Gwóngj?u in Cantonese, Gu?ngzh?u in Mandarin, traditional English name: Canton) is the capital of the province Guangdong in South China.
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The Gu?ngzh?u is the Pinyinian romanization of the Mandarin name www.ch, which was oversimplified to www.ch in the fifties on the China continent. Its name comes from the old province of Guang (Guang Zhou), after it had become the headquarters of the Préfecture, so several other towns in China, among them Hangzhou, Suzhou and Fuzhou, received their name.
? or ? - which also appear in the name of the Guangdong and Guangxi Province, which are collectively referred to as Liangguang - means "broad" or "far-reaching" and relates to the intent of spreading royal mercy throughout the Han Dynasty with the establishment of Guangxin county. Guangzhou's shortcut in China is "?" (although the shortcut on the registration plate is ?, as in the remainder of the province), after the moniker "Rice City".
It has long been nicknamed either Town of Rams or Town of the Five Rams from the five stone temple of the Five Undying, who were said to be the lambs or kids riding by the Daoist cultural leaders who introduced paddy growing to the area around the town' s inception.
27 ] The former name "City of the Immortals" comes from the same name. Usually, the newer city of flowers is regarded as a mere indication of the beautiful green of the area. Its English name "Canton" derives from the Portugese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a confusion of dialectic debates of "Guangdong" (e.g. Hakka Kóng-tûng).
Though it was initially and mainly for the enclosed town, it was also used in English in relation to Guangdong in general. 32 ] It was adopted as a postcard romanisation of Guangzhou and stayed in use until the progressive introduction of Pinyin. It is still used as an adjective to describe the peoples, languages, cuisine as well as cultures of Guangzhou and the Liangguang area.
Founded in 214 B.C. on the eastern shore of the Pearl River, Panyu served as the basis for the Qin Empire's first unsuccessful incursion into the Baiyue countries of South China. Zhao has been negotiating the acknowledgement of his autonomy in return for his nominee filing with the Han in 196 B.C. Archeological proof shows that Panyu was an extensive trading centre: In fact, besides objects from mainland China, archeologists have found remnants from Southeast Asia, India and even Africa.
Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's statement on the Ming Dynasty, he turned around his previous external aid stance and issued the first of a string of naval prohibitions (haijin). Guangzhou, Quanzhou and Ningbo Yuan period seafaring intentions were shut down in 1384, and legitimate trading was restricted to tributary missions sent to or from officials of overseas states.
Enclosed in masonry, the ramparts were about 10 kilometres in perimeter, 8 metres high and 6 metres high. It was part of a perimeter of traffic signals so efficient that news could be delivered to Beijing in less than 24 hrs - about 1,200 mile ( 1,931 km) away.
After a number of fights in the Pearl River Delta, the British conquered Guangzhou themselves on 18 March 1841. After the Qing Empire of 1842 with Great Britain, Guangzhou was deprived of its preferential trading position as more and more contracting harbours were opened to more and more lands, mostly with extra-territorial enclaves. Guangzhou was also a major trading centre in the United Kingdom.
In 1898, the Canton-Hankow Railway license was granted to the American China Development Co. Guangzhou was the scene of unsuccessful uprisings during the Qing Dynasty, such as the uprisings of 1895 and 1911 toppling the Qing; the 72 insurgents whose corpses were found after the latter rebellion are commemorated and honored as 72 martyrs of the town in the Huanghuagang Mausoleum ("Yellow Flower Hill").
Following the murder of Song Jiaoren and Yuan Shikai's efforts to take China's Nationalist Party out of office, the Guangdong Hu-Hanmin leader followed the Second Revolution of 1913 against him, but was compelled to escape to Japan with Sun Yat-sen after his defeat. In 1917 the town was again in the limelight nationally, when the abolition of the constitutional law by Prime Minister Duan Qirui caused the constitutional protection movement.
Yat-sen took over the leadership of the military regime of Guangzhou, backed by members of the disbanded legislature and the South Western warmongers. Guangzhou's administration broke up when the warmongers withdrawn their aid. In November 1918 Sun escaped to Shanghai until the Guangdong lord Chen Jiongming recovered him in October 1920 during the Yuegui wars.
