Originally established between 1150 and 1200 A.D. to the north-west of this small hamlet, the name of the small settlement was given to the area. During the Middle Ages the Hanseatic League was a member of the Hanseatic League, making it a prosperous one. Today Göttingen is known for its old Göttingen Universität (Georgia Augusta or "Georg-August-Universität"), which was established in 1734 (first grades in 1737) and became the most popular European universities.
Seven teachers in 1837 protest against the complete supremacy of the Hanover rulers; they left office, but became known as "Göttinger Sieben". Chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder also visited the Faculty of Jurisprudence at the University of Göttingen. Several of the most renowned historical philosophers, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert, were lecturers at the University of Göttingen.
Göttingen, like other universities, has its own picturesque tradition. During the doctoral dissertation period, the student is dragged from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel fountain in front of the Old Town Hall in trolleys. Almost unaffected by the Allied bombings in the Second World War, Göttingen's inner town is today an appealing place to stay with many stores, cafés and pubs.
This is why many college graduates are living in the inner cities and give Göttingen a young flair. By 2003, 45% of the inner cities were between 18 and 30 years old. Göttingen is commercially known for its manufacturing of optics and fine mechanical machines and is home to the Carl Zeiss, Inc. optics microscope group.
Sartorius AG, which specializes in biotechnology and measuring instruments - the Göttingen area is known as the "Measurement Valley. NextPharma GmbH, one of the biggest order manufacturing companies for pharmaceuticals in Germany, is also located in Göttingen. At NextPharma we produce a large amount of pharmaceuticals for both domestic and foreign customers such as the USA, Brazil and the remainder of Europe.
In Göttingen, 12 years of joblessness were recorded. Located in the western part of the inner town, the city's train depot is on Germany's most important north-south rail route. Goettingen has two professionally run sports clubs; the men's and women's clubs are in the German Bundesliga team. Göttingen's roots go back to a town called Gutingi in the immediate southeast of the later town.
For the first time it is documented in a charter of the Holy Roman Kaiser Otto I from the year 953 A.D., in which the Kaiser hands over part of his possessions in the town to the Moritz Abbey in Magdeburg. Between 1323 and 1329 the fort was demolished by the Göttingen burghers and eventually demolished by Duke Otto I during his feud with the town of Göttingen in 1387.
This is the village that finally received the right to be a citizen. The present day village was probably established between 1150 and 1180, although the precise conditions are not known. Heinrich the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, is believed to have established the hometown. In the oldest part of the twentieth century, the arrangement of the roads is in the form of a five-sided square, and it has been suggested that the foundation of the municipality should follow a plan.
In those days the name of the village was Gudingin or Gotingen. Residents were obeying Welsh property and sovereign laws, and the first Göttingen citizens are cited, suggesting that Göttingen was already organized as a real state. However, it was not a free imperial capital, but subjected to the Welf ducal archdukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg.
Heinrich the Elder (V) of Braunschweig, oldest of Heinrich the Lion's sons and sibling of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV, is called the master of Göttingen between 1201 and 1208. Originally the Welf residence in the village was a farmhouse and the Welf dukes' barns, which occupy the oldest part of the town's ramparts erected before 1250.
Göttingen was in its early stages entangled in the Welfs' conflict with their foes. During the first few years of the thirteenth centuries, the first conflict was for the benefit of the citizens of Göttingen, who were able to use the current economic and financial climate to be wooed by various factions, thus compelling the Welfenstadt rulers to compromise with the city.
Duke Otto the Child gave the Göttingen burghers the same right in a 1232 deed as they had at the times of his Uncle Otto IV and Henry the Elder of Braunschweig. Among them were advantages regarding the self-government of the city, the defence of merchants and the simplification of trade. Also, the paper promised that the city would not be in the clutches of other states.
We can assume that Göttingen had a municipal councillor of citizens at that point in forties. For the first part, the members of the Board are named in a 1247 deed. Among the areas protected by the first fortifications were the old square, the old townhall, the two major St. John's and St. James's chapels, the smaller St. Nicholas's chapel and the large Weender Strasse, Groner Strasse and Rote Strasse.
The old settlement with the church St. Alban, which later became known as the old Geismar settlement, was situated outside the fortress in front of the Geismar Stadttor. At first the walled enclosure was built and from the end of the thirteenth centuries the walled enclosure was built on the hilly fortifications.
Thus it was smaller than today's Hanover, but bigger than the neighboring Guelph cities Northeim, Duderstadt and Hann. Approximately at that point, the Gote brook, which ran along the southern side of the city wall, was linked to the line by a canal, and the river was now known as the Leinekanal.
In 1257, after the deaths of Otto the Child, his children Albert I of Brunswick (the Great) and Johann passed on their father's land to their heirs. Göttingen went to Albert I and was passed on to his father in 1286 by his beloved Duke Albert II "the Fat Man". Albert II selected Göttingen as his domicile and entered the Welf Residenz, which he converted into a stronghold called Ballerhus, after which the Burgstraße is called.
