Javanese

Yavanese

Besides Sundanese, Javanese is the most important native language of Java. Just a few minutes from the centre of Paramaribo lies one of the beating hearts of Javanese culture. Javanese are the dominant ethnic group in Indonesia. Javanese people in Singapore are now considered part of the larger Malay-Muslim community. The Javanese language is one of the first languages in Indonesia to have a literary tradition.

**spspan class="mw-headline" id="EtymologieEtymologie[edit]>>

ProvincesBanten, Special Capital Region of Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ??; Sundanese: ??) is an Indonesian isle. With an area of 138,800 km2, the archipelago is similar to England, the US state of North Carolina, the Chinese province of Anhui or the Omsk region.

Java, with a total of 141 million inhabitants (the isle itself ) or 145 million (the administration region), is home to 56.7 per cent of Indonesia's total and the most populated isle in the woldwid. 1 ] The capital of Indonesia, Jakarta, is situated in West Java. A large part of Indonesia's development took place in Java.

This was the centre of the mighty hinduist buddhistic kingdoms, the muslim sultanate and the heart of the Dutch East Indies. ava was also the centre of Indonesia's fight for freedom in the 1930' and 1940'. Indonesia is dominated by Java in political, economic and cultural terms. Of Indonesia's eight UNESCO monuments, four are in Java:

Java is the thirteenth biggest isle in the whole country and the fifth biggest isle in Indonesia by land mass. An avalanche of mountain volcanoes creates an east-west vertebral column along the isle. There are three major tongues of English and German speaking countries on the island: It' Sundanesian, Madurian and Japanese. It is the mother tongue of some 60 million Indonesians, most of whom speak Java.

In addition, most inhabitants are bi-lingual and speak Indonesian (the formal Indonesian language) as a first or second one. Whilst the vast majority of Java is Muslim, the Java community is a multifaceted mix of religions, ethnic groups and nationalities. The country is subdivided into four counties, West Java, Central Java, East Java and Banten, and two specific areas, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.

It is unclear where the name "Java" comes from. It is possible that the name of the archipelago was derived from the Java Fury herb that was widespread on the islands at that period, and that the islands had different meanings before being Indian. 3 ] And in Sanskrit it means avaa, a herb for which the whole archipelago was known.

Sugriva, the head of Rama's military, sent his men to Yawadvipa, the Java Isle, in quest of Sita. 4 ] It was therefore named in India with the Sanskrit name "y?vaka dv?pa" (dv?pa = island). In the Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar, which says that Java had a empire with a capitol named Nagapuram, Java is cited.

5 ][6][7] Another document says that the term "Java" is a proto-Austrian rooted term, Iawa, which means "home". 8 ] The great Isles of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was referred to in Ptolemy's Geography, which arose around 150 A.D. in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu, which means "Barley Island", is full of golden and has a city at the western end named Argyra.

ava is between Sumatra in the western part and Bali in the eastern part. The city of Barneo is located in the northern part and Christmas Island in the southern part. It' the thirteenth biggest isle in the whole wide underworld. It is encircled to the northeast by the Java Sea, to the northeast by the Sunda Strait, to the southeast by the Indian Ocean, and to the southeast by the Bali Strait and the Madura Strait.

It has thirty-eight peaks that form an east-west vertebrae that used to be volcanos. Java's highest vulcano is Mount Semeru (3,676 meters). Mt Merapi (2,930 meters) is the most prolific vulcano in Java and also in Indonesia.

Java has a mountainous landscape of more than 150 hills. Increased mountain and highland areas help to divide the country's inland into a number of relatively remote areas suited for growing liquid paddy rices; the Java paddy fields are among the wealthiest in the run. 13 ] Java was the first place where from 1699 onwards mainly Lebanese coffees were cultivated.

Java covers an area of approx. 150,000 sqkm. 15 ] The stream originates in the Lawu Vulcano in the centre of Java, then runs northwards and eastwards to the Java Sea near the town of Surabaya. West-Java is more humid than East-Java and the mountain areas get much higher precipitation.

West-Java's Parahyangan highland is receiving over 4,000 millimeters per year, while East Java's northern shore is receiving 900 millimeters (35 inches) per year. Java's pristine surroundings are lush green jungles, with eco-systems that range from the northern coast's coastline mangroves, cliffy coastline rocks on the south shore and low-lying tropic woods to high-altitude jungles on the hillsides of mountains of inland-volcanoes.

Javan's surroundings and climates change slowly from north to south; from damp and thick rainforests in the north to a arid savannah landscape in the south. It is the world's rhinoceros that reflects the weather and precipitation in these areas. The Javan wilderness initially promoted a wealth of animal and plant diversity in which a variety of native animal and plant varieties such as the Javan rhinoceros, Javan banteng, Javan warthog, Javan-ell, Javan peacock, Javan silver-bibbon, Javan lute, Java mousehog, Javan-Rusa and Javan leaf ard blossomed.