Over the following few month, Sun counterattacked Guangdong by gathering Yunnan and Guangxi followers and in January for the third consecutive month set up a regime in the town. Between 1923 and 1926, Sun and the Kuomintang used the town as a basis to pursue a new Chinese revolutionary by the conquest of the northern belligerents.
Though Sun was formerly reliant on opportunist warmongers who housed him in the town under the command of Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT built its own army force to fulfill its ambitions. In the cantonal years, the KMT evolved into a highly militarized and ideologically committed revolution that shaped the KMT regime in China beyond 1927.
Allies founded the Institute for the Training of Peasant Movements in the town, whose president was Mao Zedong for one year. The young armies repressed the uprising of the cantonal merchant corps in August. Liao Zhongkai, the left-wing KMT chief, was murdered in August and Hu Hanmin, the right-wing chief, the presumed manipulator, was banished to the Soviet Union, with pro-Communist Wang Jingwei assuming responsibility.
With the " canton coup " on 20 March 1926 Chiang consolidated his grip on the nationalists and their armies against Wang Jingwei, the leader of the conservative side, their fascist associates and their Soviets advisers. Later, in 1927, when Zhang Fakui, a general who supported the Wuhan fraction, took over the canton and set up the Wang Jingwei fraction in the town, the Communists saw an opening and started the Guangzhou uprising.
Famous Ye Ting and Ye Jianying, the former commander of the Ye Jianying army, spearheaded the town' s unsuccessful defence. Very soon Li Jishen regained full command of the town. During the war between Chiang and the Guangxi clique Li was dropped off. Chen Jitang had become the ruler of Guangdong by 1929. 1931 he stood up for the antichian Schisma by establishing his own nationalistic regime in Guangzhou.
Until the end of December 1938, the "Kantonsbetrieb" subdued the town to the Jewish occupying forces during the Second World War. In the last few month of the Chinese civil war, Guangzhou briefly acted as the Republic of China's main town after the capture of Nanjing by the PLA in April 1949.
Popular Liberation Army came to the town on 14 October 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, the town was greatly influenced, with many of its ancient ruins, such as its cathedrals, chapels and other buildings that had been demolished during this time of chaos. China launched construction programs, among them new apartments on the bank of the Pearl River, to adapt the city's boatmen to rural living.
In 2000, the community was extended to include Huadu and Panyu as neighborhoods and Conghua and Zengcheng as more remote wards. Nansha and Luogang bought the town. In January 2009, the National People's Congress adopted a Pearl River Delta Settlement Project, and on 19 March of the same year, the municipalities of Guangzhou and Foshan decided to set up a frame to bring the two towns together.
At that time, Guangzhou was the most densely populated county town in China until Beijing passed it next year. Guangzhou Bund 1930, with ranks of Tanka ships. In general, the height of the county is increasing from south-west to north-east, with hills constituting the town' s spine and the sea the front.
Kongzhou is a subprovincial town. The Guangzhou is the most important production center of the Pearl River Delta, one of China's premier trading and production areas. 117 ] Guangzhou is regarded as one of the wealthiest towns in China. Officially known as the "China Import and Export Fair", the Cantonal Fair is organised every year in April and October by the Ministry of Commerce.
The exhibition, opened in 1957, is an important occasion for the town. This is the exhibition with the longest story, the highest standard and the greatest reach in China. From the 104 th meeting, the exhibition attracted to the new Guangzhou International Convention and Exhibition Center (????????) in Pazhou, from the older building in Liuhua.
Today it is known in China for its colourful styling. One of the four most important Chinese artistic genres, Kantonese stitching is present in Guangzhou, although its major center is in Chaozhou. In Guangzhou, it is made from drinking mineral waters that come directly from a source naturally occurring to the beerhouse.
From 1989 to 1997, Guangzhou Peugeot Automobile Company manufactured the Peugeot 504 and Peugeot 505 cars. Guangzhou is part of the province of Guangzhou and is part of the Nansha district. The airport is 54 kilometers (34 miles) (70 min drive) from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport and Nansha Port.
