Irrawaddy Myanmar

Myanmar Irrawaddy

The Irrawaddy River Irrawaddy is the biggest and most important stream in Burma (Myanmar). Flowing from west to west through the Irrawaddy Delta, it meets the Andaman Sea. In 1890 Rudolf Kipling came to the area and was bewitched; he composed a poetry named "Mandalay" in which he described the Irrawaddy as "the way to Mandalay".

Irrawaddy is a Sanskrit term referring to the Ravi in northwest India and east Pakistan, and to Airavati, the mountain of the Hindu gods elephanta known as the indirect-electant. In Hindu legend, it often symbolizes sea. Burma's present Burmese administration has translated the name as Ayeyarwady, so the name is sometimes written as such.

The Irrawaddy, with its origin in the Himalayas, became an important trade channel as early as the sixth AD and is still of great importance today with its vast net of watering channels. The Irrawaddy riverbanks will be used by visitors to the Irrawaddy to grow paddy, fisherman will lay their fishing gear, and gold stupa (towers) will dot the area.

It gave its name to a type of the Irrawaddy Delphin, a beaked whale found in both the stream and the depth. The delta has paddy and mangrove, many coastal bird such as seagulls and squirrels, alligators and five different kinds of seagull. The Irrawaddy, like many of the world's major watercourses, is exposed to erratic waters, not least because the land enters the monthly season and is exposed to seasonal wind.

Burma's authorities have a blueprint to construct a number of seven hydroelectric power plants to control the flow, and the study is underway to identify possible environmental and social impacts.

The Irrawaddy Flow | Flow, Myanmar

The Irrawaddy Riviera, Ayeyarwady of Burma, the main tributary of Myanmar (formerly Burma), which runs through the city. Myanmar's main trade channel is about 2,170 km long. His name probably derives from the Sanskrit word www.sanskrit, which means "elephant river". "of Myanmar. The water is flowing completely within the Myanmar area.

It has a catchment area of approximately 158,700 sq. km (411,000 sq. km). It is the historic, culturally and economically important core country of Myanmar. Irrawaddy and Mekong Catchment Areas and their Drainages. Irrawaddy is made up of the Nmai and Mali Creeks. The two twigs arise in the high, isolated mountain peaks of the north of Myanmar near 28 N. The east twig, the Nmai, is located in the Languela Creek on the edge of Tibet (China) and has the larger amount of waters, but is practically non-navigable due to its force.

The Irrawaddy steamships' most northerly border of the Irrawaddy cruise is Myitkyin?, about 50 km southwards of the junction. Bhamo, about 150 nautical leagues (240 km) southward of the junction, is the northerly boundary for year-round navvion. During the low tide period, the width of the stream between the point of junction and Bhamo ranges from a quarter nautical aile ('400 metres) to half a nautical aile ('800 metres).

On average, the deepness of the sewer is 9 meters. The Irrawaddy runs between Myitkyin? and Mandalay through three well-marked ravines (narrow sections or gorges). The first ravine is about 40 mi (65 km) from Myitkyin?. Under Bhamo, the stream swings sharply west and leaves the Bhamo floodplain pool to cross the second canyon.

It is about 90 meters broad at its smallest point and is surrounded by steep, 60 to 90 meter high canyons. Approximately 60 mi (100 km) from Mandalay, near Mogok, the stream flows into the third gorge. The course of the Katha-Mandalay rivers is remarkable flat and flows almost southwards, except in the vicinity of Kabwet, where a leaf of whitewater has bent the stream strongly to the west.

At Kyaukmyaung the stream leaves the third gorge and follows a wide, open course through the middle arid area - the old culture centre - where large areas are made up of alluvium. Coming from Mandalay (the former capitol of the Myanmar Kingdom), the stream makes an sudden turn west before winding southwestward to merge with the Chindwin stream, after which it flows southwestward.

The Irrawaddy River probably originated in the southern part of Mandalay and drained through today's Sittang River into the Gulf of Martaban, and its current western course is geological new. The Irrawaddy meanders further below its junction with the Chindwin through the dense arid zones into the proximity of Yenangyaung, under which it generally runs to the north.

Irrawaddy River begins about 93 km above Hinthada (Henzada) and about 290 km from its curving basis facing the Andaman Sea. Sides of the deltas are made up of the south ends of the Pegu Mountains to the south and the Arakan Mountains to the south.

To the west of the deltas is the Bassein (Pathein) River, while the most eastern river is the Yangon River, on the eastern shore of which lies Myanmar's biggest town, Yangon (Rangoon). Since the Yangon River is only a small canal, the river is not sufficient to avoid siltation of the Yangon Harbour.

Soil consists of thin mud that is continually filled up by rich alluvial land supported upstream by the flood. Due to the strong rainfalls and the movement and sedimentation loads of the stream, the area of the deltas stretches into the Andaman Sea at a speed of about 50m a year.

