King AnawrahtaAnawrahta, King of Spain
King of Myanmar
Aniruddha ( "Aniruddha"), the first king of all Myanmar, or Burma (ruled 1044-77), who brought his tribe into Buddhism. Anawrahta, during his rule, unified the north home of the Myanmar tribe with the Mon kings of the south. Anawrahta took over the Mon town of Thaton, a center of India's civilisation, in 1057.
His case prompted the other Mon leaders to subjugate Anawrahta; for the first case, a Myanmar leader ruled the Irrawaddy River delta. Contacts with Burma's civilisation. Mons gave the people of Burma an art and literature heritage and a system of writings. Burma's oldest preserved mon script was published in 1058.
Shin Arahan, a friar, converts Anawrahta to Buddhism. Anawrahta, as king, tried to repent of the Ari tribe, a Tantric Buddhist cult that prevailed in the centre of Myanmar at that age. Buddhism became Myanmar's dominating religious and cultural and civic inspirational force, especially through his work.
In 1071 he asked for the support of Myanmar friars to revitalize the Tibetan Buddhism. Anawrahta received a copy of the Buddha's dental reliquary from the Ceylon king, which was placed in the Shwezigonagoda in Pagan.
ROYAL AAWRAHTA, THE MONGOLIAN INVASION OF BURMA AND THE ASCENT AND DECLINE OF THE PAGANS
He also undertook a number of important societal, worship and economical reform that would have a sustained influence on Burma's past. Later, his cultural and religion reform evolved into Burma's contemporary art. King Anawrahta was a productive dam and channel constructor during his rule, especially along the Zawgyi fortress. He founded his capitol in Pagan with 30 mon treasure and 30,000 mon inmate artists who, according to an epigraph, were" men trained in woodcarving and drawing; bricklayers, gypsum and floral pattern maker; smiths, silverysmiths, Brazilians, founder of chimneys and basins, filigreed florists; physicians and instructors of oxen and horse; shield makers".
" When he defeated the Mon, King Anawrahta transformed Anawrahta into Therevada Buddhism and launched a meritorious Temples construction battle. There was a conflict between King Anawrahta of Pagan and the Mon King Manuhar when King Manuhar declined to give holy Buddhist lyrics to Pagan. Manuhar was taken prisoner and held in Pagan for a long while.
Buildup the Manuhar Temple while he was there. A series of capable emperors followed Anawrahta, consolidating Pagan's place in the story. The Pagan stepped into a gold-plated era that would last for the next two hundred years. His Majesty King Anawrahta was replaced by King Kyansittha (r. 1084-1113), a reckless general who became infatuated with Anawrahta's woman and later took the chair.
Alaungsithu ('1113-1167) came to rule in 1113. When it was a great merchant empire, he led Pagan and was even the captain of a vessel with a 800-man crews to Ceylon more than 1,500mp. King Narathu (1160-65) took the crown by murdering his own uncles, his own wives and his own sons and poisoning his elder half-brother, who was successor to the crown and one of his father's lovers.
Thisithus Dhamana is said to have drunk a life-prolonging potion from the heart of 6,000 people. Narathihapate (1256-1287) is said never to have set himself on less than 300 currys per days. You might believe the way some Burmese people take their little cuisines, separated from their homes, one meal at a time for their people.
Throughout this period, the pagan empire spoke Burmese, Mon, Pyu. Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia were the goals of Kublai Khan's latest effort to expand the Mongolian country south of China. Southeast Asian jungle-clad, wet and warm countries were very different from the steppe of Central Asia, pushing the Mongolian army to its borders.
Mongolian War in South East Asia was a period that marks the south border of the Mongolian conquest. The Mongolian kingdom was divided into several khanats by this period, the most important being the Il Khane of Persia, the Gold Hord of Russia and the Jagadai Khanat of Mesopotamia. In addition, Kublai Khan established China's Yuan Dynaesty.
Several inter-Kanat raids ended Mongolian western enlargement, while Kublai's campaign against Japan and in Southeast Asia ended the eastern enlargement of the Yuan-Mongolian-Chinese Empire. Mongolian defeats in Southeast Asia and Japan also heralded the beginning of the end of Mongolian rule in China, subverting the massive Yuan clout.