She also has the benefit of Metro Line 4 Guangzhou, which will be prolonged to the Nansha Ferry Terminal. Situated in the eastern Huangpu district and near the economic and technological development zone of Guangzhou. It' also very near the airport Guangzhou Baiyun. From a historical point of view, the Kantonese nation has formed a considerable part of the 19th and twentieth centuries diasporas of China, and many foreigners from China have connections to Guangzhou.
Guangzhou Bus Rapid Transit (GBRT) system launched in 2010 along Zhongshan Road. The Guangzhou line is the terminal station of the Beijing-Guangzhou, Guangzhou-Shenzhen, Guangzhou-Maoming and Guangzhou-Meizhou-Shantou Beijing traditional high-speed railway lines. During December 2014, the Guiyang-Guangzhou High Velocity Railway and the Nanning-Guangzhou Railway started operation with 250 km/h (155 mph) and 200 km/h (124 mph) respectively.
149 ] The Guangdong Through Train depart from Guangzhou East Train Terminal and arrive at Hung Hom KCR in Kowloon, Hong Kong. Regular bus connections are also offered with buses that depart daily from various places (mostly large hotels) in the town. Guangzhou is the home of a number of Guangzhou region trains, including the Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Railroad and the Guangzhou-Zhaoqing Intercity Railroad.
Between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Lianhua Shan Ferry Terminal in Guangzhou and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal as well as between Nansha Ferry Terminal and Macau Ferry Pier in Hong Kong there are everyday high-speed vessel portals. In China, the civilization of the Kantonese nation is a partial set of the greater cultures "South" or "Lingnan".
Among the most noteworthy features of Guangzhou's rich patrimony are the following: Guangzhou Opera House & Symphony Orchestra also plays classic West African as well as China composition in their own styles. One of the most important is the Temple of the Five Undying, which honors the five undying people who introduced paddy growing when the town was founded.
Their five Aries should have turned into rocks when they left, giving the town several of their sicknames. Another place of adoration is the Temple of the Town God. Guangzhou, like most of South China, is also particularly attentive to the adoration of ancestors at events such as Tomb Sweeping and the Ghost Festival.
The Buddhism is the best known religious belief in Guangzhou. 155 ] The Zhizhi Temple was established in 233 AD from the inheritance of a Wu officer; it is said to include the residency of Zhao Jiande, the last of the Nanyue monarchs, and has been known since the Ming as the Guangxiao Temple ("Temple of Bright Filial Devotion").
In 520 A.D. Emperor Wu of Liang ordered the building of the Baozhuangyan Temple and the Xilai Monastery to hold the remains of the Bamboo-human Buddhist Saint who had been taken to the town and to accommodate the friars who were beginning to gather there. Ocean Banner Temple on Henan Island, once known in the western world as Guangzhou's only foreign resort, was re-opened as Hoi Tong Monastery.
Christians from Nestoria first came to China via the Silk Road, but were persecuted 845 times by Emperor Wuzong and were largely dead by the year 1000. Guangzhou Catholic Archdiocese is located in the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Guangzhou, which is known as the " Stone House ". Gothic revival building constructed by manual labour under Franco-German management from 1861 to 1888, its primitive Latin and Roman stained-glass window was demolished during the War and the Cultural Revolution and has since been substituted by British stained-glass window.
Canton Christian College (1888) and Hackett Medical College for Women (1902) were both established by a missionary and today belong to the Lingnan of Guangzhou. Interest in Christianity has risen again since the opening of China in the 80s, but Guangzhou continues to put pressures on subterranean church communities to refrain from registering with civil servants.
In Guangzhou also the following big sport meetings took place: Among the actual sport associations of professionals with seat in Guangzhou belong: Each year Guangzhou draws more than 100 million people. Guangzhou has many commercial centres and commercial centres. There are two regional radios in Guangzhou: the Guangdong Province and the Guangzhou City. There is only one traditional Guangdong station devoted to Mandarin Chinese.
