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Slipping and deforming in Myanmar monitored by continual GPS surveys
Sagaing Rot is an important tectonical texture between the Indian Plate and the Sunda Plate. It is a 1200 km north-south distortion that intersects the center of Myanmar. There are many city areas along the disruption. Consequently, since 2011, Myanmar has built a continual Global Positioning System (cGPS) networking throughout the Sagaing Fault. 2.
Eight CSGPS substations make up the complex structure of the CSGPS net, forming two transepts about the error. It will cover a four-year time frame from 2011 to 2014. The GAMIT, GLOBK and Tracks are used for the handling and analyzing of GPS-information. Myanmar's first goal is to analyze Myanmar's fixed and mobile GPS networks to determine the speed and orientation of each location using GAMIT/GLOBK package.
A second goal is the investigation of the co-seismic velocity associated with the quake with the help of the motion kinematics software Tracking. Analytical results show that the eastern side of the sagaing error moved southeast at an approximate median ratio of 32-40 mm/a and the western side of the error moved northeast at a ratio of approximately 31-35 mm/a.
Coseismic analyses will be performed on two coseismic GPS sites in the context of the M6. 8 Thabeikkyin 2012quake. They are 50-60 km from the epicenter. GPS readings clearly showed that the eastern side of the Sagaing Fault immediately shifted 15 degrees southward. cm, while the western side of the disturbance was moving 3.0 cm northwards.
To summarize, this paper shows that the stellar activity of the Sagaing Fault can be observed by means of geodesic methods using GPS. It is our belief that such an exploration will contribute to a better understanding of tectonics activity in Myanmar and Southeast Asia. The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS)'s accurate surveying technique has established itself around the world over the last ten years for surveying tectonics phenomenon.
GPS measuring system can be used to determine the position with millimeter-precision. Myanmar, the second biggest South-East Asian nation, is located in the most western part of the Sunda-Megathrust. Myanmar is also affected by two other error regimes that are behaving on the sunda bloc after India's northern translation.
This sagaing error is one of the biggest bugs in Myanmar, more than 1200 km long. This disturbance had seen many quakes in its story. Furthermore, several large towns are located along this proactive error. Sagaing fault is a right side blow-slip error,,. The hatching rates of the Sagaing Rot have been studied in two trials.
Vigny et al.  surveyed the saga of hatching rates by carrying out several GPS measurements missions. An error slide ratio of 18 mm/a was found in the trial. Others studies by Wang et al.  report a hatching ratio of 11-18 mm/a on the Strike-Slip Tagaing fault. It is intended to base the present survey on the presence of several GPS units (cGPS) set up to observe the stellar arcing error.
Cognex CSGPS transmitters provide continual and accurate measurement of ward movement. Therefore, the investigation of the sagaing fault tectonics using the CSGPS methodology provides more accurate information than earlier work. Myanmar's first goal is to analyze Myanmar's grid observation in order to establish the sagaing fault hatch using GAMIT/GLOBK analysis tools.
Secondly, the co-seismic movement rates associated with the quake events will be studied using the kinematics displacement programme Tracking. The analysis of GPS information will be carried out over a four-year time frame from 2011 to 2014. In Myanmar, Cadence's Sagaing Fault stations' speed and movement are useful information on tectonics.
The Myanmar Earthquake Committee (MEC), the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) and the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH - Myanmar) founded the Myanmar GPS ecosystem in 2011. Its primary objective was to continually check the sagaing error distortion. Eight CSGPS substations make up the complex structure of the CSGPS net, forming two transepts about the error.
The GYBU, IGLE, WAAW and SATG transmitters are located in the south transekt as shown in Figure 1, while the HAKA, KANI, SWBO and SDWN transmitters are located in the north transekt of Geneva. Every Myanmar CSGPS is fitted with high-quality geodesic receiver (Trimble NetR8 and NetR9), GNSS throttle ring aerial to minimize multi-way interference and photovoltaic energy source.
Chart 1 summarises the key features of the Myanmar C GPS system. Cadastral features of the Myanmar C GPS system. In the GYBU for the South transekt and HAKA for the North transekt, respectively, the comparative distance is given. By courtesy of MEC, the company provided the original source files for this project. Since 2011, the observations from the C GPS net have been saved in the MEC computer center.
MEC staff visit the CSGPS unit every three month and collect all collected information by hand. Trimble GNSS receiver is included in the package. Recipients are configurated with three kinds of continual recording: 15 second measuring at 1 minute position rates, 1 second measuring at 0.1 second position rates and 0.02 second measuring at 0.1 second position rates.
A 15-second measuring frequency with 1-minute position speed was used for timeline analyses. Secondly, the high-frequency GPS datasets (i.e. 0.02 second measuring frequency with 0.1 second position rate) were used for the kinematics work. C GPS readings cover the entire timeframe from commissioning of the plant to March 2014.
Unfortunately, several vulnerabilities have been found at several of our GPS workstations due to electrical difficulties or other engineering hassles. Observation information is saved in the receiver's own digital form. Therefore we had to compile the native binaries into the Receiver-Independent Exchange (RINEX) file with TEQC, the multi-purpose GPS/GLONASS dataset designed by UNAVCO.
GAMIT uses the generated GAMIT file as a source for GAMIT-computing. Besides the internal GPS-information, 13 IGS-Referenzstationen ("International GNSS Service") are taken into account. Figure 2 shows the IGS substation allocation taken into account in computing and analyzing it. The IGS ward allocation in the latest survey.
