sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Kefalonia or Kefalonia (Greek: ????????? or ??????????), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (??????????), is the biggest of the Ionic Islands  in West Greece and the sixth biggest after Crete, Evoia, Lesvos, Rhodes and Chios. There is also an independent territorial entity of the Ionic Islands and the only commune of territorial entity.
There was also a former Roman Catholic bishopric of Kefalonia-Zakynthos (Cefalonia-Zante) and short-lived see titles as just Kefalonia. A group that explains the name of Cephallenia and strengthens its ties to Athens connects the isle with the legendary Cephalus, who assisted the Mycenaeanmphitryon in the battle against the Taphians and telebots.
3 ] He was awarded the land of Same, which later became known as Cephallenia. Kefalonia is also mentioned in reference to the deity Britomartis, as the place where she allegedly "received godly honors from the residents under the name Laphria". Pale/Pali coin, the old village just south of Lixouri.
On the south-western part of the archipelago, in the Leivatho area, an on-going archeological mapping by the Irish Institute in Athens has uncovered tens of locations dating from the Palaeolithic to the Veneto Age. Kefalonia is a very interesting place from an archeological point of vie.
The most important period for the archipelago is undoubtedly the Mycenaean period, from around 1500-1100 B.C. The Archeological Musuem in the capitol of Cephalonia, Argostoli, is considered - albeit small - the most important in Greece because of its artefacts from this period. In 1991, the most important archeological finding in Kephalonia (and also in Greece) of recent centuries was the Mycenaean grave of Tholos on the edge of Tzanata, near Poros in the southeast of Kephalonia (former municipality of Elios-Pronni) in a beautiful environment of olives, Cypresses and oak groves.
This is the biggest grave of St. James in the northwest of Greece and was dug out by the archeologist Lazaros Kolonas. These remnants date back to the time between the 2. cent. BC and the 4. cent. AD. Archeologists described it as the most important find of its kind on the Ionian Islands. Clement of Alexandria said the Isle had the biggest Carpathian fellowship, an early Greek Christian cult, since Carpocrates inhabited the Isle.
Turkey's domination continued only until 1500, when Kefalonia was conquered by a Spanish-Venetian army, a rarely seen victory for Venice in the Second Ottoman-Venetian War. Kephalonia and Ithaca stayed part of the Stato da Mar of the Republic of Venice until the end, after the destiny of the Isle of Ionia, accomplished by the conquest of Lefkas by the Turks in 1684.
Campoformio's contract for the demolition of the Republic of Venice transferred the Ionian Isles to France, a France expedition whose vessels were taken prisoner in Venice and who took command of the archipelago in June 1797. Due to the libertarian state of the isle, the Venezuelan sovereign Marc'Antonio Giustiniani (1516-1571) published Jewish works and imported them throughout the entire east coast of the Mediterranian Sea.
Zakynthos was one of the biggest Corinthian exporting companies in the whole word from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century and had a large ship pool which even commissioned Gdansk Shipbuilding. Most of its cities and hamlets were constructed high on hills to avoid attacking pirate groups that navigated the Ionian Sea in the 1820s.
Seamills in the Argostoli cove (1849) were a real oddity in the nineteenth cenury. Lixouri's main plaza, 1910. In 1797, Venice was captured by France and Kephalonia became part of the département of Ithaque together with the other Ionian islands. The following year, the Romans were obliged to leave the Ionian Islands to a mixed Soviet and Turkic navy.
Between 1799 and 1807 Kephalonia belonged to the Septinsular Republic, which was under Ottoman rule but Russia provided protection. The Tilsiter Treaty of 1807 returned the Ionian Islands to France, which retained full power until 1809. Then, in the course of the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain climbed a barrier in the Ionian Islands, and in September of this year they raised the English banner over the Zakynthos fortress.
Kefalonia and Ithaca soon emerged, and the Brits established temporary states. In 1815, the Paris Agreement recognized the United States of the Ionian Islands and ordered it to become a United Kingdom patronage. Until 1848 the resistances gained power and there were clashes with the army in Argostoli and Lixouri, which resulted in a certain loosening of the law and liberty of the people.
Unification with Greece was now a stated goal, and in 1850 a rising unrest led to even more scharmützel. Kephalonia, along with the other Isles, was moved to Greece in 1864 as a good will act when Prince William of Denmark, with British support, became King George the First of the Greeks.
Kephalonia became a full member of the Hellenic State in 1864 along with all other Ionian islands. Kefalonia is situated just south of a large continental disturbance, where the continental shelf hits the Uegean shelf at a landslideline. In August 1953, a number of four quakes shook the islands and devastated them, destroying practically every home on the islands.
The epicenter was located just below the south tip of Kephalonia and led to the whole archipelago being 60 cm (24 in) higher where it still is today, with signs of watermarks on coastal crags. In 1953, the Ionic seismic catastrophe of 1953 resulted in enormous damage, with only the northern areas surviving the most severe shocks and homes staying unharmed.