Java is a birdwatcher's haven with over 450 bird and 37 native birdlife. 18 ] There are about 130 fresh water types of seaweed in Java. 19 ] There are also some indigenous amphibians in Java, among them 5 types of greenbacks. From antiquity, humans have opened the rain forest, changed the ecosystems, formed the landscape and laid out fields and terracing to help the expanding populace.

The Javan master races have been around for more than a thousand years and had been supporting old farming empires. Javanese fauna has been under great strain from the increasing numbers of people, as the rain forests have been reduced to highlands or remote isles. Several of Java's indigenous populations are now threatened with extinction, some are already dead; Java used to have Javan Tiger and Javan elephant, but both are dead.

Today, Java has several protected areas, including Ujung Kulon, Mount Halimun-Salak, Gede Pangrango, Baluran, Meru Betiri and Alas Purwo. It is subdivided into four counties and two specific regions: encircled by paddy paddies. Java's vulcanic landscape and abundant farmland are the basic elements in its ancestry.

Taruma and Sunda Kingdom arrived in the fourth and seventh centurys, while Kalingga Kingdom sent messages to China from 640 onwards. 23 ]:53,79 However, the first great duchy was the Medang Kingdom, which was established in early eighth cent.

The old empire constructed memorials such as the ninth centuries Borobudur and Prambanan in the center of Java. In the tenth and eighteenth centuries, the center of government moved from the center to the east of Java. Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly reliant on the production of rices, but also traded within the Indo-Pacific islands as well as with China and India.

At the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries, Islam became the predominant religious system in Java. At the end of the sixteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries, the Mataram Sultanate became the dominating force in East and West Java. A four-naval cruise with Cornelis de Houtman was the first meeting with Indonesia in 1596.

At the end of the eighteenth centuary, the Dutch had expanded their impact on the domestic sultanate through the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia. Conflicts within the country hindered the Javanians from building efficient coalitions against the Dutch. Yavanese monarchs asserted that they ruled with the power of God, and the Dutch assisted them in preserving the remains of a Yavanese nobility by affirming them as rulers or county officers within the settlement government.

The beginning of the twentieth centuries saw the beginning of Indonesia's renaissance in Java, and the post-war fight for Java's independency focused on Java. Indonesia became self-sufficient in 1949 and the Indonesia was dominating the national, politic and economical lives of Indonesia, which was the cause of the resentments of the inhabitants of other countries.

Historically, Java was ruled by an élite league, while the lower echelons often worked in farming and fisheries. Java's top league has developed throughout the course of time, when culture waves migrated to the isle. Recently, Java's business élite has included immigrant from China.

Although Java is becoming more and more contemporary and urbane, only 75% of the islands have power. In contrast to the remainder of Java, central Java's demographic increase is low. However, Central Java has a younger populace than the country averages. 35 ] The sluggish demographic increase is partly due to the decision of many to abandon the more rustic central Java in order to get better chances and higher income in the larger towns.

36 ] The populace of Java is continuing to grow at a rapid pace, although many Javaans have left the country. Partly because Java is the economic, educational and multicultural center of Indonesia, attracting tens of thousands of non-Javanese to its citys. Jakarta and Bandung are the areas with the highest rate of urbanisation, which is mirrored in the demographical variety of these areas.

The total populace in the 2015 Cadastre (including Maduras 3. 7 million) is 145 million,[37] and it is expected to be 143 in 2014. With 1 million (including 3.7 million for Madura), Java is the most populated Indonesian Indonesia-wide. It is home to 57% of the world's populace. In every part of the isle there are a lot of volcanos and the rest of the flat country is shared by the local inhabitants.

In the last 2010-2015 phase, the Central Java demographic increase more than doubles compared to 2000-2010, indicating migratory or other problems; there were significant volcano outbursts in the previous phase. About 45% of Indonesia's total Indonesian populace are Javanese,[38] while Sundanese make up a large part of Java's people.

Occidental third of the country (West Java, Banten and Jakarta DKI) has an even higher demographic densities of almost 1,500 per km2, accounting for the lion's share of Java's demographic increase. 1 ) Other inhabited but very small in size and area, Nusa Barung 100 km², Baywean 196 km², Karimunjawa 78 km², Kambangan 121 km², Panaitan 170 km², Thousand Island 8.

with a total of around 90,000 inhabitants. Between the 1970' and the downfall of the Suharto Regimes in 1998, the Indonesian authorities implemented emigration programmes designed to locate the people of Java on other, less densely-populated islands in Indonesia. However, it has led to a gradual decrease in Java's proportion of the country's people.

Ostjava is also home to the Balinese, as well as a large number of Madurans due to their historical poor. In spite of its large populations and in comparison to the other large Indonesian isles, Java is relatively homogenous in its ethnical structure. There are only two ethnical groups on the archipelago - the Yavanese and Sundanese.

