sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
The Kinshasa (; French:. Leopoldville or Leopoldstad (help-info) is the main town and the biggest town of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Located on the river Congo. The inhabitants of Kinshasa are known as Kinois (in French and sometimes also in English) or Kinshasans (English). Léopoldville was christened in honor of King Leopold II of Belgium, who ruled the huge area of the present-day Democratic Republic of Congo, not as a settlement, but as a privately owned possession.
It was the first buoyant shipping dock on the Congo River above Livingstone Falls, a range of 300 kilometre long cataracts below Leopoldville. First, all goods that arrived by ship or were transported by ship had to be transported by carriers between Léopoldville and Matadi, the harbour below the river and 150 km from the shore.
1914 a pipe was laid to transport raw material from Matadi to the upstream steamships in Leopoldville. Until 1923 the metropolis was raised to the status of Belgian Congo capitol and replaced the Boma metropolis in the mouth of the Congo. Following independency on 30 June 1960, after the unrest of 1959, the Republic of Congo chose its first premier, Patrice Lumumba.
As this was the climax of the Cold War, the USA and Belgium did not want to loose influence over the Congo's strategical richness, especially its natural resources. In 1965, Joseph-Désiré Mobutu took office in the Congo with the help of the USA and Belgium. Léopoldville was in 1966 rebranded as Kinshasa, for a small community called Kinshasa that once existed near the complex, now Kinshasa (municipality).
Kinshasa was suffering badly from Mobutu's excess, massive corrupt practices, cronyism, and the civilian conflict that caused his doom. Kinshasa has a humid and arid temperate environment under the Köppen climatic rating. The long rain period runs from October to May, with a relatively brief drought from June to September.
As Kinshasa is situated just south of the Ecuator, the drying period begins around the "winter solstice" which takes place in June. Kinshasa's arid period is somewhat colder than the rainy one, although the temperature remains relatively stable throughout the year. Large production enterprises such as Marsavco S.A.R.L., All Pack Industries and Angel Cosmetics are situated in the center of the city (Gombe) in Kinshasa.
Out of the 20,000 babies who live on the roads of Kinshasa, almost a fourth are paupers, some are sellers and about a third have some kind of work. The majority of homeless are boys, but the proportion of young women is rising, according to UNICEF. The Ndako ya Biso provides assistance to homeless people, as well as accommodations for them.
The Kinshasa region is home to several universities that cover a broad spectrum of disciplines, from underground construction to health care and even journalists. By 2005, 93% of those over the age of six went to college and 70% of those over the age of 15 were proficient in French. Kinshasa has twenty clinics as well as various health centers and policlinics.
52 ] In 1997, Dikembe Mutombo constructed a 300-bed clinic near his home city of Kinshasa. The Monkole Clinic has been active as a non-profit healthcare facility since 1991, cooperating with the Kinshasa Public Service Department of Public Welfare as a Kinshasa County Clinic. Kinshasa staged the 1974 The Rumble in the Jungle fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman, in which Ali beat Foreman to win back the heavyweight world championship trophy.
The Mikilist is an excellent kind of popular in Kinshasa, a stylish financially motivated individual who has travelled to Europe. Congo journalist protest in Kinshasa, 2009. In Kinshasa there are a large number of different types of broadcasting, among them several radios and TV channels that transmit throughout most of the nation, among them the state-owned Radio-Television Nationale Congolaise (RTNC) and the private Digital Congo and Raga TV.
Residential broadcaster, Resident Radio and Television Network Operator R&TTE (RTGA), is also located in Kinshasa. The majority of mediums use French and Lingala to a large degree, very few use the other local tongues. In Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the seat of its governing body, including: the Palais de la Nation, the seat of the President, in Gombe; the Palais du Peuple, the venue for the two chambers of Parliament, Senate and Parliament, in Lingwala; the Cité de l'OUA, constructed in the seventies for the organisation of African unity and now a governing body, in Ngaliema.
Congo's National Bank is located on Boulevard Colonel Tshatshi, opposite Laurent Kabila's Mausoleum and the President's House. Among the remarkable landmarks of the town are the Gecamines Commercial Buildings (formerly SOZACOM) and the Hotel Membranling Skyscraper, L'ONATRA, the stunning Department of Transportation buildings, the Main Square, the Kinshasa Museum and the Kinshasa Fine Arts Academy.
Kinshasa's face is shifting as new building is constructed on Boulevard du 30 Juin: The Kinshasa is home to the country's main martyr arena, the Stade des Martyrs. Kingasani (Kimbanseke commune, re-opened in September 2005); Matete - Royale (re-opened in June 2006); Matete - UPN (re-opened in June 2006); Rond-point Ngaba - UPN (re-opened in June 2006).
Since June 2016, DR Congo has had two domestic carriers, Congo Airways, founded with the help of Air France, and Air Kasaï. They both provide regular services from Kinshasa to a restricted number of towns within the DR Congo. Matadi Kinshasa Railway links Kinshasa with Matadi, the Atlantic harbour of the Congo. Since April 2016 there has been a weekly person ride on the route, which covers the 350 km between Kinshasa and Matadi every Saturday in about 7 Stunden, and a more regular schedule was foreseen.
64 ]Brazzaville in the neighbouring Republic of Congo is linked to the Atlantic harbour of Pointe-Noire by the Congo Ocean Railway. The Kinshasa is the most important harbour of the Congo. Matadi, the seaport in the Congo Mouth, is 150 km (93 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean by car and train.
From Kinshasa there are no railway lines to the interior, and roads to much of the remaining land are low and in bad state. In the centre of Kinshasa at midnight. LuaLua Kazenga, Brighton & Hove Albion F.C. Pro Footballer Kinshasa is a partner: Matthieu Kayembe Wa Kayembe, Mathieu De Maeyer und Eléonore Wolff, "Mapping urban growth in Kinshasa (D. R. Congo) between 1995 and 2005 by high resolution satellite remote sensing", Belgian 3-4, 2009; doi:10.4000/belgeo.7349.