Dozens of million dollar damages were calculated, corresponding to billion of drachma, but the actual economic damages were incurred when the inhabitants abandoned the Isle. Most of the inhabitants soon abandoned the islands and looked for a new way of living in another place. On the Richter size rating, 3 resulted in small damages to shops, homes and other premises in and around Argostoli.
Tuesday 20 September 2005, an early breakfast quake struck the south-western part of the archipelago, particularly near Lixouri and the surrounding towns. 4,9 on the Richter ruler, and its epicenter was off the coast of the isle. Between 24 and 26 January 2006, a large snow storm flooded the whole archipelago and caused widespread outages.
Recently, the archipelago was hit again by another fire in the southern part of the archipelago, which began on Wednesday 18 July 2007 during an unusually hot spell and spread gradually. Firemen, choppers and airplanes fought against the fire for a few whole day, and the show scared the inhabitants of this part of the isle.
The eight former communities of the islands became independent in 2011 and formed a single community. Lixouri ceased to be the main town of the islands in the nineteenth centuries and after 500 years it ceased to be the centre of a town. Technological Education Institute of the Ionian Islands has a department in Lixouri and one in Argostoli.
Antiquity saw four towns on the Isle. The majority of Cephalonia' native peoples have last names ending in "-atos", like the Georgatos family, and almost every village on the archipelago has a name ending in "-ata", like Metaxata, Chavriata, Frangata, Lourdata, Favata, Delaportata and others.
1222 the Franconian crusaders founded the diocese of Kefalonia-Zakynthos (Cefalonia-Zante in curated Italian), which managed to survive its domination and even the Turks. 1919 the residence vision was repressed, but immediately converted into a titular diocese of Kefalonia (Cefalonia in Italian). Kefalonia is the principal islet of the region and has a surface area of 773 square kilometres (300 mi2) with a total of 55 inhabitants per square kilometre (140/mi2).
Argostoli has a third of the total area. It is the second large village, and the two cities together make up almost two third of the prefectural area. It'?s the other big islands: on Petalas Iceland, Asteris Iceland, but they're deserted. Kefalonia is located in the middle of an seismic area, and every year tens of small, non-recorded vibrations take place.
1953 a heavy quake devastated almost all villages on the archipelago and left only Fiskardo in the northern part unaffected. The Melissani Lake, the Drogarati caverns and the Koutavos lagoon in Argostoli are important treasures of nature. It has a wealth of biological diversity with a considerable number of indigenous and scarce types.
Ainos is the highest peak of the archipelago with a height of 1628 metres; to the east and northeast are the Paliki hills in which Lixouri lies, with other hills such as Geraneia and Agia Dynati. Forest management is scarce on the Peloponnese, but its wood production is one of the highest in the Ionic Isles, albeit lower than that of Elia in the Peloponnese.
The Cephalonia is known for its vulnerable tortoise populations, also known as the cariatta caratta, which nest on many of the islands southern shores along the southern shore. Kephalonia's most popular nesting site is a Foki beachside cavern on the northeast shore near Fiskardo.
There is also a resident stone bear on the area. Kefalonia has warm, bright summers and gentle, wet winters. Up to 156 mm of rain can drop in the wintry season, resulting in high air moisture on the isle. Kefalonia has an annual mean snowtime of 14-15 degrees Celsius and an annual mean nighttime of 8-9 degrees Celsius. During the spring and autumn there is little or no rain.
Limestone loading in the Argostoli harbour is a tourist destination in the north of the isle. Wines and currants are the oldest export goods that were important until the twentieth cenury. The majority of vegetables are produced on the lowlands that account for less than 15% of the total area of the islands, most of which are jagged and hilly and only suited for cattle.
Up until the eighteenth centuries, the amount of olives grown on the islands met only the needs of the inhabitants. Prior to the Ionic Seismic of 1953, 200 press units were in operation on the islands; today there are thirteen. Kefalonia has over a million olives, which cover almost 55% of the area.
"Koroneiki " and "theiako" are the two major cultivars grown on the islands, followed by a smaller number of "ntopia" and "matolia". Kefalonia virgin Olive oil has a verdant colour, a thick, fatty texture and low acids content. Kefalonia began to be visited at the beginning of the 19 th cent. The Greek royal family even sent their kids to Lixouri in the early 20 st centuries during the summers, but the islands were not explored by most visitors until the 80s.
Kefalonia is visited by visitors from all over Greece, Europe and the whole hemisphere. One of the biggest Greek isles, it is well prepared for the summer tourist flow and has something for everyone. Cefalonia has been made popular by two major tourist sites, the Fiscardo and Assos fisherman's towns and other nearby nature sites, such as the Melissani subterranean sea, the Drogarati grotto and the Myrtos beaches.
