Kazan

Casanan

Kasan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. The Kazan (meaning "cooking pot" in Tatar) is the Istanbul of the Volga, a place where Europe and Asia curiously inspect each other from the tops of church towers and minarets. Kasan, capital, Tatar Republic, Western Russia. Situated north of the Samara reservoir on the Volga where it is connected by the Kazanka River.

class="mw-headline" id="Etymologie">Etymologie[edit]

Kasan (Russian: ???????, IPA: [k??zan?]; Tatar: ?????) is the capitol and biggest town of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. It is the 6th biggest Russian town with a total of 1,243,500 inhabitants[9]. Kasan is one of the biggest Russian centres of religion, economy, politics, science, education, culture and sport.

The Kazan is located at the junction of the Volga and Kazanka rivers in Europe's Russia, about 715 kilometers eastern of Moscow. Kazan Kremlin belongs to the world cultural heritage. Kazan's milennium was commemorated in 2005. April 2009 the Kazan Patent Office of Russia gave Kazan the right to distinguish itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.

Hosting the 2013 Summer Universiade, the 2014 World Fencing Championships, the 2015 World Watersports Championships, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and, for the first consecutive year, the Red Bull Air Race World Championship under the patronage of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), the Russian capital will be the home of the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup.

And Kazan also hosted the Wushu World Championships. Kazan became one of the 2018 FIFA World Cup host countries in 2018. Kazan's name is not known. The most common way is to use the kettle version: the wizard told the Bulgarians to construct a town in which they would dig without fire into the kettle and cook with it.

According to tradition, the town was called Kazanka after the Bulgarian governor's boy who threw a boiler of bronze into it. There are other locals, among them research by the Tatar scientist Shigabetdin Marjani, who say that the town was given its name after the similarity of the mound on which it stands, with a fallen boiler.

Probably the name of the town was given after a Mongolian-Turkish king when the town was established or shortly after. The Kazan was a frontier guard between the Bulgarian Volga and two Finish clans - the Marians and the Udmurts. Archeological research has provided proof of the existence of urban settlements in three parts of the contemporary city: in the Kremlin, at Bi?balta on the site of the contemporary Zilantaw Abbey, and near Qaban Sea.

Seems to be the oldest of them the Kremlin. When the Mongols devastated the areas of Bol?ar and Bilär in the thirteenth centuries, large numbers of Bulgarians who survived recuperated and a small number of kipchaks were assembled from which they adopted their languages (so-called Bulgarianism), or kipchaks and Bulgarians mingled to form a contemporary Kazan-Tatar people.

The Kazan became the centre of the Principality, which was dependant on the Golden Horde. During the XIII-XIV century Kazan grew and became an important trading and civic centre within the Golden Horde. Urban development has also been boosted by its geographically advantageous position at the crossroads of the main East-West trading lanes.

The Bulgarian Kazan stronghold (ISKE-Kazan) was conquered in 1438 by the displaced Golden Horde Khan Ulu-Muhamedd, who murdered the prince swan and relocated the stronghold to a new location (according to Roman chronicles). It became the capitol of the Kazan Khanat. Bazaar, Ta? Ayaq (stone foot) has become the most important mall in the area, especially for furnishings.

Craftsmanship also prospered, as the town acquired a fame for its leathers and golds and the richness of its mansions and museums. Kasan maintained trading links with Moscow, Crimea, Turkey and other areas. In 1552, following the siege of Kazan, Russia under Ivan the Terrible captured the town, massacring the people.

22 ] Also as a consequence of the siege of Kazan 8,000 slave were released. 22 ] The Tatar survivors were transferred to a place 50 kilometres from the town, and this place was violently populated by Russians peasants and troops. Tartars in Russia duty were established in the Tatar Bistäse estate near the town walls.

In this time Kazan was largely devastated by several large fire outbreaks. One of them, in 1579, found the iconic Our Lady of Kazan in the town. 1708 the tsarist empire of Kazan was eliminated, and Kazan became the domicile of the Kazan government. Following the arrival of Peter the Great, the town became a centre of ship building for the fleet.

