sspan class="mw-headline" id="Géographie">Géographie
Helgoland (; German: Helgoland[?h?l?olant]; Helgolandic Frisian: Deät Lun lit.... "Hålilönj " is a small island in the North Sea with a small mooring in Frisian: Hålilönj). 2 ] The island was once Danish and later English property. Situated in the Helgoland Bay (part of the Deutsche Bucht) in the southeast of the North Sea, the island had 1,127 inhabitants at the end of 2016.
These are the only Germans that are not in the immediate proximity of the continent. In 1841, during the time of the English occupation, the text of "Deutschlandlied", which became the hymn of Germany, was composed on one of the island by August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben while on holiday.
Besides German, the native inhabitants, who are ethnically Friesen, speaks the Heligoland idiom of the Nordfriesian Halunder as well. Helgoland was formerly named Heligeland or " sacred country ", possibly because of the long connection of the isle with the gods Forseti. Maps of Helgoland from 1910. There have been some changes in the coastline of the coastal areas since the creation of this chart.
Helgoland lies 46 km off the coast of Germany and is made up of two islands: the inhabited 1 square kilometre triangle shaped principal archipelago in the western part and the dunes ("Düne", Helgolandic: de Halem) in the eastern part. "Helgoland " generally means the former isle. This is the principal archipelago subdivided into the lowlands ("lowlands", Helgolandic: DEET DELELERLUN) at see height (on the right of the photo, where the port is located), the highlands ("highlands", Helgolandic: DEET Boperlun), which consist of the platform seen in the photos and the midlands ("middlelands") between them on one side of the isle.
There are also small sandy areas in the northern and southern parts of the islands, and the northern, western and south-western parts of the islands drop down to the 50 metre high ocean. Helgoland's most emblematic symbol is the Lange Anna ("Long Anna" or "Tall Anna"), a freestanding pillar (or pile) of rocks, 47 meters high, situated just northeast of the Isle.
Until 1720, when the combination was disturbed by a tidal wave, the two islets were linked together. Its highest point is on the coastline and reaches 61 meters (200 ft) above sealevel. Even though North Frisia is situated nearer to the North Frisian region of Germany, the two isles belong to the Pinneberg region of Schleswig-Holstein.
There is a good port on the peninsula and most of the visitors are sailboats. From a bird's perspective, Helgoland, c. Conventional business activity involved angling, bird and seal hunts, wreckage and - very important for many foreign forces - shipping to ports in Hanseatic towns such as Bremen and Hamburg.
Helgoland was also in some eras an ideal starting point for giant herrings. Helgoland became a center of contraband and counterintelligence against Napoleon. By the Treaty of Kiel (14 January 1814), Denmark then surrendered Helgoland to George III of the United Kingdom. Over Helgoland thousand of Germans came to Great Britain and connected to the German Royal Legion.
After Napoleon's resignation as Emperor of the French, the Treaty of Paris, initialled on 30 May 1814, enacted the Treaty of Heligoland, which entailed the ratification of the French fortress. Helgoland became a sea-bath in 1826 and soon developed into a favourite holiday destination for the top classes of Europe.
Among the great attractions of the archipelago were painters and authors, especially from Germany and Austria, who seemed to enjoy the relatively libertarian climate, among them Heinrich Heine and August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben. Above all, however, it was a haven for revolutionary leaders of the 1830s and 1848s revolutions. "In 1890 Great Britain gave the Isles to Germany in the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty.
Helgoland has an important place in the historiography of the course of ornithological education and in particular in the comprehension of migrants. Helgoland, an ornithological observatory by Heinrich Gätke, was written in 1890 in German and 1895 in English. It described an amazing variety of migratory species on the islands and was an important factor in further research on migratory movements, especially in Great Britain.
During the German Empire the isles became an important marine stronghold, and during the First World War the civil populations were expelled to the continent. Gibraltar was built with reinforced concrete shelters along its rocks, which resemble the rock of Gibraltar. The defence of the isles comprised 364 assembled cannons, of which 142 42 42 centimetres (17 in) consisted of disappeared cannons with a view of the navigation canals, which were protected by ten lines of marine landmines.
11 ] The war's first marine operation, the Battle of Helgoland, was conducted near the city in the first month of the warmonger. The Helgoland concentration camps, the Germans' labor camps on Alderney, were given their name after the isle. In the 1920s, Werner Heisenberg (1901-1975) first expressed the basic formula of his image of Quantum Dynamics on Helgoland.
Eventually, in the sommer of 1925, he withdrew to the tree free (and pollen free) Helgoland Islands with a heavy case of common cold. 1937 saw the start of a large recultivation plan (Project Hummerschere) aimed at expanding the current marine installations and returning the islands to pre-1929 heights. This area was the scene of the 1939 Battle of Helgoland Bay, which was the outcome of bombings by Britain of German Navy ships in the area.
