in the Mekong River area. The two most important means of transportation within the inner cities are busses and coaches. An underground system is currently underway ( see Kunming Metro).
Almost two hundred buses cross the downtown area and cover the entire area. Bicycling is standard, and many hotel chains around Kunming station offer bike hire. Aware of the increasing transport problems, the town is currently refurbishing a pedestrian-friendly town centre. Situated on two major roads:
Peking Lu constitutes the north-south route and leads directly eastwards from the centre, as it travels 5 km (3.1 miles) between the two railway yards of the town; while Dongfeng Lu intersects it half way, subdivided into the eastern (Dongfeng Dong Lu), central (Dongfeng Zhong Lu) and western (Dongfeng Xi Lu) segments, as it travels directly through the commercial centre.
At the other end of the road, Renmin Xi Lu, the first stage of the Burma Road, leaves the town. While most of the city's renowned international hotel and consulate services are located along Dongfeng Dong Lu and the south half of Beijing Lu, most of the special attractions and neighborhoods are located around Dongfeng Xi Lu and Cuihu Park (Green Lake Park).
The Kunming district is still an important education and culture centre in southwestern China with numerous academic centres, health and education centres, vocational education and research facilities. More than 300 research facilities employ 450,000 researchers and engineers in the town. By 1995, the municipality had obtained 60 research results, one of which was "advanced internationally standard", 17 "advanced domestic standards " and 21 "advanced provincial standard".
The Yunnan is one of the biggest and most renowned Chinese colleges and the only one in the Yunnan region that has been transformed into a National Key-University. In 1922 it was established as the Union of the Eastern Land. The Yunnan Normal Unversity (??????) is situated in the Yunnan Provincial Authority's main city, Kunming.
The Yunnan Normal Unversity was created in 1938 and is headquartered at a top Chinese university: and Nankai Institute. It' the National Normal College of Southwestern Union United. 1946, when the departments returned to northern China, the name was renamed National Kunming Normal College. The Kunming Universität of Science and Technology (??????) is located in Kunming, the capitol of Yunnan County, and was formed in 1954.
The Kunming Universität of Science and Technologie has a solid scientific foundation in the field of mechanical and electrical engineers and became one of the most important universities in 2010. Today, the Kunming Universität of Science and Technologie is developing into an important basis for the education of cutting-edge people. The Yunnan Nationalities in Kunming is the home of Yunnan Nationalities Unversity. Established in 1951, it was first known as Yunnan Nationalities College.
The Yunnan Nationalities University is the first nationalities university in China and today one of 6 leading institutions in Yunnan County. The Yunnan Nationalities University has developed collaborative relationships with 26 campuses in 10 different countries among them: The University of Bergen in Norway, La Trobe University in Australia and the University of Virginia in the USA.
The Huayang Academy is a specialised China bilingual center headquartered in Kunming. It is a singular institution because it educates Mandarin and Kunming dialects. Kunming subsidiary of the China Academy of Sciences (CAS) was founded in 1957. Formerly known as the Kunming Office of CAS, it was expanded into a subsidiary in 1958 and re-named the Yunnan branch of CAS.
1962 the Yunnan Branch founded together with the Sichuan Branch and the Guizhou Branch the Southwest China Branch of CAS in Chengdu. The Kunming branch was re-established in October 1978 with the consent of the State Council. The Kunming branch is CAS's work division and now manages five research institutes: Tropical Botanical Garden in Menglun, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, further south of Yunnan.
Located in the city, the branch has established 3 nationale Schlüssel Open laboratories, 2 KAS Schlüssel Open laboratories, 5 Schlüssel laboratories established by KAS and the surrounding provinces, 3 ENG centres, 5 PhD locations, 5 postdoctoral research posts and nationally renowned botanical herbaria and warehouses of wild animal samples, and has a range of upgraded research tools and equipment, computer networking and information services on biological diversity.
It has developed into an evolved, extensive scientific research center in the fields of space, geography and biological sciences. Kunming's Kunming branch is organised into three specialist divisions (General Office, Office of Personnel and Office of Sci-tech Cooperation) and a support division (Network Center). Its main responsibilities are: building the management of the five institutions and the cadre reservation; organising and facilitating collaboration between Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province and Central Asia; coordinating project work and combating global warming; coordinating and managing the Conservation and Research Development of Southwest China Biological Resources and Biodiversity KB.
