Finnish: Helsinki (; Finnish:. Helsinki is situated 80 km from Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km from Stockholm, Sweden and 390 km from Saint Petersburg, Russia. Helsinki together with the towns Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen and the neighbouring towns of commuters form the Helsinki area with more than 1 inhabitant.
It is often regarded as Finland's only metropole and, with over one million inhabitants, is the most northerly metropolitan area in the word and the most northerly of any EU member state. Helsinki is the third biggest town in the northern European region after Stockholm and Oslo. Vantaa is serviced by the Helsinki Airport in the neighbouring town of Vantaa, with regular connections to many European and Asian cities.
It was the world capital of design for 2012, the site of the 1952 Summer Olympics and hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 52nd. In the 1630', according to a presented theorem, Hälsingland colonists in middle Sweden had entered today's Vantaa River and named it Helsingå ("Helsinge River"), which led to the name Helsinge Dorf and Kirche in the 19th century.
Others have suggested the name as deriving from the words hel?ing, an ancient version of the term throat, which refers to the closest part of a stream, the canals. Others in Scandinavia at similar geographical sites were given similar designations, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden.
The name Helsinki has been used in government records and Finish journals since 1819, when the Senate of Finland relocated from Turku to the town. Dekrete enacted in Helsinki were date with Helsinki as the exhibition venue. Thus the Helsinki format came into being to be used in Finish in writing.
As part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Kingdom of Russia, Helsinki was known in Russia as Gelsingfors. In 1812 the Emperor Alexander I of Russia relocated the Finish capitol from Turku to Helsinki in order to diminish Sweden's impact in Finland and move the capitol nearer to Saint Petersburg.
After the great fire at Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which was then the only University of the land, was moved to Helsinki and finally became the contemporary Helsinki College. Helsinki, the " daughter of the Baltic Sea ", lies at the tip of a half island and on 315 isles.
Helsinginniemi ("Helsinginniemi"), which is hardly ever named Vironniemi ("Estonia's Peninsula"), is the name of the town. In some parts of downtown Helsinki the concentration of 16,494 people per km2 is very high in the Kallio region, but overall the town of 3,050 people per km2 is rather thinly inhabited compared to other capitals in Europe.
Outside the inner cities, a large part of Helsinki is made up of post-war settlements divided by forests. Helsinki Central Park is a small, 10-kilometre-long park that stretches from the inner centre to Helsinki's north boundary and is an important recreation area for its inhabitants. Helsinki has about 11,000 moorings for boats and more than 14,000 ha of sea fish near the capital region.
Helsinki's most important archipelagos comprise Seurasaari, Vallisaari, Lauttasaari and Korkeasaari - the latter being the location of Finland's biggest pet shelter. It is a popular holiday destination for homosexual men and nudists, similar to Fire Island in New York City. Helsinki, also known as the capital region (Finnish: Pääkaupunkiseutu, Swedish: Huvudstadsregionen), consists of four municipalities:
Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen. 29 ] The Helsinki metropolitan area is the only city in Finland. Covering an area of 770 km2, the capital region has a demographic concentration of 1,418 people per km2. More than 20 per cent of the country's total resident area, just 0.2 per cent of the country's total area, means that the area's residential densities are high by comparison with Finland.
Helsinki Greater Region (Greater Helsinki) is made up of the towns of the Helsinki Central Region and ten neighbouring communities. Covering an area of 3,697 km2, the region has a total of more than 1,000 inhabitants. This conurbation has a high level of job concentration: around 750,000 workplaces. Helsinki is the most northerly part of the EU, with a total of more than one million inhabitants, and is the most northerly of the EU's capitals.
Helsinki is an official Helsinki area in Finland, characterised by its dense inhabitants. Maximum ever measured downtown temperatures (where recordings date back to 1844) were 31. Helsinki Airport (in Vantaa, 17 km northern of Helsinki central city) registered a low of -35 on 29 July 2010 and a low of 33.7 °C (92.7 °F) on 29 July 2010.
In Helsinki, Carl Ludvig Engel, who was himself commissioned to design a new innercity, created several neoclassic edifices. Senate Square was the focus of Engel's map. Around it are the government palace (to the east), the Helsinki University's headquarters (to the west) and (to the north) the great Helsinki Cathedral, completed in 1852, twelve years after Angel's passing.
Helsinki's nickname "The White City of the North" comes from this time. There are also many Art Nouveau houses in Helsinki that belong to 19th Roman times style architecture, created at the beginning of the twentieth centuries and strongly inspired by Kalevala, a shared subject of the time.