Gavrila Derzhavin, the great poetess of Russia, was 1743 a native of Kazan, the offspring of a poverty-stricken miner of Tatar descent, although he himself had a thoroughly familiar name. In 1595, 1672, 1694, 1742, 1749, 1757, 1744, 1815 and 1842 Kazan sustained severe fire. In 1774 Kazan was largely devastated by the Pugachov Insurrection (1774-1776), an insurrection by frontier forces and farmers under the leadership of the Don Cossack Cataman (Captain) Yemeljan Pugachov, but the town, which was formerly predominantly built of wood, was soon reconstructed under Catherine the Great from rock and according to a raster map.

Katharina also ordered that in Kazan again the construction of monasteries was allowed, the first was the Marjani-Mosque. Kazan State University and the Alexander I Print Shop were established at the beginning of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and became an important centre for Middle Eastern Studies in Russia. Qur'an was first published in Kazan in 1801.

Kasan became an industry centre and the farmers moved there to join their industry team. Following the Russian revolution of 1905, the Tatars were able to revitalize Kazan as the Tatar culture-centre. 1917 Kazan became one of the centres of revolutionary development. Kazan was the 1918 capitol of the Idel-Ural state, which was oppressed by the Bolshevik state.

During the Kazan operation of August 1918 it was briefly invaded by Czechoslovak legions. Kazan became the centre of the autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Tatar in 1920. According to the Treaty of Rapallo (1922) until 1933, the Kama armoured academy in Kazan was run jointly by the Germans and the Russians.

The Second World war saw many industries and factory sites in the western part of the country moved to Kazan, making the town a centre of defence industries manufacturing armour and aircraft. Kazan became an important centre of science and technology after the end of the Great Patriotic War. Here, the Kazan people were able to Kazan became the centre of Tatar cultural and cultural identities again in the latter part of the 80s and 90s, after the break-up of the Soviet Union, and separationist trends were intensifying.

Kazan became one of the most important centres of the Russia with the coming back of capitolism. It ranked number 10 to 8 in the rankings of the populations of Russia's towns and villages. At the beginning of the 2000s, the town was given the right to stage both the 2013 Summer Universiade and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

The town has been completely renovated since 2000. The year 2005 marked Kazan's celebration of the century, after a historic committee organised by the municipality had designated 1005 as the town' s formal year of foundation. One of the biggest mosques in Russia, Qolsharif, was consecrated in the Kazan Kremlin during the milestone festivities, the most sacred copy of Our Lady of Kazan was given back to the town, the milestone bridge was consecrated this year[24], and the Kazan metro began work.

Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation has published the coin "Commemorating the thousandth jubilee of Kazan". Kazan began an even greater refurbishment in 2010, in preparation for the 2013 Universiade, by modernising its airports, repairing roads, improving local traffic and introducing the use of English, Tatar and Romansh in all means of travel, large shops and malls.

The Kazan is subdivided into seven districts: Municipal organizations and enterprises in 2011 raised more than 87 billion roubles for economic and societal growth. In Russia there are headquarters of six enterprises, which belong to the 500 strongest turnover enterprises. Overall area of the urban shopping centers is 330,000 sqm.

Kazan's groundbreaking business is reflected in Russia's largest IT parks and Europe's largest technological one. With the exception of the Moscow trading system, the only on-line trading system is in Kazan. Kazan was a leading residential builder in the Volga area during the post-Soviet era, and today he occupies the location and is implementing Russia's uniquely unique Republic programme for the disposal of derelict dwellings.

The Veli'k bike-share system was introduced in Kazan on 1 July 2013. There are seven self-service bike storage bays and a combined 100 bicycles spread throughout the center of Kazan near the most famous cities. Kazan bus system (Wikidata) was completely refurbished in 2007. Others are mostly NefAZ coaches.

Kazan Tram (Wikidata) system was established in 1899. Kazan electrical Trolleybus system (Wikidata) was established in 1948. Kazan, a one-line metropolis (from north to south-east ), opened on 27 August 2005, the first and only underground system ever to have been constructed in a post-Soviet state following the USSR breakdown.