Returned on July 8, 2017. Brought back on March 18, 2015. Géographie de Kinshasa. The Ville de Kinshasa. Returned on June 25, 2012. March 7, 2016. Returned on August 1, 2016. Returned on June 25, 2012. Returned on June 25, 2012. Returned on June 25, 2012. Kinshasa - Democratic Republic of the Congo. britannica.com.
Joe Trapido, "Kinshasa's Theater of Power", New Left Review 98, März/April 2016. Elections in the DR Congo: Seventeen killed in anti-Kabila protests", BBC, 19 September 2016. Merritt Kennedy, "Congo A'Powder Keg' As Security Forces Crack Down On Whistling Demonstrators", NPR, 21 décembre 2016.
<font color="#ffff00">-==- sync:ßÇÈâÈâ Thirty years after the release of the "Atlas of Kinshasa", Les Cahiers d'Outre-Mer 261, January-March 2013; doi:10.4000/com.6770. Sarah Y. (June 19, 2007). Brought back on December 15, 2010.
Kinshasa". Returned on June 7, 2016. KINSHASA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO. Returned on June 7, 2016. Returned on June 7, 2016. Service and sustainabilty of decentralised hydropower on the edge of Kinshasa"; Journal of Hydrology (online 15 July 2016); doi:10.1016/j.j.j.jhydrol.2016.07.023. Gianluca Iazzolino, "Kinshasa, Megaopolis of 12 Million Spirits, Expands Angrily on Overloaded Grow Filed on July 9, 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
"Mail & Guardian Africa, April 2, 2016. The UN strengthens the peace-keeping forces in the DRC capital", East Africa / AFP, 19 October 2016. United Nations Relief and Works Agency "Corrupt Government in the Congo", VOA News, 29 March 2017. UN forces open fire in Kinshasa, BBC, 3 June 2004. Management of urban agricultural land in Kinshasa"; Africa of the Great Lakes:
International aid and local governance dynamics in peri-urban Kinshasa"; African Policy 2013/1 no. ,129; doi:10.3917/polaf.129.0113. Kinshasa - Democratic Republic of the Congo. britannica.com. Emizet Francois Kisangani, Scott F. Bobb, "China, People's Republic, Relation to"; Historical Dictionary of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Lanham, Maryland:
Nuah M. Makungo, "Will the Democratic Republic of Congo be globalised by China? Case of Small Business at Kinshasa Central Market", Quarterly Journal of Chinese Studies 2(1), 2012. Jonny Hong, "Gangster criminality is threatening the futures of the Congo's capital," Reuters, June 19, 2013. U.S. Dept. of State - Congo, Democratic Republic of the Country Specific Information".
Brought back on December 15, 2010. Returned on August 17, 2018. Oko Elechi and Angela R. Morris, "Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo-Kinshasa"; in Mahesh K. Nalla & Graeme R. Newman (ed.), Crime and Punishment Around the World, Vol: 1: Africa and the Middle East; Santa Barbara, California: Prison in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, ed.
Thousands of prisoners escaped from Kinshasa Jail in the DR Congo," said Larcher in La Croix, 18 May 2017. "Congo Kids Fight Witches' Allegations." Returned on March 14, 2011. Street kids in Kinshasa. Returned on March 14, 2011. "with Kinshasasas' Kinderhexen". Returned on March 14, 2011.
Danballuff - children of Congo: Returned on March 14, 2011. About 20,000 homeless kids hike in "Kinshasa". June 1, 2007. Returned on March 14, 2011. Prevalence, Abuse & Exploitation of Stray Kids. Returned on March 14, 2011. "Struck and rejected, Congo kids are alien to the mine boom." reuters.com. Homeless people in the Democratic Republic of Congo: IV.
Kinshasa National Identity"; Journal of Urban History 38(5), 2012; doi:10.1177/0096144212449141. Andy Morgan, "The Raw lings of Kinshasa", The Guardian 9. Mai 2013.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo Media Programme. Brought back on December 15, 2010. Democratic Republic of the Congo: Brought back on April 28, 2014. Not Montreal, Dakar or Algiers, as many would think, but Kinshasa, the former Zaire capitol, is the second biggest French-speaking town in the can. Re-inventing order in the Congo: How human beings react to the failure of the state in Kinshasa.
Brought back on 31 May 2009. Kinshasa is home to at least one in ten Congolese. Brought back on 31 May 2009. Whereas French-speaking countries dominate the cultural scene, Kinshasa has a multilingual population. In the 1980s, many described Zaire as the second biggest French-speaking nation and Kinshasa as the second biggest French-speaking town.
The Lingala was the speech of Lingala's musicians, president's speeches, everyday affairs in the Kinshasa administration. However, if Lingala was the Kinshasa native tongue, it made little headway as a literary one. It was the literary langage of the town, as can be found in road signposts, billboards, newspapers as well as official deeds.
The French dominant theatre, TV and the media, French was the idiom of the French hymn and even ofhenticity. The Kinshasa is for the rich"; Africa Report 5 May 2015. Kinshasa - Democratic Republic of the Congo. britannica.com. "More than 13,000 passengers were carried by rail between Kinshasa and Matadi" (in French).
April 10, 2016. Returned on April 16, 2017. DRC CONGO: Deposited at the Wayback Machine on March 13, 2010. La Stib à Kinshasa? Returned on August 17, 2018 - via Amazon. Returned on August 17, 2018. Returned on August 17, 2018. Kinshasa: Kinshasa: the village and the city.