Helsinki Art Nouveau can also be found in key housing areas such as Katajanokka and Ullanlinna. Eliel Saarinen was an important figure in Art Nouveau architecture in Finland and his architectonic feat was Helsinki Main Station. High-rise building in Helsinki began at the beginning of the 21. cent.
Helsinki Municipal Assembly, as with all Finish communities, is the most important decision-making body in Helsinki for municipal policy, covering topics such as municipal development, education, health services and general transportation. Mayor of Helsinki is Jan Vapaavuori. Helsinki's demographic decline began in the sixties, mainly due to a shortage of shelter.
As a result of these changes in populations, communities in the Helsinki metropolitan area began to cooperate more intensively in areas such as transport  - which led to the creation of HSL - and wastes. The growing shortage of accommodation and the higher cost of life in the metropolitan area have led many day trippers to find accommodation in former countryside areas and even further in towns such as Lohja, Hämeenlinna, Lahti and Porvoo.
In the course of the time, the populace grew significantly and the municipality switched its voice preference from Spanish to English. Helsinki's main lanuages are Finish and Spanish. 1%  of our residents understand their mother tongue Finish. 3 per cent of the populace have a mother tongue other than either Finish or Spanish.
Helsinki is the hub of many of Finland's major airports and major airports and the world' port of call for and from Finland. It has the biggest immigration in Finland, both in real and virtual numbers. Helsinki has over 140 different nations. There are 190 Gesamtschulen, 41 Sekundarschulen and 15 Berufsschulen in Helsinki.
Helsinki's largest historic landmark is the Finnish Museum of Prehistory, Finland's largest historic landmark exhibition, which features an extensive historic heritage from prehistory to the twenty-first cent. Even the palace itself, a neo-medieval chateau in the Nazi period, is a touristic allure. The Helsinki City Musuem is another important historic centre, bringing Helsinki's 500-year old past closer to you.
Helsinki University also has many important archaeological sites, such as the Helsinki University Museum "Arppeanum" and the Museum of Natural History of Finland. There are three main museum in the National Gallery of Finland: The Ateneum Museum of Fine Arts of Finland, Sinebrychoff Museum of Fine Arts of Europe and Kiasma Museum of Fine Arts of Europe in a Steven Holl architectural complex.
The Senate Administration of Ownership owns all three museums. Helsinki has its own Helsinki Arts Centre in the Helsinki Arts Centre (HAM), which is mainly housed in the Tennispalatsi Galerie. Items outside Tennispalatsi comprise about 200 works of popular artwork and all works of artwork belonging to the town.
Dedicated to the display of Finish and international designs, encompassing industry as well as clothing and graphics designs. Further Helsinki museum are the Military Museum of Finland, the Didrichsen Art Museum, the Amos Anderson Art Museum and the Tram Museum. There are three big theaters in Helsinki: National Theatre of Finland, Helsinki City Theatre and Swedish Theatre (Svenska Teatern).
The other remarkable theaters of the town are the Alexander Theater, Q-teatteri, Savoy Theater, KOM Theater and Jurkka Theater. There are two major symphonic ensembles in Helsinki, the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra and the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra, both performing in the Helsinki Music Centre auditorium. The renowned modern-composer Kaija Saariaho, Magnus Lindberg, Esa-Pekka Salonen and Einojuhani Rautavaara were among others borne and brought up in Helsinki and graduated from the Sibelius Academy.
Helsinki is the seat of the Finnish National Theatre, the only full-time Finnish operatic society with a full range of professions. Martti Wallén, one of the company's long-time female singers, was originally from Helsinki and grew up there, as was mezzo-soprano Monica Groop. A lot of famous and celebrated groups have their origin in Helsinki, among them Hanoi Rocks, HIM, Stratovarius, The 69 Oyes, Finntroll, Ensiferum, Wintersun, The Rasmus, The Fall and Apocalyptica.
Finland's most important music centres are the Finnish National Opera, the Finlandia Concerthall and the Helsinki Music Centre. Larger gigs and performances usually take place in one of the city's two large icehockey arenas: the Hartwall Arena or the Helsinki International Theatre. The Helsinki fairground has Finland's biggest fairground, the Messukeskus Helsinki.