Since 2018, the Kazan Metro has had ten stops and traverses the Kazanka River. The Kazan is linked to Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Yoshkar-Ola and Ekaterinburg by rail. Situated in the center of the town, Kasan-Passazhirskaya Central Stadium comprises a central block (built in 1896), an S-Bahn depot, a cash desk and several other technological facilities.

36 ] The second terminal "Kazan-2" is located in the north part of the town. There are also 19 Kazan local train stations. National roads connect Moscow and Ufa (E-22), Orenburg (R-239), Ul'yanovsk (R-241) and Igra (R-242). The R-175 trunk road and the "Northern Europe - Western China" line (under construction) are also close to the town.

The town has five viaducts across the Kazanka River (Qazansu) and a viaduct that connects Kazan to the opposite Volga Avenue. We have two buses stops in Kazan-Central and Southern. Kazan is connected with all Tatarstan counties, Samara, Ufa, Tolyatti, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Cheboksary, Sterlitamak, Buzuluk, Baki and Aktobe.

There are plans to construct new railway stops in the East, West and Nord areas instead of Central in order to relieve the load on the inner town. The Kazan International Airport is 26 kilometres (16 miles) from the downtown area. This is a hubs for Tatarstan Airlines and Kazan Airlines Enterprise and accommodates eleven airlines.

There is a 97 line of buses and a rapid -transit railway from the main station to the town. Kazan Borisoglebskoye Aerodrome also exists, where the Kazan Production Association is located, a large aeroplane manufacturing plant known in the past as "Aircraft Plant 22" ("22nd Zavod"). Historically, it has also manufactured an Ilyushin-62, a four-engined Soviet liner, a Tupolev-160 "Black Jack" ultrasonic supercharger, and a Tu-22M tactical supercharger.

These works as well as the adjoining workers' houses make an entire part of the town known as "Aviastroitelny" ("aircraft manufacturer"). The main beliefs of Kazan are Muslim Sunnis and Orthodox Christianity, with Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and the Bahá'í faith also present. Russians are widely used in the town. Kasan has a wet continent climatic (Köppen climatic class Dfb) with long, cool winters (colder than Moscow) and hot, often arid summers. As a result, Kazan has a good temperate environment.

In the northern hemisphere, the town has recorded its two most hot trading day during the 2010 hot summers. It has a fortress ( Russian: ??????, tr. Kremlin, or sometimes Tatar: Kirman), which was in the year 2000 proclaimed a World Heritage Site. Among the most important Kremlin landmarks are the five-domed, six-columned Annunciation Cathedral (1561-62) and the secret, formerly crooked Söyembikä Tower, called after the last Kazan princess and considered the city's most striking symbol.

Characteristic Pskov architecture of the façade is facing the Kremlin square. Up to 1917 the lighthouse was decorated with the double-headed emblem of the state. There is a "knee" at the entry to the turret, which reinforced the Kremlin's defence.

His replacement was a Khanat turret, Nur Ali (in Muraleeva transliteration). Tsar Ivan the Terrible, 22, walked into the captured town through the Nur Ali Towers. Konsistor Towers were constructed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by Moscow tile builders, and their names were given in the eighteenth and eighteenth centuries, after the Spiritual Consistory near the Kremlin towers.

The central Kazan is subdivided into two boroughs by the Bolaq Channel and Lake Qaban. From a historical point of view, the first region (Qazan Bistäse or Kazanskiy Posad), originally from Russia, lies on the top of the hills, while the second (?ske Tatar Bistäse or Staro-Tatarskaya Sloboda), originally from Tatar, lies between Bolaq and Volga. Blagoveschenskaya, Varvarinskaya, Nikol'skaya, Tikhvinskaya are mostly located in the eastern part of the town.

According to an ancient tradition, in 1552, before the Russians invaded, rich Tartars (Baylar) hid rich bullion and sterling silver in Lake Qaban. At the beginning of the 1900s, most of central Kazan was roofed with timber constructions, which usually consisted of two storeys. It was a historic setting of Casanian people, but not the best place to be.