Albert II tried to dominate the fast developing city by establishing a new city (Neustadt) to the western side of the city, over the Leinenkanal and outside the Groner Stadttor. However, the Duke could neither hinder the western enlargement nor the prosperity of the city of Göttingen by efficiently examining every expectation of economical growth in the Neustadt.
In 1319, after the Neustadt failed, the municipal councillor purchased the troublesome contest in the western part of the country for three hundred Deutschmarks and was promised by the duke that he would not build a fort within a single kilometre of the capital. At the end of the thirteenth centuries two convents were established on the outskirts of the village.
Franciscus Lubecus, the municipal chronologist, said that a Franziskanerkloster (Franciscan monastery) was erected in 1268 to the west, in the area of today's Wilhelmsplatz square. The Jews set tling in Göttingen in the end of the thirteenth cenury. The Duke gave the council a permit on 1 March 1289 to allow the first Jew, Moses, to establish himself within the boundaries of the municipal boundaries.
Following the decease of Albert the Fat in 1318, Göttingen went over to Otto den Milden (died 1344), who governed both the "Principality of Göttingen" and the Braunschweig area. Between 1323 and 1329 the Göttingen burghers managed to destroy the Grone and Rosdorf fortresses between 1323 and 1329.
As Otto the Merciful passed away without having a child, his brethren Magnus and Ernest split the country between them. It was Ernest I who was given Göttingen, the impoverished Guelph principality, which was to stay separated from Brunswick for a long while. In those days the area was made up of the former Northeim region, the cities of Göttingen, Uslar, Dransfeld, Münden, Gieselwerder and half of Moringen.
In 1367 Ernest I was replaced after his decease by his Son Otto I of Göttingen (d. 1394), who first was living in the town' s fort and tried to make it a lasting Welfsiedlung. His nickname Böse derives from Otto I's unceasing feuding.
Göttingen won a high level of autonomy under Otto the Evil. In 1375 Otto lost sovereignty over the Landgericht am Leineberg to Göttingen, and in 1387 he tried to assert his authority over Göttingen, but with little result. Goettingen burghers attacked and demolished the fort within the ramparts in April 1387.
As a countermeasure, Otto demolished towns and farmhouses in the vicinity of the city. But in a fight between the towns of Rosdorf and Grone under their commander Moritz of Uslar, the Göttingen inhabitants won the war over the duke's armies and forced Otto to recognise the city' autonomy and that of its land.
In 1387 it marked an important turning point in the city' s past. Otto's successors Otto II "The One-Eyed" of Göttingen further reinforced the city' comparative independence, not least because the Welflinie of Braunschweig-Göttingen became extinct with Otto II and the resulting issues after his resignation in 1435 destabilised the local nobility.
When Duke Otto I of Göttingen ceded his responsibility for Jews to the city of Göttingen in the years 1369-70, the Jewish situation worsened considerably and several violent prosecutions and expulsions from the city followed. From 1460 to 1599 there were no Jews at all living in Göttingen. However, the tendency towards an ever lesser Welf impact on the city lasted until the end of the fifteenth centuries, although the city remained an official Welf ownership.
Probably instigated by Henry the Lion or his successors, the smaller originally smaller temple that used to precede this edifice served as a fortified shrine for the nearby fortification. It is a prestigious old townhall dating from between 1366 and 1444. In 1360 the fortresses of the old part of the castle were reconstructed, so that today they also include the new part and the old part.
As part of this work, the four doors of the building were further out and the area of the building increased to around 75 acres. In 1351 the Hanseatic League was formed in Göttingen (see below). Goettingen also won Grona (today Grone) and several other nearby Leine Valley hamlets.
Later in the Middle Ages, the increasing importance of the city was the main factor behind the gradual rise in powers. Woollen for our looms comes from the immediate vicinity of the city, where up to 3000 ewes and 1500 ewe were kept. In 1475, textiles manufacturing was supplemented by new looms, which introduced new looms to Göttingen and strengthened the city's status as a textiles exportor for three successive generation.
It was not until the end of the sixteenth and sixteenth centuries that the downfall of the regional clothing trade occurred, when Göttingen was no longer able to rival cheaper British clothing. Goettingen also became a member of the Hanseatic League, to whose first session it was called in 1351. Göttingen was a city within the German Confederation and therefore benefited from its economical ties, but did not want to interfere in the policy of the Confederation.
Only in 1426 Göttingen became a paid member and went already 1572. Following several divisions and changes of government after the deaths of Otto the One-Eyed, Duke Eric I "the Elder", Prince of Calenberg, joined the Duchy of Göttingen, which became an established part of the Duchy of Calenberg.
In 1504 the city of Göttingen declined to worship Eric I, and so Eric I had Emperor Maximilian I declared the city of Göttingen free of birds. In 1512 the city paid its tribute to Eric I. The resulting economic strain on Göttingen led to the city's decline. After that the relation between Eric and the city became better, because Eric was financially dependent on Göttingen.