The Finnish daily Helsingin Sanomat, the Finnish daily Ilta-Sanomat, the trade-oriented Taloussanomat and the TV station Nelonen are all published by Sanoma. Alma is another Helsinki-based publishing company that produces more than thirty journals, among them Aamulehti, Iltalehti and Kauppalehti. Helsinki's autobahn system is built on the spine of three semi-circular roads, Ring I, Ring II and Ring III, which link motorways to other parts of Finland and the west and east corridors of Länsiväylä and Itäväylä.
Whereas repeated proposals have been made for variations of a Keskustatunneli tunnels under the downtown area, the project will remain on the drawboard from 2017. Helsinki Central Railway Station is the central station of the Finnish railway system. There are two railway lines from Helsinki, the northern line (to Tampere, Oulu, Rovaniemi) and the western line (to Turku).
There is a branch-off to the west from the main line outside Helsinki near Kerava, via Lahti to the west of Finland and Russia. Most of the inter-city public transport in Finland starts or ends at Helsinki Central Station. Helsinki is linked to all of Finland's main towns by train, with daily sailings several days a week.
From Helsinki there are connections to St. Petersburg and Moscow in Russia. St Petersburg - Helsinki line is served by Allegro high-speed coaches. It was proposed to build a Helsinki-Tallinn tunnel and agreement was reached by urbanists. The railway tunnels would link Helsinki with the Estonia capital Tallinn and further link Helsinki with the remainder of mainland Europe through a railway bridge.
The main hub for flight operations is Helsinki Airport, which is situated 17 km from Helsinki town centre in the neighboring Vantaa. Helsinki's own Helsinki-Malmi Airport is mainly used for general and domestic flights. Helsinki, like many other towns, was consciously established in a seaside setting to benefit from the advantages of navigation.
However, for a hundred years the Helsinki tours have been kept open in winter with the help of ice-breakers, many of which were constructed at the Helsinki Hietalahti dockyard. Ship docking and casting off was also part of Helsinki's daily routine. As early as 1837, the company began operating scheduled services from Helsinki to Stockholm, Tallinn and Saint Petersburg.
More than 300 cruiseships and 360,000 cruises pass through Helsinki every year. With about 11 million passangers in 2013, Helsinki is the second largest European seaport. The Helsinki Regional Transport authority manages Helsinki's transport system in the Greater Helsinki area. The Helsinki tramway has been in continuous service with electrical propulsion since 1900.
There are 13 lines in operation covering the inner part of the town. From 2017, the municipality will expand the streetcar system and several large streetcar schemes are underway. This includes the 550 long-distance line (Raide-Jokeri), for example along Ring I around the town centre, and a new streetcar to Laajasalo Isle.
It comprises a special double-track suburban transport system in two train lanes along the main train lines of Helsinki Airport in Vantaa and the Ring Train Line, a double-track light metro with a train terminal at Helsinki Airport in Vantaa. From 2017 onwards, 15 different types of service will be provided, some of them outside the Helsinki area.
The Helsinki region has a particular relationship of partnership: Skip up to: a by Ainiala, Terhi (2009). Use of the names of Helsinki". Returned on September 22, 2011. Skip to top ^ "Area of Finnish municipalities 1.1. 2018" (PDF). Returned on January 30, 2018. Skip up to: a o a " Ennakkoväkiluku succupuolen mukaan aliueittain, elokuuu 2017" (in Finnish).
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Helsinki". Returned on May 19, 2015. Leap high ^ "The most livable city: Monocle Film / Affairs". Returned on March 12, 2013. Skip up ^ Salminen, Tapio (2013). The Middle Ages in Vantaa and Helsinki] (in Finnish). Skip up ^ Hellman, Sonja (June 7, 2015). Skip up ^ "Utbildning & Vetenskap:
Brought back on July 8, 2009. Spring up ^ "Onko kosken alcuperäinen naimi Helsinginkoski vai Vanhankaupunginkoski? Helsinginkoski. Returned on February 26, 2016. Skip up ^ Jäppinen, Jere (2007). "Elsinginore nimi" (PDF). www.helsinginkaupunginmuseo.fi. Elsinore Kaupungin Museum. Returned on February 26, 2016. Hop up ^ Jäppinen, Jere (15 November 2011). "Is it Mistä Elsingin Elsinore Ni imi on Peraisin? Elsinginine Sanomat:
Leap up ^ Ristkari, Maiju: Heinäsorsat Helsingissä. Hop up "Sami Grammar". uta.fi. Returned on January 2, 2015. Helsingin köskiaikaiset jauden ajan alun karylenpaikat 2011, Inventointiraportti. Skip up ^ Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Helsinki: Hop up "Ruttopuisto - Plague Park". Archives from the originals, 11 April 2008.