The Kunming Branch has created various exchanges with South East Asia. During 2005, a Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology mission was hosted to the Kunming Branch and achieved co-operation with the Kunming Branch in the field of personnel exchanges, mixed doctoral candidates, research programme co-operation, science sharing and joint laboratory set-up.
The Kunming branch has organised the associated institutions to submit applications to the state for the international assistance programme. Kunming is one of the hospitals: The Yunnan provincial Red Cross Hospital and Emergency Centre, is the most important general clinic in Kunming. The Kunming Mental Hospitals, established in 1955, accommodates over 400 people. China's first HIV/AIDS care centre was constructed at province scale at the end of 2006.
Situated 28 km from Kunming city centre, the US$17.5 million centre is situated in the heart of the city. It has six major departments: clinic care, medical advice, research and innovation, global exchanges and collaboration, clinic care education and psychotherapy. It is one of the two group armed forces that includes the Chengdu military region, which is in charge of defending China's south-western frontiers with India and Myanmar, as well as Tibetans' safety.
Nordkorean renegades - who usually arrive in China illegal, usually have to pass through Kunming to get to another land in order to get to South Korea. As the nearest large metropolitan centre in China near the Golden Triangle in Southeast Asia, Kunming plays a key function as an important hub in global drugs trading.
Kunming Municipal Public Security Bureau narcotics squad is the specialized policing agency for the fight against drugs. The over 30,000 powerful anti-drug cops in Yunnan seem to be targeting cocaine and metamphetamine. Most of the herroin that comes to China from the Golden Triangle arrives via Dali [citation required], from where it is then spread to the remainder of China and international via China's seaside towns.
The Kunming Municipal Compulsory Rehab Centre in Kunming is the most important centre for the treatment of substance abusers, and is mostly recovered from smack. Yunnan and Kunming have used Yunnan and Kunming in multinational groups to distribute new artificial narcotics (such as methamphetamine) and conventional narcotics such as smack. Following is a list of Kunming representative countries:
Among the remarkable personalities from Kunming belong: Southwestern national associated university: The Kunming Wolfdog, an esteemed race of wolf-dog hybrids. Climb to ^ "China is continuing to build the pan-Asian high-speed network". Greater China Culture and Creativity: Leap high ^ "China is hosting a huge gardening exhibition." Hop up "Climate of Kunming".
Chinaman daily. Skip up to: a Spring city Blooming Archived on January 4, 2008 at the Wayback Machine. "Rosebouquet may have a note: 'Made in China'". Skip up ^ "Kunming wants to construct a town powered by photovoltaic energy". emerging-china.com. Skip up ^ "Kunming opens further subway lines".
Yunnan & Kunming Housing, Shop, Travel. Spring up ^ "Chinese Immersion Kunming - Huayang Academy". learnchineseinyunnan.com. Skip up ^ ????????????????????-?? [Friendly Urban Statistics - Yunnan]. www.cifca.org. cn (in Chinese). "Modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemic among injecting drug users and sex workers in Kunming, China". Hop up ^ "Yunnan Witnesses Record Drug-busting 2006". china.org.cn.
Leap up ^ "The world's second facelift in China - Gesundheit - 18 April 2006". The Kunming Statistical Yearbook 2007 (in Chinese) China Statistics Press. Kunming is a complete travel guide series for travel and tourism in China. The China Travel & Tourism Press. Kunming Project: City Development in China - A Dialogue.
Nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung - the case study by Kunming, China Willy Schmid, Markus Eggenberger, 1997. Six hundred and fifty years in Kunming China, 1944-45. China OSS: I' m Yale University Press. "Southwest China's rural-urban gradient of early mortality." "Policing brothels in Republican Kunming". The modern China. Provide volunteer counselling and tests among IDUs in Kunming town, Yunnan Int Conf AIDS province.
Commons Wikimedia has related to Kunming related news medium. My rankNameProvincePop. My rankNameProvincePop.