Issyk Kul LakeLake Issyk Kul
?? ??? ??? Ysyk Köl, Russian: ?????-????) is a lake in Kyrgyzstan. This name refers both to the lake and to the area (region) that contains the lake.
sspan class="mw-headline" id="Géographie">Géographie
Lake Issyk-Kul is a Ramsar area with significant global biodiversity and is part of the Issyk-Kul biosphere reserve. The lake and the bordering country are located in the Issyk-Kul region of Kyrgyzstan. The lake became a favourite holiday destination during the USSR, with many sanatoriums, guesthouses and holiday cottages along the north bank, many of which were located in and around the Cholpon-Ata city.
Karakol (formerly Przhevalsk, after the late discoverer Przhevalsky who passed away there) is the capital of the Issyk-Kul region in Kyrgyzstan. Located near the eastern tip of the lake, it is a good starting point for trips to the area. In its small old nucleus there is an impressing wood covered mountain ashes, constructed by the Dungans without using metallic pins, and an orthodox wood covered chapel, which was used as a barn during the Soviets (see state atheism).
Lake Issyk Kul was a stop on the Silk Road, a country road for travellers from the Far East to Europe. Xuanzang, the great Buddhist religious leader from China, came past this lake and wrote down the detail in the classical Great Tang Records account of the western regions in the seventh centuary. This lake once belonged to the Qing Dynasty of China and was transferred to Russia - together with the neighbouring region - after the Treaty of Tarbagatai.
Lots of historical scholars believe that the lake was the starting point for the Black Death that struck Europe and Asia at the beginning and middle of the 14th centuries. Lake levels are about 8 meters higher than in the Middle Ages. Scuba diving has found the remnants of sunken villages in flat areas around the lake.
According to a December 2007 publication by a Kyrgyz historian under the leadership of Vladimir Ploskikh, vice-president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, a survey was carried out by a Kyrgyz historian and revealed that archeologists had found the ruins of a 2500-year-old high culture at the foot of the lake. There is a high level of end-emic marine diversity in the lake and some of the marine life, four of which are end-emic, is severely threatened.
Over the last few years, catch levels of all types of fisheries have decreased significantly, due to a combined effect of overfishing, severe overexploitation by two of the imported stocks and the discontinuation of lake replenishment with juveniles from breeding farms. A minimum of four commercial end-emic fisheries are sufficiently endangered to be listed in the Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic:
Schmidts white (Leuciscus schmidti), Issyk-Kul white (Leuciscus bergi), Marcinka (Schizothorax issyk-kuli), and plain or bare oak (Diptychus dybovskii). There are seven other indigenous breeds that are almost certainly endangered as by-catches or are affected directly by fisheries activities and changes in the lake's structural and balanced state. The Sevan rainbow trout, which is a native to Lake Sevan in Armenia, was imported to Issyk-Kul in the seventies.
Whereas this is a threatened specie in its "home lake", it has a much better survival chances in Lake Issyk Kul, where it has devastated the native specie. Cities and some small settlements around the lake, enumerated by the west end of the lake clockwise: Koshkol' ^ "The Issyk-kul State Nature Reserve with the Issyk-kul Lake".
The Ramsar Sites Information Service. 2005-09-06 an der Wayback Machine. "at the bottom of Lake Issyk Kul." "Archeologists uncover remnants of a 2500-year-old high culture in Russia." Finding Intermediate Russia Civilisation. Old civilisation discovers at the foot of Lake Issyk Kul in the Kyrgyz mountains.