While the lower Irrawaddy area has a wet tropic weather, the higher Irrawaddy area has a hot, wet subtropic one. The two climates are characterised by the South Asian summers monsoons, which bring the strongest rainfall between May and October. In Yangon, in the lower pool, the temperature ranges from a January mean of 77 F (25 C) to an April mean of 86 F (30 C); the temperature decreases easily during the wet seasons in this area.

For Myitkyin?, in the top reservoir, January temperature averages 64°F (18°C) and June 82°F (28°C). The temperature decreases with the height of the pool to the glacier areas, where the mean yearly temperature is below 20 °C. Rainfall in the entire pool ranges from 60 to 100 inch (1,500 to 2,500 mm) per year and mainly occurs from May to October.

Irrawaddy and its affluents vary widely throughout the year, mainly because of the nature of the monsoons, which appear between May and October, but also because of the fast thawing of snows and ice in summers, which increases the area. Mean runoff from the flow near the deltas ranges between 82,000 and 1,152,000 m3 ft (2,300 and 32,600 m3) per second; mean runoff per year is 460,000 m3 ft (13,000 m3) per second.

Yearly fluctuations between low and high tide levels of 9.66 m and 37 m. Three ft (11. 37 meters) were taken at Mandalay and Prome respectively. Generally, from December to March the flow fluctuates between the bottom and 5 ft (1.5 metres) above it, while from mid-June to mid-October it is 20 to 30 ft (6 to 9 metres) above the bottom.

Inland harbours therefore require separated flood and low-water docks. The Burmese are the dominating group in the mid and lower basin, growing grain, wool and oilseed in the main arid zones and paddy and jute in the southern and deltas areas, where there is more rain.

There is also a significant group of Karen and some Indians among the Myanmar population in the southern hemisphere, and especially in the actual deltas. Furthermore, a small number of Chinese, both in the countryside and in the city, are dispersed in the catchment area of the city. Irrawaddy's most important riverside harbours from Northeast to Sort are Myitkyin?, Bhamo, Katha, Mandalay, Myingyan, Chauk, Yenangyaung, Minbu, Magwe, Thayetmyo, Prome, Hinthada and Yandoon.

Mandalay, Chauk, Prome and Hinthada have good opportunities for landings. Other harbours have berths for only one or two lighter or barge, with ships docking at most points along the water. Notwithstanding Mandalay's location as the main railway and motorway hub in the north of Myanmar, a significant proportion of people and freight transport flows across the city.

Chindwin Valley has no railway and is very dependent on the water. It is connected to Yangon by highway and railway like Mandalay in the farth and Prome, about 140 mile (...) in the southeas. Hinthada, near the peak of the deltas, is the railway hub for routes to Kyangin and Bassein (Pathein).

The Irrawaddy will maintain business transport for about 800 mile (.300 km): from Hinthada to Bhamo (670 miles[1.080 km]) all year round, but from Bhamo to Myitkyin? (125 miles[200 km]) for only seven month. The Irrawaddy River has more than 3,200 km of waterway.

The Chindwin River is used for year-round transport by steamship or steamboat to Homalin - about 640 km from the Irrawaddy meet. Sailing continues to Tamanthi, 57 km (92 km) above Homalin. The Irrawaddy Valley is one of the largest areas of ricegrowing in the word, making it an important commodity along the riverbank.

Myanmar, the world's largest exporting country, is a large raft that swims down the rivers. Locally in the Danube area, small vessels transport traveling to Yangon for exports. Irrawaddy's headquarters is the Ava Bridge, which crosses the Mandalay Canal.

A further important viaduct traverses the Hinthada riverbank and links the west deltas with Yangon. The Irrawaddy is little used for watering in the main arid area, but its affluent, the Mu Riviera, has been used for watering since the ninth World War. Approximately one-sixth of all Myanmar ricegrowing comes from the watered areas of Mandalay, Sagaing and Magwe.

It is also used to water the deltas during the drought. The Irrawaddy Riviera, the main axe of the ancient Myanmar Empire, has marked the nation's past, settlements and economy. The Irrawaddy as a means of transportation slowly expanded to the Kyaukse Plains and became the great force in the northern paddy area.

Fortification of Pagan and finally its Irrawaddy and Sittang Rivers and trading lanes between India and China were controlled by the Myanmar people. Overthrown by both the Shan and the Mongols of Myanmar's army in the thirteenth centuries, the area disintegrated into a number of states despite the temporary reunification of the Irrawaddy Basin by the Myanmar states.

From the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, Europe's interests started commercial businesses in harbours along Myanmar's coastline. Until 1886 the British had acquired full command of Burma (Myanmar) and thus the maritime privileges of the Irrawaddy, which had also been searched for by the French in their efforts to find a way directly to China.

Ultimately, the opening of the Irrawaddy River Basin and the ascent of Rangoon Harbour (now Yangon) were rewarded with travel export. In 1865, as part of this economical and bureaucratic action, the Britons founded the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company to transport forces, post and business to the river bases of Britains Burma.

Mehr zum Thema