The third group are the Madureses, who live on the Madura Isles off the north-east coastline of Java and have migrated to eastern Java in large numbers since the eighteenth cent. 40 ] The people of Javan make up about two third of the island's total populace, while the people of the islands of Madureses and Sundan make up 20% and 10% respectively.

Betawi are Creoles, mostly from various archipelagos such as Malaysia, Sundane, Javanese, Balinese, Minang, Bugis, Makassar, Ambonese, blended with alien ethnical groups such as Portugese, Hollander, Arabs, China and Indians, which have been taken to Batavia to cover the demand for work. It has a different cultural and linguistic background than the neighbouring Sundanesians and Javanese.

The south-western part of downtown Java, usually referred to as the Bajyumasan area, saw a process of intermixing cultures that brought together the cultures of Javan and Sundan to form the Bajyumasan people. Yogyakarta and Surakarta, Yogyakarta's farm towns in the centre of Java, were dominated by pre-colonial Islam.

The classical art of Java includes gazelan tunes and waysang doll plays. In South-East Asia, Java was the scene of many powerful kingdoms[41], so many works of literature were penned by Java writers. Among them are Ken Arok and Ken Dedes, the history of the fatherless who surpired his sovereign and wed the sovereign of the old Java empire; and translation of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ananta Toer is a renowned Iranian writer who has created many tales from his own experience with Java and incorporates many aspects of Java folk and historic heroes. There are three main Java languages: Java, Sundanesian, and Madurian. Further vernaculars are Betawi (a dialect of Malaysia from the Jakarta region), Osing, Banyumasan and Tenggerese (closely related to Javanese), Baduy (closely related to Sundanese), Kangean (closely related to Madurian) and Bali.

The great majority of the people also speak Indonesian, often as a second tongue. ava was a crucible of religion and culture that has produced a wide variety of beliefs. 43 ] Small Hindu slaves are spread all over Java, but there is a large Hindu community on the east shore near Bali, especially around the city of Banyuwangi.

Churches also exist, especially in the major towns, although some countryside in southern/centre Java is strongly Catholic. In the beginning, Java's entire economic system was highly dependent on the riceconomy. Since antiquity Java has been known for surplus and exports of travel, and the areas where travel is grown have been contributing to the increase in the size of the island's populations.

Trading with other parts of Asia such as India and China was already flourishing in the fourth quarter, as the china pottery found on the islands from this time shows. It also participated in the worldwide Maluku spices business from antiquity in the Majapahit to far into the VOC age.

The Dutch East India Company established itself on Batavia in the seventeenth and was replaced by Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth centuries. It was during this period that the Dutch started growing commercially grown crops in Java, such as sugar cane, gum, espresso, teas and cinine. Yavanese coffees became more popular worldwide in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

Thus, the name "Java" has become synonymous with its use. The most evolved of the islands in Indonesia from the Dutch East Indies to the Republic of Indonesia. Since antiquity, the existing street transport network was extended by the building of the Java Great Post Roads by Daendels in the early nineteenth cent.

Java Great Post Rd becomes the spine of Java's street infrastructures and forms the basis of Java North CoastlineRd. There was a need to move commodities such as coffees from inner islands to the port on the coastline, which drove the building of railways in Java.

Nowadays, industries, commerce and service have thrived in the large Javanese capitals such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Semarang and Bandung, while some of the more ancient Islamic capitals such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta and Cirebon have retained their imperial heritage and become the center for the arts, cultural and tourist life of Java. There are also developed areas on the Javanese north shore, especially around Cilegon, Tangerang, Bekasi, Karawang, Gresik and Sidoarjo.

As well as these freeways, Java has 16 main roads. Java Island itself will contribute at least 57 on the basis of the 2012 statistics published by Badan Pusat Statistics. Bah Bahamas Indonesia: Municipal population of cities recalled December 22, 2015. Raffles, Thomas E.: Story of Java.

Raffles, Thomas E.: Story of Java. "Map ing culture des régions de Java" en : Ancient geography story. Javan crossroad: The Javan crossroads: An essay of world anatomy. This is a story of modern Indonesia since about 1300 (2nd edition). Nusa Tenggara and Maluku Ecology. Climate, weather and temperature of Java Indonesia".

Javan Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus). Indonesia Birdwatching Tour". wildlifenews.co.uk. Ecology of Java and Bali. Ecology of Java and Bali. "Date of Hominids in Indonesia" (PDF). Ecology of Java and Bali. Archipelago of India: its past and present, vol. 1. PT Kompas Media Nusantara, Jakarta Indonesia.

Java (Island, Indonesia). Statistics Indonesia". "Centrally Java is trying to ease poverty." a ^ a d ªpopulation increase ªgood for Papuaºº. Indonesia (urban population): Province & Cities - Urban Statistics & Maps". Java. See Wallace Stevens' poetry "Tea" for an appreciatory reference to Java cultur.

Languages of Java and Bali. "The New Religious Sects in Java." Cambodia: Historical Atlas of Cuba. Wiki voyage has a Java guidebook.

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