At the beginning of the conflict, the islands were little affected by the shelling. That shows the low importance of the Isle for the armed force. Due to the evolution of the Luftwaffe, the islands had largely forgotten its strategical importance. Helgoland, which was deployed as a temporary defence against Allied bomb attacks, was fitted with a scarce model of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 combat plane, initially intended for use on aeroplane racks.
In April 2010, the Helgoland Museum erected six obstacle stones on the streets of Helgoland in her name. Bombing made the archipelago inhabitable and it was evacuated. What? September 3, 1944 Operation Aphrodite B-17 63954 attempted on submarine pins broke down when the US Navy inspector accidentally flown planes to Dune Iceland.
26-27 October 194410 Lancaster of Group No. 1 laid a mine off Helgoland. 21 ] and the land were discharged the multitude dark. Between 1945 and 1952 the Helgoland archipelago was used as a bombardment area. Blows shocked the principal archipelago several leagues to its basis and changed its form (the Mittelland was created).
It was on 20 December 1950 that two college undergraduates and a Heidelberg professors - René Leudesdorff, Georg von Hatzfeld and Hubertus zu Löwenstein - invaded the unlimited archipelago and hoisted various national, international and international flag. It was the start of a campaign to rebuild the archipelago in Germany, supported by the Bundestag.
Helgoland was taken into the hands of the Germans on 1 March 1952 and the former residents were permitted to commute. The first of March is an offical public day on the isle. Germans had to remove a vast amount of unexploded ordnance, beautify the scenery of the major islands and reconstruct the homes before they could be reintroduced.
Helgoland is now a tourist destination and benefits from a tax-free regime as it is part of the EU but outside the EU value added network and custom area. Consequently, much of the business is based on the sale of smokes, alcohol and perfumes to visitors to the isles. Helgoland's bird-watching legacy has also been restored, with the Heligoland Bird Sanctuary, now administered by the Helgoland Arnithological Society (Ornithological Society of Helgoland), set up in 1991.
On Helgoland there is a SAR station of the DGzRS, the German Society for the Salvation of Shipwrecked Persons. Prior to the connection of the archipelago to the continent by an underwater power line in 2009, the Helgoland power was produced by a locally owned powerhouse.
GROWIAN, a large test installation for windpower plants, was tested in Helgoland. 32 ] It was produced by Norddeutsche Seefahrtswerke in one unit and installed by Nostag 10 in early 2009. Helgoland's power cable, which is rated for an operating current of 30 kilovolt, arrives on the coast of Germany at Sankt Peter-Ording.
Helgoland's climatic conditions are typically off-shore, almost free of pollens and therefore perfect for those with an allergy to it. Whereas springs are relatively cold, Helgoland's fall is often longer and hotter than on the continent, and statistics show that the weather is generally more sunny. Lowest ever registered on Helgoland was -11.
Due to the temperate weather, it is said that in 1911  prickly pears were cultivated on the islands, and an 2005 paper mentions Japan-bananas, prickly pears, agave, palms and other tropical species cultivated and flourishing on Helgoland. Helgoland Islet is a geologic peculiarity; the existence of the typical reddish rock sediment of the principal islet in the centre of the German Bight is uncommon.
She is older than the whitewashed Cretaceous underlying the Dune Isle, the same rocks that form the whitewashed Dover in England and the rocks of the Denmark and Germany in the Baltic are. Indeed, it is known that a small cretaceous boulder near Helgoland, named kitt cliff (white cliff), within view of the western part of the peninsula until the beginning of the eighteenth centuries, when storms eventually caused it to erode below waterline.
Helgoland resembles its crest - it is a three-coloured flags with three horizontally aligned beams, from top to bottom: light grey, dark grey and blue. Every colour has its own symbolism, as stated in its motto: the land is lush vegetation, the Kant is bright blue, the sandy ground is dark brown, the Helgoland colour is black.
Greater is the country, more is the canton, white is the sandy beaches, that sin is the Farven of Heligoland. This country is verdant, the side is red, the side is white, the sands are white, these are the colors of Helgoland. The country is lush and white is sandy, these are the colors of Helgoland.
On Helgoland there are very few vehicles. There is a specific section (§50) in the Highway Code (StVO) prohibiting the use of vehicles and bikes on the Isle. There is no other regional exception in Germany to the general rules of the Road Transport Ordinance, although other North Sea regions such as Baltrum have also prohibited the use of motor vehicles and motorcycles by the population.
With the exception of the small fire trucks and the rescue vehicle, the only cars on the islands are electric driven and mainly used to move materials. On 17 January 2006, the archipelago was given its first policeman's vehicle. Admiral Sir John Hindmarsh (1785-1860), vet of the Battle of Trafalgar and first South Australian sovereign, was 1840-56 sovereign of Helgoland.
