.. Iraklion (; Greek: ????????, Irákleio, pronounced[i?raklio]) is the biggest town and the administration capitol of the Isle of Crete. This is the 4th biggest town in Greece. The 2011 survey showed that the town' s total populations were 140,730, that of the commune 173,993, while the municipal area of Iraklion has a total of 225,574 inhabitants[quote required] and covers an area of 684.
It is the capitol of the region of Iraklion. In the 820' s the Arabian hunters from al-Andalus (Iberia), who established the emirate of Crete, transferred the capitol of the Isle of Gortyna to a new palace, which they named ?andaq ??? (Arabic: ?andaq_en, "Castle of the Grabens"). This has been made Hellenic as ?????? (Chándax) or ???????? (Chándakas) and Latinised as Candia, which has been adopted in other western languages: in Latin and Latin as Candia, in French as Candie, in English as Canddy, which could relate both to the Isle of Crete as a whole and to the town alone; the Ottoman name was Kandiye.
Since the Byzantine recapture of Crete, the town was known as Megalo Kastro (?????? ??????,[quote required]'Great Castle' in Greek) and its residents were known as Kastrinoi (?????????,'castle dwellers'). It was resurrected in the nineteenth century and comes from the near shore of Heracleum ("Heraclesstadt"), whose precise position is not known.
In the past, the use of the language in England favoured the classical transliteration "Heraklion" or "Heraclion", but the shape "Iraklion" is becoming more and more frequent. The city of Iraklion is located near the remains of Knossos Castle, which in Minoan time was the biggest center of Crete's people. Although there is no archeological proof, Knossos could have had a harbour on the site of Iraklion as early as 2000 BC.
Heraklion, today's town, was established in 824 by the Arabs under Abu Hafs Umar, who had been driven out of Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the isle from the Eastern Roman Empire. The two of them constructed a trench around the town and called the town ?andaq, ?andaq, rab? al-?andaq ("Castle of the Trench").
This became the emirate of Crete's capitol (ca. 827-961). During the Saracen era, the harbour was used as a secure haven for those who were operating against the Emperor's (Byzantine) navigation and invaded the Emperor's territories in the Aegean. By 960 in Crete, commanded by Nikephoros Phokas, the later emperor, Muslim troops arrived and invaded the town.
Following a long stronghold, the village collapsed in March 961. Saracens were butchered, the entire community plundered and burnt to the ground. What? Shortly thereafter, the name was changed to ??????, Chandax, and the capital stayed under Greece's rule for the next 243 years. It was purchased by the Republic of Venice in 1204 as part of a complex agreement that included the crusaders of the Fourth Crusades to restore the ousted Eastern Roman Emperor Isaac II Angelus to his reign.
Venetians made improvements to the city's moat by constructing huge fortresses, most of which still exist, among them a huge 40m thick rampart with 7 strongholds and a fortification in the port. It was re-named Candia and became the residence of the Duke of Candia, and the Venice county of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia" (Kingdom of Candia).
Candia has been called Candia for hundreds of years and the same name was often used for the whole of Crete. In 1212 the Venetians began to establish Venetian homes in Crete in order to ensure their dominion. Co-existence of two different civilizations and the appeal of the Italian Renaissance resulted in a blossoming of the letter and art in Candia and Crete in general, which is now known as the Cretan Renaissance.
In the Cretan War (1645-1669), the Ottomans sieged the town for 21 years, from 1648 to 1669, perhaps the longest besiege in the world. 5 ] The Ottoman armies under an ethnic Serb, Köprülü Faz?l Ahmed Pasha captured the town in 1669. Among the Ottomans the town was formally known as Kandiye (again also for the whole of Crete ), but in Greek as Megalo Castro (?????? ??????; "Big Castle").
In the Ottoman era, the port ran dry, so that most ships were moved to Chania in the western part of the isle. The self-governing Cretan state was founded in 1898 under Ottoman sovereignty with Prince George of Greece as High Commissioner and under the control of the world. Candia belonged to the United Kingdom during the time of the immediate occupancy of the islands by the Great Powers (1898-1908).
