King BayinnaungQueen Bayinnaung
????????? ?????????????????) King of the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1550 to 1581. Under his 31-year rule, known as the "greatest blast of mankind's power in Burma", Bayinnaung gathered what was probably the biggest kingdom in Southeast Asian annals, covering much of present-day Myanmar, China's Shan states, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Manipur and Thailand.
Baikinnaung was borne Ye Htut to Mingyi Swe and Shin Myo Myat. There are no preserved chronicles, among them Hanthawaddy Hsinbyushin Ayedawbon, the comprehensive chronicles of the king's rule two years before his deaths. Maha Yazawin, the first of the Toungoo family' s chronicles, announced his genealogical history in 1724, almost a hundred and a half centuries after his deaths.
Maha Yazawin said he was borne in a peer group in Toungoo (Taungoo), a former minion state of the Ava Kingdom. In spite of the formal interpretation of the King's lineage, verbal records talk of a less grand genetic history, stating that his folks were citizens of Ngathayauk in Pagan county or Toungoo county of Ngathayauk and that his dad was a paddy-talm climbers, then one of the lesser occupations in Burma's population.
Though best known for his imperial structure, Bayinnaung's greatest bequest was his Shan State annexation to the Kingdom of the Irrawaddy Bay. Following the Shan invasion in 1557-1563, Bayinnaung established an administration system that diminished the powers of the inherited Shan-Saophas (hereditary rulers) and harmonized Shan practices with the standards of the lowlands.
She removed the danger of Shan attacks in Upper Burma, a long-standing worry for Upper Burma since the latter 13. year. Its Shan policies were pursued by Myanmar monarchs until the definitive downfall of the empire to the British in 1885. Shan are still one of the most important tribal groups in Myanmar with their own languages and cultures.
Along with Anawrahta and Alaungpaya, Bayinnaung is one of Burma's three greatest monarchs. Its realm was a scattered accumulation of former supreme empires, whose emperors were faithful to it as Cakkavatti (universal ruler), and not to the realm of Toungoo. Two years after his deaths, two years after, all the vassals' states were rebelled until 1599, and the Toungoo realm fell apart.
Bayinnaung, who began his rule as "king without a kingdom", ended his rule as "emperor without a kingdom". "According to Than Tun, Bayinnaung did not conquer lands to colonise them, but to win the allegiance of their masters. As long as they stayed true to him, he captured king and master in their own position.
But Bayinnaung followed the then dominant South East Asia governance system of sun policy, in which the high king reigned the nucleus, while semi-independent affluents, self-governing vice-kings and gubernors dominated the daily management and work. Thus, the "King of Kings" reigned only Pegu and the Mon-Land itself and left the remainder of the empire to the vassals in Ava, Prome, Lan Na, Lan Xang, Martaban, Siam and Toungoo.
The Bayinnaung government in Lower Burma was run with the help of government officials, the overwhelming majority of whom were of racial origin. On the whole, it has refined the predominant decentralised administrative system, which hardly worked for small states such as Toungoo, its home state, into the biggest state in the area. This did not work for medium-sized empires such as Ava, Hanthawaddy, Lan Na and Siam.
He had a politics of administering the Shan states, which had been invading Upper Burma since the end of the thirteenth cent. He allowed the Saophases of the States to keep their regal ornaments and rituals as well as their feuudal prerogatives to their people. However, the reigning saophe could now be dismissed by the king for serious wrongdoing, although the king's election was restricted to members of his own people.
Its Shan policies were pursued by all of Burma's kingdoms until the definitive downfall of the empire to the British in 1885. The Bayinnaung administration established a degree of juridical unity by calling together scholarly friars and civil servants from all his domains to impose an formal set of billbooks. Scientists created Dhammathat Kyaw and Kosaungchok, on the basis of King Warerus Dhammathat.
It fostered the new act throughout the Reich to the extent that it was consistent with the habits and traditions of its people. Burma's common practice laws and Burma's diary in Siam began to be adopted during his time in power. A further lasting inheritance of Bayinnaung was his establishment of an Eastern Theravada Buddhism in Upper Burma and the Shan states.
At the end of the 1470' s he promoted the reform of religion that King Dhammazedi had started. Considering himself the exemplary Buddhist king, he handed out replicas of Buddhist writings, feeding and building pilgrimages in every newly captured state from Upper Burma and the Shan states as far as Lan Na and Siam. It banned all man and animals from being sacrificed throughout the realm.
He particularly prohibited the Shan practise of slaughtering the Saopheans' servants and pets at his inhumation. The Bayinnaung Donation gave jewellery to decorate the crown of many a pagoda, among them the Shwedagon, the Shwemawdaw, the Kyaiktiyo and many lesser known ones. He was mainly an agricultural state with some rich seaports.
And the realm was exporting goods like rices and jewellery. In Pegu, the oversea trading was in the possession of eight agents nominated by the king. It was so marvellous that today's Europeans never tired of depicting "Pegu - the long ditch full of alligators, the ramparts, the watchtowers, the magnificent castle, the great elephant and sedan and grandee parades in glowing garments, the chests full of solid golden and precious stone pictures, the infinite host of men with weapons and the appearance of the great king himself".
" King John Paul II named officers to monitor mercantile navigation and sent vessels on trade missions. Bayinnaung's kingdom was based on what were sometimes referred to as "breathtaking" armed incursions, but its triumph was more than just portugese guns, alien soldiers and solid armed groups. After all, Bayinnaung was able to march more workers than any other sovereign in the area.
With greater powers and super-weapons, he had no problem to reduce manipur and the whole Shang kingdom to the state of a Creek. Its greater armed force and its greater combat expertise made the distinction against Siam, which was also a rich seaside force with a mighty, well-equipped warfare. However, it turned out that Siam was not his biggest opponent.
Those single components alone cannot account for Bayinnaung's performance. But no one (in Burma or elsewhere in the succession states of his empire) could assemble them. It is the failures of other monarchs who tried the same conquest that are the yardstick of his skill. "Bayinnaung passed away on October 10, 1581, after a long sickness.
However, the kingdom that Bayinnaung had established on the basis of armed conquest and which had been sustained by means of armed force and private relations with the vassals' sovereigns collapsed soon after. Myanmar cuisine today is subdivided into home cooked food and regal cuisine. It' difficult enough for me to describe home fare, let alone the regal-styled one.
There is a discrepancy between local and kingly cuisine more in terms of the amount than the qualitiy. Regal food contains much more than home made food, but the general preparation method and ingredient are the same (although regal food may contain more meat). First one is very detailled and shows the Shan styled cookery from Shan lake.