The movie, Captain Corelli's Mandoline (2001), filmed on the isle itself, made Kefalonia better known. The Cambana Square, Argostoli. On the other side of the archipelago there are two large monasteries: the first is the Haghia Panagia in Markopoulo in the south-east, the other is on the street between Argostoli and Michata, on a small plateau encircled by mountain.
The second one has an alley of about 200 woods oriented from northwest to southwest, with a circular center, and is the convent of St. Gerasimus of Kefalonia, protector of the isle, whose relicts can be seen and worshipped in the old convent temple. Sissia" convent was probably found by Francis of Assisi, it was demolished in 1953, but the remains remain.
Even though much of the peninsula has been devastated by the earthquake, many remarkable cathedrals have remained throughout the entire peninsula, some of which date back to the Middle Ages. Lixouri Philharmonic Orchestra at Easter. There is a long and rich history of music in the Ionian Islands known as the Ionian School. Since 1836 Lixouri has the Philharmonic Orchestra and Argostoli the Rokos Vergottis Conservatory.
Strauss went to Lixouri several of the time where he had an affair wih the piano player Dora Wihan (née Weiss). Writers Nikos Kavvadias (1910-1975) and the Swiss Georges Haldas (de) (1917-2010) lived part of their lives on the isle. Laskaratos was a satiric writer and author about the Lixouri population.
Probably the most famous Kefalonia apparition in pop music is the novel Captain Corelli's Mandolin by the British writer Louis de Bernières. It is thought that the story was taken from the town of Farsa, just outside Argostoli. The Anogi F.C. Argostoli A.U. Leivatho A. U. Lixouri A.U. Olympiakos Argostoli F.C. Pallixouriakos F.C. The boat between Lixouri and Argostoli.
Five seaports and seaports exist in the prefecture: four principal seaports on the islands, Same or Sami, and a large seaport with connections to Patras and Ithaca. Poros, in the southern part, has connections to Kyllini; Argostoli, in the western part, is the biggest harbour for small vessels and ships to Zante and Lixouri; Fiscardo, in the northern part, has connections to Lefkas and Ithaka.
Argostoli, where the harbour extends 1 km around the cove, can accommodate about 100 small vessels, while Lixouri is 4 km (2 miles) from Argostoli on the Lixouri Peninsula. From Lixouri there is a street link to the remainder of the archipelago, but the trip from Lixouri to Argostoli requires a 30 km long diversion.
British build the first major road in the nineteenth centuary. Paved road ways were made in the twentieth centuries, and since 1995 almost all road ways linking towns and beach have been paved. The Lixouri ring road was completed around 2000 and a four-lane road was added just outside Argostoli.
Argumentostoli-Fiskardo Road (with connection to Lixouri). Between Argostoli and Lixouri the boat runs every halfhour in season. A number of buses serve the more remote areas of Kefalonia, but often only twice a night. KTEL provides connections from Lixouri, Poros and Argostoli to the continent.
The Cephalonia has an international Kefalonia Island International Airfield, called Anna Pollatou (IATA: EFL, ICAO: LGKF), with a 2nd class take-off and landing area. Approximately 4 km (1.5 miles) in length, about 10 km (6 miles) south of Argostoli. Nearly every regular airline is an Olympic air lane that flies mainly to and from Athens, although there is an Ionian Island Hopper facility that flies three flights a week to Kephalonia, Zante and Lefkas.
23 ] The Kephalonia region also comprises a number of Echinades islets. At Kephalonia the Epiphany was borne in the latter part of the 1. or early 2. centuries by Carpocrates (his father) and Alexandria of Kephallenia. Antonius Gaius Hybrida, the grandson of the famous triumvirus Mark Antony and co-consul of Cicero, who was banished to Kephalonia in 59 BC.
Andrew Metaxas (Greek: ??????? ???????) (1786 - 19 September 1860), Chief Executive of Greece, native of the Kephalonia Isle. Panayi's Athanase Vagliano, Greek: Panaghis Athanassiou Vallianos, (1814-1902) was a businessman and ship owner known as the founder of contemporary Grecian navigation. Panas Photinos, (30 January 1832 - 1903) Eye specialist, native to the ancient Greeks of Kephalonia, Spartia.
General Ioannis Metaxas (12 April 1871 - 29 January 1941), Prime Minister of Greece between April and August 1936 and former Greek ruler during the August 4 regime, from 1936 until his demise in 1941. "Kefalonia." Population and dwelling count 2001 (incl. area and mean height)" (PDF) (in Greek).
Hellenic National Statistical Office. Kefaloniainfo.net. www.kefaloniainfo.net. Population and dwelling count 2001 (incl. area and mean height)" (PDF) (in Greek). Hellenic National Statistical Office. Born in Kefalonia, he was proud of his ancient Greece, which he remembered with pleasure. Commons Wikimedia has related Kefalonia related news items.