Rob Knud Friedrich Pilger (1876-1953) Robert Knud Botaniker, native of Helgoland, specialized in the studies of coniferous trees. Helgoland gave its name to the Helgoland halyard, which is used for birds rings. Bruckner wrote a large-scale choir piece on the basis of texts about Helgoland. August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the text of the German National Anthem during his holiday on Helgoland, which was administered by Great Britain at the time.
Massive Attack, the UK trip-hop band, called their fifth record after the Germany-Archipel. "Hlgolandská Romance" ("Helgoland Romance"), a verse by Jan Neruda from his Balady a Romanance (cs) compilation, is called after the isle. Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (in German). Drower, George (2011). Helgoland: This is the true story of the Germans Bight and the forgotten Great Britain Isle.
Ritsema, Alex (2007). Helgoland, past and present. Schleswig-Holstein in 150 archaeological finds (in German). "Heligoland." Europe: Helgoland". "Heligoland Hunting Squadron." Under the Waves Part 3 - British Submarines off Helgoland Archived 13 June 2015 at Archive.is. 466 Squadron Missions filed on January 13, 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
Archive from the orginal from September 12, 2007. Returned on May 25, 2007. June, July, August, September, October. Archives from the orginal on 30 January 2009. Brought back on April 10, 2007. Archives from the orginal on 6 July 2007. Brought back on May 24, 2007. Posted on June 11, 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
July, August Filed on June 7, 2007 at the Wayback Machine. September Filed on March 14, 2008 at the Wayback Machine. October Filed on June 11, 2007 at the Wayback Machine. November, December Filed on June 6, 2011 at the Wayback Machine.... Archives from the originals on 16 September 2009.
Brought back on April 10, 2007. Battle Chronology of the US Army Air Forces - December 1944 Filed on February 11, 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Archives from the orginal on 6 July 2007. Archives from the orginal on 6 July 2007. The day the Helgoland of Megabombe defied. The mirror (in German).
April 13, 2007. Brought back on April 13, 2007. "The Royal Navy and the Dismantling of the Teutonic Navy, 1942-1947." March 1952: "Helgoland is English again" (in English). Dithmarsch district newspaper (in German). <font color="#ffff00" size=14> ; Archivé de l'original le 19 juillet 2011. ^ "Plans de décharge sur Helgoland off the table". The world ( in German). June 16. 2010. Consulté le 17 septembre 2015. ^ "Informations sur le référendum du 26 juin 2011 (PDF) (en allemand).
Municipality of Helgoland. June 14 2011 - Archivé de l'original (PDF) le 19 septembre 2011 ^ "RWE, E.ON et WindMW présentent leurs projets pour les parcs éoliens offshore basés en Helgoland" (en anglais). August 5, 2011. ^ Wehrmann, Anne-Katrin (2012). "An island in transition - from 'Fuselfelsen' to modern 'Helgoland 3.0'".
The Hansa Maritime Journal (in German). "Offshore industry has arrived in Helgoland." The Hansa Maritime Journal (in German). 34-5. ^ "Helgoland se réinvente fondamentalement". Sailor' newspaper (in German). "News about the flora of Helgoland" (PDF). Braunschweig Geobotanical Works (in German). "Ripe figs and subtropical plants on Helgoland." Home (in German). "The Unequal Sisters."
The mirror (in German). Climatic values for Helgoland. Returned on March 21, 2017. Long-term averages: 1961-1990. The German Weather Service. WeatherOnline. co. uk CLimate Robot Helgoland/Dune. Sea Map Helgoland. Archives from the originals on 5 August 2008. Returned July 27, 2008. "Helgolanders vote against island enlargement."
The Kieler Nachrichten (in German). June 26, 2011. Archives from the orginal on 30 June 2011. Returned on June 27, 2011. Road Traffic Regulations. "It'?s an insular outpost: Helgoland". 2-7 Hidden Europe Magazine (20). 1860-6318. Historic synthesis with an overview of the contemporary business and social life on Helgoland.
"Findings of German Sea Simulations of the Helgoland Blast of 18 April 1947". Andrews, Jörg: Helgoland Island. Helgoland and the islands of the North Sea. The bird world of the island Helgoland. Heligoland Museum Helgoland, 2010, ISBN 978-3-00-030405-7. Grahn-Hoek, Heike : Roter Flint and Heiliges Land Helgoland, ISBN 978-3-00-035437-3. Friederichs, A. : Nous voulons sauver l'Helgoland sur les traces du groupe de résistance en 1945.
Wachholtz-Verlag, Neumünster 2009, ISBN 978-3-529-02774-1. Ritsema, Alex (2007). Helgoland, past and present. A colony becomes German - Helgoland between the world wars, ISBN 1847531903, Wallmann, Eckhard. North Frisian Institute, Bredstedt 2012, ISBN 978-3-88007-376-0. Helgoland Tourism Association - contains an air photo of Helgoland (front) and Dune (back).