Returned on November 3, 2008. Up Niukkanen, Marianna; Heikkinen, Markku. Curcistuksia Helsingin kujille (in Finnish). Returned on July 14, 2013. Leap high ^ "April 8, 1812 Emperor Alexander I. promoted Helsinki to the Grand Duchy of Helsinki. - Capital of Helsinki 200 years". Skip up ^ "Geography of Helsinki, Overview of Finland". easyexpat.com.
Returned on February 5, 2014. Hop up ^ "Helsinki - School of Computer Science - SOCS". University of McGill. Returned on February 5, 2014. Hop up, Aluejaot. Atopalvelu ( in Finnish). Returned on May 29, 2014. Skip up ^ "Uudenmaan naakuntakaava selostus" (PDF) (in Finnish). Uusimaa Helsinki region. Returned on February 17, 2014. Hop up ^ "Helsingin sedu tiivistetysti".
Cheupunkitieto (in Finnish). Helsinginseutu.fi. Hop up ^ "Climate Helsinki: Temperature, climate, climate chart for Helsinki - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Returned 2018-01-17. Leap up ^ "Climatological statistic for the standard 1971-2000 period". Brought back on April 13, 2010. Hop up ^ Tukiainen, Matti. "Helsinki, Finland - sunrise, sundown, morning and evening twilight around the globe!
Returned on February 11, 2011. Skip up ^ "FMI open data". Returned on March 31, 2018. Skip up ^ "FMI Standards 1981-2010" (PDF). Returned on April 26, 2016. Skip up ^ "FMI open data". Returned on March 31, 2018. Hop to "Stora Enson petkonttori, Kanavaranta 1." "Elsinine Aallot" blogs. February 25, 2007.
Returned on February 5, 2011. Hop up ^ "Kohtaako Enson konttori Voittajansa? Elsinginine Sanomat (in Finnish). Returned on February 5, 2011. Hop up, Penttilä, Vappu. Colic (in Finnish). Elsinginine Sanomat. Returned on February 5, 2011. Hop up ^ Willi's, David K. (August 4, 1983). Hop up "Uutta Helsinkiä". Skip up ^ "REDI" (PDF).
Hop up ^ "Helsingin vealipiiri - Tulospalvelu - Kuntavaalit 2012". Returned on March 12, 2013. Hop up ^ Tapani Valkonen ym. Elsinginore caupunki, tiestokeskus. Brought back on December 30, 2007. Leap up ^ Tilastolaitoksen historiciaa. Brought back on April 13, 2010. Hop up ^ "Helsingin historia". Brought back on April 13, 2010.
Skip up to "Maan alle". Brought back on April 13, 2010. Skip up ^ Butzin, Bernhard (1991). "The Helsinki aspect of Helsinki municipal policy and planning". Hop up ^ "HSL Helsingin Seudun Likenne - About HSL". Brought back on April 13, 2010. Skip up ^ "HSY - Default". Brought back on April 13, 2010. Skip up ^ "General information about Helsinki".
City of Helsinki. Skip up ^ "Immigrants who learn Finnish from Sweden encounter problems | News | YLE Uutiset". yle.fi. Returned on September 16, 2011. Hop up ^ "Helsingin naimistön vaiheita". Brought back on April 13, 2010. Kysy, hop up. Fi Elsinore Caupinski. Returned on February 17, 2014. Skip up to: a at " 12 06 28 Tilastoja 23 Peuranen" (PDF) (in Finnish).
Helsinki City. Returned on February 17, 2014. Skip up ^ Katriina Pajari (December 7, 2008). "KOMMANNES MAahanmuuttajista ALUU Helsingissä - HS.fi - Kaupunki". Archives from the originals on 17 February 2014. Brought back on April 13, 2010. Skip to top ^ "Helsinki Region Statistics". Helsinginseutu.fi. Returned on February 17, 2014. Skip up ^ "Kansilehti2. vp" (PDF).
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Helsinki's most important bi-lateral urban partner countries are St. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm and Berlin. Helsinki also enjoys particular long-term relationships with Beijing and Moscow. There are no Helsinki twin towns. The Helsinki region works mainly with other capital centres. Hop up ^ Yan, Yangtze (July 14, 2006). "Beijing, Helsinki forging twinning agreements." Returned on August 5, 2013.
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