In the course of the Republika programme "The dissolution of dilapidated apartments" most of them (unlike other Russia's cities) were demolished, especially in Kazan middle, where the country is not inexpensive, and their populations relocated to new suburban areas (Azino, Azino-2, quarter 39). A further important landmark in the centre of Kazan is the former teahouse and the " Smolentzev and Shmelev " Hôtel, now the Shalyapin Palace-Hôtel.

In 1899 the initial part, which was constructed in the 1860' for a businessman called Usmanov, was purchased by the Efim Smolentzev and Pavel and Nikolai Shmelev family, who were related to each other. After the Russian Revolution the hotel finally became the Hotel Soviet and after 2000 it was severely refurbished and reopened as the Shalyapin Palace Hotel.

Kazan's elementary and tertiary system includes: It also has 49 conservatories, 43 sport colleges and 10 art colleges, among them the Kazan Art school, established in 1895. Kazan has 44 higher educational institutions, 19 of which are run by university departments from other towns. Over 140,000 pupils are trained in the town.

The Kazan Federal Unversity (founded in 1804) is the third oldest Unversity in Russia after Saint Petersburg State Unversity (1724) and Moscow State Unversity (1755). The KFU was awarded federal recognition as the principal institution of higher education in the Volga region in 2009. Kasan is an important science center in Russia. The Kazan region encompassed a large number of science fields and educational institutions (mathematical, chemistry, medicine, linguistics, geology, geobotany, etc.).

It'?s a town host: The Kazan Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, since 1945. The year 1814 is regarded as the year of the beginning of Kazan science medecine. The Faculty of Medical Sciences was divided from the Kazan Federal University in 1930 and many specialist clinics were established under its auspices.

Today Kazan is the biggest Russian healthcare centre. There are 120 medicinal organizations active in the town. Interregional Kazan Centre for Cardiac and Neurodiagnostic Clinic is the biggest in the Volga area. Kazan's biggest clinic is the Republican clinical clinic. Met?in was appointed Kazan Lord Mayor on 17 November 2005.

The Kazan Town Duma is a representation organ of the town chosen every four years and conducts its meetings in the Kazan Town Hall. Kasan houses the residency and administrative office of the President of Tatarstan (in the Kremlin), the Cabinet of Ministers of Tatarstan and the State Council (in the Freedom Square). An introductory ceremony for the 4th Gen (4G, LTE) Ethernet took place at the IT Park in Kazan on 30 August 2012.

The Kazan based traffic management system (LTE) was established by three companies - Scartel LLC (Yota brand), MegaFon OJSC and MTS OJSC. Today Kazan is one of the most advanced Russian towns in the field of sports. Bandy has organised two World Bandy Championships in 2005 and 2011, the 2013 Summer Universiade, the 2014 World Championship of Swordsmanship, the FINA 2015 Water Sports Championship, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and other multi-category events.

From now on, the FIFA World Cup 2018 will be hosted by the town. Kazan is a leading player in winning various kinds of sport, among them the most favourite team. Zentralstadion - Olympiastadion, 30,133 sqm maximum capacity. It is the venue for the 2013 Summer Universiade, the 2015 World Watersports Championship, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

The Kazan is an active participant in various global projects. Kazakhstan has overseas embassies for diplomacy, commerce and civilization, the Kazakh Kremlin and the Institute for Peacemaking are under the patronage of UNESCO, the country takes part in partnership initiatives and is a member of the global organisations of the towns. Kazan hosted the GUS Chief Leaders Meeting, the GUS Global Forum and other important fora, meetings and meetings at global fora.

Reconstructed in 2005, the Dubai-based international aerodrome offers services to tens of major destinations in various nations, among them the world' biggest airliners (Boeing 747 class), and is progressively being transformed into a prospective hubs for the 2013 Universiade and 2018 World Cup; providing access to train services from the capital. The Kazan Group also maintains partnership relationships with the following towns and regions:

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