We have used GAMIT/GLOBK science based computing algorithms for analyzing our results and our own kinematics tracking algorithm. It allows the assessment of the three-dimensional related position of earth station and orbit. The baseline length is very accurately defined in the loose limited solution and the whole net and satellites constellations can be turned and shifted as a fixed part.
Calculated results are then transferred to GLOBK for combination of datasets to assess stations locations, speeds, orbital and earth rotationsameters. Our survey identified the mean day solution and adapted the results to the sound levels of the models. The GPS makes it possible to measure the speed of motion by combination of information about the location of the substation in 3-D. The GPS can be used to measure the speed of motion.
First results after handling the information from the cGPS Myanmar are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4. We' ve said that the Sagaing Fault is a right-wing strike-slip error system. That means that the eastern side of the disturbance is moving southwards and the western side is moving northwards.
cGPS station timelines in Myanmar show a similar patterns. Fig. 3 shows that both GYBU and IGLE units have a northern misalignment of 13.12 ± 0.20 mm/a and 4. GYBU also travels more quickly than IGLE. Furthermore, WAAW and SATG station have adverse (north) offsets of -6.92 ± 0.09 mm/a and -8.
That means that both stops actually move southwards at almost the same speed. Each of the southerly trans-sekt station has similar eastern shift ratios of about 30-31 mm/a. The HAKA, KANI and SWBO stops, which are on the western side of the Sagaing Fault, move at a speed of 21 to the N. According to picture 4.
The SDWN substation located on the eastern side of the interference shall, however, move at a speed of -129 ± 2,77 mm/a. While HAKA and KANI seem to have regular movement ratios, SWBO and SDWN show much higher levels, as they contain the shifts caused by the Thabeikkyin earthquake in November 2012.
The postseismic movement was extracted by calculating the movement during the quake with the breake function in GGMatlab. In this calculation methodology, the two stages move in opposite direction. The SWBO is moving northward at a speed of 6.19 ± 2.77 mm/a, while the SDWN is moving southward at a speed of 21.
At the other end, both railway terminals move eastwards at almost similar speeds. All of these stops show eastern movement ratios between 27 and 30 mm/a. We can also calculate the overall speed vectors in the flat surface and the movement directions using the Northern and Eastern Offsets also.
The 5 shows the speed sector chart at the eight cGPS locations in Myanmar. Movement rate in the horizonal planes at the eight cGPS sites in Myanmar. There was a magnitude of 6. 8 earthquakes at 7.50 a.m. on November 11, 2012 in Thabeikkyin, 100 km northern of Mandalay, Myanmar, near the trail of the Sagaing Fault at a deep of about 10 km.
The SWBO and SDWN sites are about 50 km from the epicenter (Fig. 1). In order to obtain the SEISM caused by the quake, the GPS files were converted to kinematics using the extensive tracking software. Tracks require observational information in either SP3 or SP3 or RINEX formats.
GPS observations were recorded by the two stations: Measuring frequency 50 Hz and 10 Hz positioner. Additionally, the IGS LAZ has been used to fix the kinematics baseline. We' have chosen the'long' modus, because SWBO and SDWN are earth terminals more than one kilometer away from the IGS-Basis.
The pictures also show the movements of the earth during the seism. Movement is easy to perceive when using high-frequency GPS information. If one compares the results of the GAMIT/GLOBK and TRACK kinematics processes, one can see that the SDWN stations have been moving about 15 cm to the southward and the SWBO stations about 3 cm to the north. 3.
Results from Myanmar's Myanmar web site are not sufficient to determine the hatching rates of the sagaing fault. Previously, Vigny et al.  report an annual movement ratio of 18-20 mm/a. As a result, the shifts in the south trans-ect sites are still less than anticipated.
Therefore, further investigation is necessary to determine the cause of the observed sagaing error distortion. Firstly, the analysis of the observational information gathered at eight Myanmar sites on both sides of the sagaing fault in order to determine the speed and heading of each one.
Secondly, the co-seismic movement rates associated with an quake were investigated. Analytical results show that the eastern side of the sagaing error moved south-easterly at an approximate 32-40 mm/a while the western side of the error moved northeasterly at a ratio of approximately 31-35 mm/a.
Coseismic analyses were performed on two Thabeikkyin 2012 M6. gps sites. They are 50-60 km from the epicenter. The GPS kinematics analyses clearly showed that the stop on the eastern side of the Sagaing Fault immediately shifted 15° southwards. cm, while the western side of the disturbance was moving 3.0 cm northwards.
Even though sagaing fault is about 1200 km long and more GPS units are needed for surveillance, we find the results of the eight GPS units also supporting. Therefore, this study shows that the stellar activity of the Tagaing Fault can be observed by means of geodesic methods. It is our belief that such an exploration will contribute to a better understanding of tectonics activity in Myanmar and Southeast Asia.
Some of this research was sponsored by the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS), the Myanmar Earthquake Committee and the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (Myanmar). Such work would not be possible without the Myanmar based rough GPS information. Many thanks to the Myanmar Earthquake Committee (MEC) and the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) for the provision of information on GPS and acces to GAMIT/GLOBK applications.
Many thanks to various individuals; Oo Than and Myo Nanda Aung, employees of the Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (Myanmar), for their contributions to this research effort in allocating funds for the implementation of the work. Pyae Sone Aung graduated with a Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronic Engineering) from the Mechatronic Engineering Department of Hmawbi Technological University in Myanmar in 2010.
For five years he worked as a voluntary worker in a non-governmental organisation, Myanmar Earthquake Committee, Myanmar Engineering Society. He is interested in new technologies for the computing of NCSS and quality-assured measurement of NCSS for a number of structural and kinematics uses.