??????? ??????????? ???????????, tr. Moskowskij Kremlin, IPA: The Kremlin is a walled ensemble in the centre of Moscow with views of the Moskva River to the southwest, St. Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the East and the Alexander Garden to the Wests.
The Kremlin is the most famous of the Kremlin (Russian citadels) and comprises five castles, four kathedrals and the surrounding Kremlin wall with Kremlin spires. The Kremlin Palace, which used to be the Tsar's Moscow residency, is also located in this area. Today the building is the President of the RF's formal home and a 2,746,405 visitor permanent exhibition in 2017.
Kremlin " means "fortress in a city", and is often used metonymously to describe the administration of the RF in a similar way as the "White House" is used for the executive office of the President of the United States. Kremlinology " relates to the studies of Sovietian and Russians policy.
The Vyatichi build a paved road (or "even") on the mound where the Neglinnaya river flows into the Moskva. In 1366-1368 Dmitri Donskoi substituted the oaken wall with a thick fortress made of whitestone on the foundation of today's walls; this fort survived a besiege by Khan Tokhtamysh.
Dmitri's second Vasily I. started building again the Kremlin's church and cloister. In 1406, the new cathedral of the Annunciation was commissioned by Theophanes the Greek Andrei Rublev and Prokhor. Ivan III organized the rebuilding of the Kremlin and invited a number of experienced Italian Renaissance architecture students, among them Petrus Antonius Solarius, who planned the new Kremlin walls and its spires, and Marcus Ruffus, who planned the new Palast for the Duke.
During his rule, three preserved Kremlin monuments, the Deposition Church and the Facet Palace were inaugurated. Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the tallest edifice in the town and Moscow's Russia, was erected in 1505-08 and extended to its present level in 1600. Today's Kremlin wall was erected between 1485 and 1495.
4 ] Spasskie Tore der Mauer still carry a Latin inscription, which Petrus praises Solarius for the work. When the new Kremlin ramparts and church were completed, the emperor ordered that no buildings were to be erected in the immediate area. In the Kremlin was a 30-metre ditch above the trade city ( "Kitay-gorod"), above which the Basilius Cathedral was erected during the rule of Ivan the Terrible.
This same Czar also restored some of his grandfather's buildings, added a new building and disaster church for his children, and donated the Kremlin Holy Sepulchre. The Kremlin was kept by Ukrainian troops for two years between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612 during the unrest.
When the Kremlin was liberated by the voluntary armies of Lord Dmitri Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin, the way was cleared for the elections of Mikhail Romanov as the new czar. The eleven-headed upper Cathedral of the Redeemer, the Weapons Gate, the Terem Palaces, the Pleasure Palaces and the Palaces of Patriarch Nikon were erected during his rule and that of his sons Alexis and his grandchild Fyodor.
After Alexis' sons Fyodor and the Moscow Uprising of 1682, Tsar Peter fled the Kremlin with great effort and thereby grew an aversion to him. Though still used for coronations, the Kremlin was left and disregarded until 1773, when Catherine commissioned the Great Vasili Bazhenov to construct her new palace.
Mr Bolzhenov created a monumental neo-classical monumental project, which included the destruction of several buildings and buildings as well as part of the Kremlin fortifications. A few years later the Russian Senate was oversaw by the late Matvey Kazakov the restoration of the demolished parts of the walls and some of the monastery buildings and the construction of the large and luxury Senate office, which has served as the main office of the President of Russia ever since.
The Kremlin was invaded by Flemish troops from 2 September to 11 October 1812 following the Russian occupation. Napoleon retired from Moscow and ordered the Kremlin to be bombed. Kremlin arsenal, several parts of the Kremlin walls and several spires were demolished by explosives and the faceted chamber and other chapels were fire-wrecked.
When Czar Nicholas I came to Moscow for his coronations, he was not happy with the Great Palace (aka Winter Palace), which was designed by Francesco Rastrelli and which had been completed in the 1750'. Both the lavish building was pulled down, and the near St. John the Forerunner's Basilica, which Aloisio the New rebuilt in 1508 instead of the first one in Moscow.
Konstantin Thon was asked to substitute it with the Great Kremlin Palaces, which would compete with the Winter Palaces in St. Petersburg in its size and abundance of interior spaces. It was built in 1839-49, followed by the reconstruction of the Kremlin arsenal in 1851.