Radios from towns around Guangzhou mainly transmit in Cantonese and can be tuned into in different parts of the town, according to the location and transmitting capacity of the radios. China National Broadcasting, located in Beijing, also transmits Mandarin programs in the town. Guangdong has a 30-minute week-long UK program, Guangdong Today, which is broadcasted worldwide on the World Radionet.
English radio broadcasts are also available from Radio Guangdong. In Guangzhou, there are some of the best Chinese-language papers and periodicals in continental China, most of which are edited by three large groups of local papers, the Guangzhou Press Group, Nanfang Press Corporation and Yangcheng Evening Newsgroup.
Guangzhou Daily and Southern Metropolis Daily are the city's two main papers. It is China's most profitable paper in 14 years in relation to ad revenues, with a print run of 1.8 million copies, while the Southern Metropolis Daily is one of the most open minded papers in continental China.
Besides Guangzhou's Chinese-language books, there are several British journals and papers. That' s Guangzhou, which began more than a ten years ago and has since developed into That' s PRD, which also produces foreign journals in Beijing and Shanghai, is the most popular. Guangzhou Higher Educational Mega Centre's higher educational locations:
The other fully accredited and graduated Guangzhou University and College are the following: In Ming China, the purchase and sale of kids was hardly known, but the great new requirements of the Portuguese may have led to abductions of good families...". If one counts the Cron-Printz-Christian until 1833, the DAC sent 130 vessels to Guangzhou and lost five.
The testimony is an extract from the longer saying "Be birthed in Suzhou, perform in Hangzhou, dine in Guangzhou and dwell in Liuzhou" (???????????????????). Guangzhou Statistical Office. Filmed from the orginal on 23.03.2005. Guangzhou Economic and Social Development Statistics Bulletin 2014]. Kongzhou daily. Archives from the orginal on 12.03.2006.
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Sima Guang. Guangzhou and Foshan have just joined the City Merge Cooperation Framework. Archives from the orginal on 05.07.2009. Canton, Ditty Box Guide Book Series, US Bureau of Navigation, "Canton" Archives from the Genuine on October 8, 2013. Returned on September 11, 2013. Guangzhou International. English.gz.gov.cn. Archives from the orginal on 09.11.2006.
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Guangzhou Official Gazette of Eurostat (??????) (August 2013). Chinese Statistic Print (???????). Shi, Guo wu yo youan kou pu cha bang yong; Rat, Guo jia teong ji yo u n kou he ye teong ji si bin a = Table of the 2010 Chinese Peoples Government Popensus byownship / prepared by the Government Department of Public Health; Department of Public Health; Department of Statistic, Labour Statistic from ( 2012).
Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). Chinese Statistics Print (???????). Archives from the originals on 11 June 2011. January 19, 2016. Archives from the originals, 23 January 2016. Returned on January 19, 2016. DEA opens a shop in China to combat the trade in synthetic drugs". 6 January 2017. Archives from the originals, June 4, 2017.
Guangzhou Nansha Export Processing Zone. Archives from the orginal on 19.11.2009. Guangzhou Free Trade Zone. Archives from the orginal on 13.11.2009. Archives from the orginal on 14.12.2009. Ministry of Commerce der Volksrepublik China, Department of Market System Development. Archives (PDF) from the orginal on 04.11.2005.
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"What made Cantonese women disgrace the young people of Guangzhou? Southern Chinese morning mail. Didi Kirsten (July 9, 2014). "south to Guangzhou, a home away from home." Archives from the originals on 14 July 2014. About Guangzhou Metro. Metro Guangzhou. Archives from the orginal on 29.12.2017.
"Archives copy" ?????? ??????. ycwb.com/ (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News Digital Media. Archives from the originals on 14 September 2014. Returned on September 14, 2014. Guangzhou's remarkable high-speed bus system. Archives from the Genuine on 31 May 2013. Guangzhou BRT Case Study. Archives from the originals on 13 July 2011.
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World in Guangzhou: Historic dictionary of Guangzhou (canton) and Guangdong. Canton, City of Aries: Commons Wikimedia has created related media Guangzhou.