History of RangoonRangoon History
Yangon and Singapore: Connections, comparisons and construction of Southeast-Asiatic towns and villages
The November general election in Myanmar has helped fuel careful bullishness not only on the spot but also among academia concerned with the South East Asia nation's wealthy and diverse history and population. Against this background, the study of Myanmar's biggest town, Yangon (also known as Rangoon), has become not only possible, but also ever more prolific for those who connect the town with South and South-East Asia, such as Sunil Amrith, Nile Green, Su Lin Lewis and Jonathan Saha.
Rangoon, Fytche Square in the 1890s. I travelled to Yangon in July and August 2015 to do research at the National Archives of Myanmar with the help of The History Project and INET. Following my research and recent history of Burma, this position links Rangoon to South and Southeast Asia in a different way - through the history of local land use planing and developing.
Whilst there are certainly links between Rangoon and other metropolitan centres in the Indian Ocean, I will concentrate here on Rangoon's links to Singapore. Investigating this particular context, this contribution seeks to complement both the new fellowship linking Burma to the Indian Ocean and questions of Yangon's modern developments with the historic evolution of the town in the 19th and 20th century.
The High Court of the Maha Bandoola Garden in Yangon metropolis, July 2015. Apart from making close-up close-ups at the metropolitan scale, the early to mid-nineteenth centuries map design for each of the cities helped to set a more typical example of the link between Rangoon and Singapore. Whereas Singapore was established off Rangoon in 1819 as an emperor's post before the acquisition of Rangoon in 1852, both cities reflected the design and impact of Dr. William Montgomerie.
Montgomerie, a surgical resident of Rangoon in 1852 during the Second Anglo-Burmese war, was both a member of the Singapore Municipal Committee and, so to say, a chessboard designer for Rangoon-centre. Nominated by Sir Stamford Raffles as a member and secretary of the Singapore Municipal Committee, Montgomerie assisted in the planning of the expanding town.
Following his move to Rangoon, he also assisted with the plans by filing memoirs on land-use plans and co-designing Hugh Fraser's chessboard pattern for Rangoon city center. ii ] While Singapore's roads and boulders are not a flawless chessboard, like those of Rangoon's city center, an architectural concept around the boardwalk shaped both 19th- and early 20th-century city landscapes.
In Rangoon and Singapore, this combination of metropolitan design indicates that in the mid-19th centuries, the Indian Ocean towns, and in Southeast Asia in particular, developed their own developed world. So while Rangoon and Singapore have maintained joint links in terms of development since the 19th-century, the early 20th c. was used to illustrate the design of the cityscape.
This has been accomplished through the institution building process which has been the pattern of confidence for improvements. The Rangoon Development Trustfounded in 1920 and the Singapore Enhvement Trustfounded in 1927, following the founding of the Bombay Enhvement Trustfound in 1898. With the aim of redesigning these towns according to new research approaches in the areas of wastewater disposal, as well as in the areas of urban development, these foundations for improvements tend to support the broadening of roads and the development of agricultural and rural development as well as the building of social dwellings for the needy and the building of communal sewage and drinking and drinking water supply sys-tems.
As Bombay continued to inspire both towns before World War II, the Bombay provided information in both Rangoon and Singapore on how to improve the lives of the world' s very poor. In the past, works such as Robert Home's Of Planting and Planing have concentrated on the formation of institutional structures, such as enhancement trust, in settlement towns as a mechanism through which joint regulation frameworks and managerial politics have been built.
The correlation between street patrons and their trust for improvements, however, has not been examined. Rangoon in 1915, showing the socio-economic differences in the town. British Library Board, IOR/V/26/780/12 (map of Rangoon). For example, the link between Rangoon and Singapore is described in a 1926 Rangoon Civil Security Survey.
It rejects the need for measures to combat antimalarial disease in Rangoon and investigates enhancements made in Singapore to combat the disease. Speaking about Singapore being almost exactly the same as Rangoon, the report's writers use Singapore as the primary benchmark to say that Yangon is not sufficiently troubled enough to justify spending by the state.
The Rangoon Development Trust once again turned to Singapore as a point of reference in its investigation into how to address the issue of expanding urban slum areas and expanding occupation communities in post-war Rangoon. Burma's government has noted the cost per capita of building rented apartments in Singapore dollar in its own postwar residential building survey in Rangoon.
The Rangoon Trust reports show that developments in Singapore have affected discussions and action to design and reconstruct Rangoon after the conflict. Thus, the Singapore case has proven to be an important impact on the local and federal governments that wanted to build and re-build Rangoon before and after World W. I. The Singapore case is a major one.
Whilst there is a wide divergence between Yangon and Singapore today, Singapore remains a major inspirational and comparative resource for Yangon's municipal inheritance designers, engineers and supporters. Yangon Cultural Trust, a group of supporters of Yangon's municipal inheritance, has specifically pointed out Singapore's failure to destroy much of the town' s rural architectural work.
The YHT is arguing in the case of Singapore that Yangon could become "one of the most attractive and livable towns in Asia" if it correctly protects its metropolitan legacy. Thant Myint-U, a Burmese scholar and YHT founding member, is perhaps in a unique position to appreciate Yangon's historic ties to the town' s design and further growth.
During the 19th and 20th century, the two powers of metropolitan design and evolution often tend to converge the cityscapes of Rangoon and Singapore. With the new administration in Naypyidaw, Myanmar's main town, seeking to rehabilitate and modernise its biggest town, the modernisation of Yangon is not unlikely to return to the city's historic links with the many metropolitan hubs along the Indian Ocean, particularly Singapore.
This has enabled Yangon to build a new kind of South East Asia town that focuses not only on glas and iron, but also on a common history. J.S. Furnivall shaped "plural society" in Rangoon in written form. Since then, history of Asia has adopted this term to describe the multifaceted but often "segmented" metropolitan population of Asia.
B.R. Pearn, Corporation of Rangoon: Rangoon History (Rangoon: American Baptist Mission Press, 1939). He is a doctoral student in history at the University of Cambridge. A price-research student at the Centre for History and Economics, he is currently working on a thesis on the importance of governmental residential construction in city renewal in South and South East Asia's docks.