The Kremlin did not change much after 1851 until the Russian Revolution of 1917; the only innovations at that time were the monument to Alexander II and a rock crucifix which marked the place where Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia was murdered by Ivan Kalayev in 1905. On March 12, 1918, the Russian regime left Petrograd for Moscow.
The Kremlin Senate was chosen by Vladimir Lenin as his home. Stalin also had his own rooms in the Kremlin. Luminescent Kremlin starlight replaces the stone eagle on the tower, while the Berlin mausoleum was transformed into the Kremlin mausoleum. Also the Small Santa Claus Palace and the old Cathedral of the Redeemer were demolished.
The Kremlin was not opened to international tourists until the Khrushchev thaw. Kremlin museums were founded in 1961 and the Kremlin was one of the first cultural assets of the former Yugoslavia to be included on the World Heritage List in 1990. While Elena Gagarina (daughter of Yuri Gagarin), the present head mistress of the Kremlin museums, is in favour of a comprehensive renovation of the monasteries that have been ruined, recent development has been limited to the costly renovation of the pristine interior of the Great Kremlin Palace, which was changed during the reign of Stalin.
Nikita Khrushchev ordered the Kremlin State Palaces (aka the Kremlin Palaces of Congresses) as a state-of-the-art venue for Communist party gatherings and in 1959-61 they were erected within the Kremlin fortifications. Outside the castle is covered with pure marmor and the window is toned and reflecting. A large contemporary state house in a historical quarter caused a stir, especially as the house substituted several listed structures, among them the old neoclassical State Armoury and some of the backs of the Great Kremlin Palaces.
Though this was not the first in the Kremlin and the whole land that the Soviets had ruined the architectonic legacy (especially the Chudov Monastery and the Ascension Monastery), legislation was passed in the mid-1950s that regarded all pre-Soviet buildings as historic landmarks and prevented their destruction, making the building somehow illegitimate.
Nevertheless, the palace was incorporated into the bigger Kremlin Palace with passages connecting it with the Patriarchal Chambers and the Terem Palace. In 1485-1495 master craftsmen from Italy erected the Kremlin fortifications. On the Kremlin side, the Kremlin's uneven triangular shape covers an area of 275,000 sqm.
There were eighteen original Kremlin spires, but their number rose to twenty in the seventeenth cen. Except for three spires, they are all quadratic. Troitskaya is the highest spire, erected in 1495 to its present altitude of 80 metres. The majority of the steeples were initially surmounted by wood marquees, the preserved tiled marquees with coloured tile stripes date from the 1680'.
It has two house Church of the Metropolitans and Patriarchs of Moscow, the Church of the Twelve Apostles (1653-56) and the magnificent church with magnificent frescos and iconic paintings from 1627 and 1644, constructed by craftsmen from that time. Another remarkable feature is the Ivan the Great Bell Tower on the northeast edge of the place, which is supposed to represent the very center of Moscow and resembles a lit rock cave.
It was the highest building in the town until the Russian Revolution, as the building of higher structures was prohibited. During the Napoleonic invasion, the French demolished and reconstructed the top of the building. Ivan III's Facet Palace (1491), in which the royal throne is located, is the oldest remaining worldly building.
Next in line is the first house of the King's house, the Terem Palast. Ivan III also ordered the Terem Palazzo, but most of the palazzo was rebuilt in the seventeenth cent. Terem and Facet palaces are connected by the Great Kremlin palaces.
In the Kremlin's biggest building, it took an enormous amount of eleven million roubles to construct and more than a billion U.S. Dollars to refurbish in the 1990'. The building contains glittering lobbies, a festive stairway in reddish colour, Tsar's houses and the lower floor of the resurrection of St. Lazarus Cathedral (1393), which is the oldest preserved building in the Kremlin and in Moscow.
On the north side of the Kremlin is the Arsenal, initially constructed in 1701 for Peter the Great. In the south-western part of the Kremlin is the Zeughaus. Constructed in 1851 after a Renaissance revival draft, it is today a monument to the State of Regalia and the Diamond Fund.
Moscow's next metro stops to the Kremlin are: ?????????? ??????[Moscow Kremlin] (in Russian). Moscow. The Kremlin's story and illusion. Moscow: "Kremlin."