He was confronted with uprisings in the Macchagiri state (now Kyaukpyu District) in the western part and Martaban (Mottama) in the southern part. Pagan could not do anything this conquest because it was under pressure from the Northern world. In 1277, the first offensive invaded the Burmese at the Ngasaunggyan killing and seized Kanngai (now Yingjiang, Yunnan, 112 kilometres northern of Bhamo).
By 1287, Mongolian troops again penetrated further southwards. Rather than defend the land, the king of Pagan escaped to Lower Burma, where he was killed by one of his own children. Mongolian bowman In 1277 Kublai Khan Pagan assaulted after the Yunnan capture, allegedly after the excentric king Narathihapate-"the swallow of 300 curries courts daily"" declined to take a toll and killed an envoys of the Great Khan.
There' are some doubt as to how Kublai Khan beat the Myanmar. Sarkozy Polo said he beat the South East Asia kingdom only with the help of criminals and buffoons, while the Myanmar people claimed that the Great Khan employs six million riders and twenty million feetoldiers. Kublai Khan's Mongols took their toll in 1271 and 1273.
Kublai Khan Pagan assaulted in 1277 after the Yunnan seizure, allegedly after the excentric king Narathihapate-"the swallow of 300 courts of curries daily" - declined to take a toll and killed an ambassador of the Great Khan. Throughout his reign, much of the kingdom's resource was used to build temples and other raids that ruined Pagan and made it ruin.
Decisive battles took place in Vochan (Ngasaungsyan), 350 northeast of Pagan, near the China frontier. Mongolian ponies were afraid at first when they faced a Myanmar military consisting of 2,000 fighting lilephants and tens of thousand feetoldiers. However, the Mongolian-Chinese troops finally won out after Kublai Khan's troops enticed the Myanmar military into a wood.
The Mongolian archer on horseback maneuvered and "made pin cushions out of Pagan's praised battle elephants" and "smashed the myths of the unconquerability of the elephant hive". One of his reports mentioned a meeting on the Vochan Plains between the Mongolian troops and Burma's military elites. This report describes how 12,000 well-equipped Mongolian cavalries were confronted with a Burma military force of 60,000 plus 2,000 bulls.
They were used differently by the Burmese than by the Annamese and were kept on their backs in wood palaces by between twelve and sixteen men. Mongolian horse could not be brought near the elephant, so the Mongolian general had them bound to the tree and the Mongolians were fighting off.
Out of the coverage of the elephant tree, they shot volleyball on volleyball of darts into the endangered parts of the elephant until they were expelled. The Mongolians boarded their horse after the bulls were expelled and assaulted the Myanmar army to defeat them. The Mongolian commandant brought some of them back to Kublai after the war.
It' not clear if the Mongols Khan all squatted Pagan. More recent research shows that the Mongolian army may not have touched the pagans themselves, and that even if they did, the harm they did was probably minor. Immediately after the king's demise, all the minion states of Pagan rebelled and went their own way.
Anyway, the 250-year-old pagan empire had stopped existing. This pagan empire also transformed the story of the Southeast Asian continent. Pagan controlled the Khmer invasion of the Tenasserim coastline and the Menam upland. From a cultural point of view, the development of Pagan as a Theravada centre offered the Buddhist schools, which were in seclusion elsewhere in South Asia and Southeast Asia, an urgently needed period of grace and a secure refuge in the face of an growing Hindu Khmer Empire from the eleventh to the thirteenth century.
105 ] Pagan not only helped to revive Theravada Buddhism in Ceylon, but the more than two hundred years of domination of a mighty imperium enabled the later expansion of Theravada Buddhism in Lan Na (northern Thailand), Siam (central Thailand), Lan Xang (Laos) and Khmer Majesty (Cambodia) in the thirteenth and fourteenth century. The New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, The Irrawaddy, Myanmar Travel Information Compton's Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Myanmar Travel Information, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Burmallibrary, United States.