The town was named Heraklion after the ancient harbour of Heracleum ("Heracles' Town"), whose precise position is not known. In the town's harbour, the Venice buildings such as the Koules Fortress (Castello a Mare), the walls and the armoury are dominant. There are several sculpures, figurines and bust around the town, reminiscent of important urban and archipelago historical features such as El Greco, Vitsentzos Kornaros, Nikos Kazantzakis and Eleftherios Venizelos.
It is an important seaport and seaport. Travelers can take a boat or boat from Iraklion to places like Santorini, Ios Island, Paros, Mykonos and Rhodes. You can also take several ferryboats a day to Piraeus, the harbour of Athens on the Greek continent. The airport of Nikos Kazantzakis or Iraklion International Airport is about 5 kilometers eastwards of the town.
Its name is derived from the author and thinker Nikos Kazantzakis, who was born in Heaklion. This is Greece's second largest after Athens International Airports, first in terms of air charters and the most crowded in Europe, as Crete is an important tourist resort with 7,480 passengers. The E75 in Europe passes through the town and links Iraklion with the three other large towns of Crete:
There are 39 different bus services in the town. Interurban coaches connect Iraklion with many important cities in Crete. Between 1922 and 1937 there was a working railroad that linked the Koules in Iraklion with Xiropotamos for the building of the harbour. In 2000, a survey was carried out to investigate the viability of two tramway tracks in the town.
First line would connect the stadium with the airfield, second line the centre of Heraklion and Knossos. At the Cretan Emigration Congress in Heraklion in 2007, two highly skilled civil engineering professionals, George Nathenas (from Gonies, Malevizi Province) and Vassilis Economopoulos, suggested the creation of a rail line connecting Chania,
Rethymnon and Iraklion, with a 50 minute drive (30 min between Iraklion and Rethymnon, 20 min from Chania to Rethymnon) and with extension to Kissamos, Kastelli Pediados (for the proposed new airport) and Agios Nikolaos. There are several sport associations in the town. The main centres of activity in Iraklion are OFI and Ergotelis, two soccer teams with a former profile in the Superleague, the top division of the Hellenic Soccer Federation.
It is also the seat of the Iraklion Football Club Association, which manages soccer throughout the area. Further important sports associations are Iraklio B.C. (basketball), Atsalenios (football) and Irodotos (football) in the outskirts of Atsalenio and Nea Alikarnassos. It was home to some of Greece's most important minds, among them the writer Nikos Kazantzakis (perhaps best known for his novel Zorba the Greek), the writer and Nobel Prize laureate Odysseas Elytis and the world-famous artist Domenicos Theotokopoulos (El Greco).
Hip Hoch de printemps ^ ^ "Héraklion". visit-ancient-greece.com. Leap up ^ "Population and Residence Count 2001 (incl. area and mean height)" (PDF) (in Greek). Greek National Statistical Service. Leap up ^ "Iraklion Climate Normals 1961-1990".
Leap up ^ "Heraklion, Greece - Climate data". Highjump ^ Lathrop C. Harper (1886). Challiachius ( (1645-1707) was borne in Crete and went early to Italy, where he soon became one of the most prominent Greek and Latin masters. High up ^ Rose, Hugh James; Rose, Henry John; Wright, Thomas (1857).
1666 he was summoned to Venice to take over the professorship of Greek and Roman and Aristotelian language and philosophies, and 1677 he was named teacher of fiction in Padua, where he passed away in 1707. International Conference on New Ideas and New Art in the Italian 18th Century, Rome, May 19-23, 1975.
Skip up ^ I?A?roslav Dmytrovych Isai?e?vych (2006). Constantine Korniakt and Manolis Arphanes Marinetos, both from Greece, are added to the ISBN 1-894865-03-0. Skip up ^ "Limassol Twinned Cities". Jumping up ^ "Twinnings" (PDF). Federation of Local Authorities and Communities of Greece.