A woodcut showing the western view of the village in 1585. 1584 the hometown became the property of the Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, also of the Welf family, and in 1635 it was transferred to the Lüneburg family, which governed it from now on. Göttingen University was established in 1737 by George II Augustus, Emperor of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Hanover Princes.
In 1806 the town was briefly in Prussian possession during the time of Napoleon, in 1807 it was handed over to the new Napoleon kingdom of Westphalia and in 1813, after Napoleon's fall, it was transferred back to the Land of Hanover. 1868 the kingdom of Hannover was disbanded and Göttingen became part of the Prussian province of Hannover.
1854 the Hanoverian Südbahn was built. Today the Göttingen train depot is serviced by intercity express train services on the high-speed Hanover-Würzburg line. Goettingen's inhabitants already early backed Hitler and Nazism. The inclusion of Nazi civilization in the daily lives of Göttingen residents was recorded by David Imhoof.
The Göttingen synagogue was demolished during Kristallnacht on 9 November 1938. A lot of the Jews were slaughtered in National Socialist death camps in Germany. Göttingen sustained relatively little loss during the wide-spread attacks of Britain, Canada and America on Germany by the Nazis. Approximately 2.1% of the town has been devastated.
Göttingen's historical old quarter was virtually unscathed. Some of the old church cathedrals (Paulinerkirche and Johanniskirche) and several universities were severely affected. Anatomical Institute and 57 apartment blocks, mainly in Untere Maschstraße in the center of the center of the city, underwent complete destruction.
As the town had many clinics, these clinics had to take up to four thousand injured German army men and flyers during the Second World War. Goettingen was also lucky that before the arrival of the US army on April 8, 1945 in Goettingen, all Wehrmacht battle forces had left this area, so that Goettingen did not experience any severe land battles, bombing of cannons or other large-scale battles.
Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the town and the county of Göttingen became part of the Hildesheim area. In 1973, the Göttingen county was reformed to include the disbanded counties of Duderstadt and Hannoversch Münden. A group of Germans studying at this polytechnic between 1772 and 1776 founded the Göttinger Hainbund or "Dichterbund" before the Romanticism.
From the 1920' the capital has been associated with the resurgence of interest in the works of George Frideric Händel. Every year the Göttingen International Handel Festival takes place with concerts in the Stadthalle Göttingen and a number of different church buildings. Barbara, the name of the Lied after the village, was given by the female vocalist Barbara in the mid-1960s. It gave a remarkable impulse to German-French post-war conciliation.
One of the streets in the town - Barbara St. - is called after her. Due to the city's long-standing connection to scientists and scientific magazines, Göttingen has the slogan "The town that generates knowledge". This is the abbreviation for the abbreviation "the scientific city". The abbreviation for "the scientific city" is "the scientific city" and the abbreviation for "the scientific city" is "the scientific city".
The following churches were founded in the Göttingen city: The Göttingen train depot is located just westwards of the mediaeval inner centre and offers connections to various German cities. In the Middle Ages, the Göttingen area belonged to the archdiocese of Mainz, and the majority of the inhabitants were Catholic Romans.
From 1528 the teaching of the ecclesiastical reformsman Martin Luther became more and more beloved in the town. Nearly all the inhabitants of the town have been Lutherans for many hundreds of years. Since today the Göttingen area is part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church Hannover. Besides this state sanctuary, there are several other evangelical sanctuaries in Göttingen which are known as free sanctuaries.
1746 the Catholics in Göttingen were taken up again, at first only for the pupils of the new college, but one year later for all those who wanted to participate. In Göttingen, as in other towns in Germany, Islam has taken root with the Turkish immigrants during the economic miracle in the 60s and 70s.
Muslims make up the vast majority of the population in Göttingen. There' two monasteries in towns. There is a municipal administration with 24 members from the twelfth cenury. 1319 this committee took charge of the new part of the village (Neustadt) directly in front of the Berlin walls. Assembly was held on Monday after Michaelas (29 September).
From 1611 all residents could vote for the 24 members of the board. Subsequently, the board voted for the burgomaster. Then in 1690 the municipal government was reorganized again. Subsequently, the board comprised the magistrate, two burgomasters, the municipal attorney (syndicus), the clerk and eight members of the board. In Napoleonic times the Maire magistrate was named and there was also a town councillor.
The following decade saw further reform of the municipal government, reflecting the German state' s changes to the German constitutions and territories. By 1946, the local government bodies of the occupied zone of Britain, to which Göttingen at the time was a part, had established a municipal charter in line with the UK style. In the upper half, the Göttingen crest shows three silvery turrets with rooftops in black on a square of black.
Stadttürme representing the state of a town, which has been given certain privileges. Leo representing the Wolf Dyke Löwen, who reigned in its various sectors in Göttingen for 850 years. Sometimes the town has used a more simple one, composed of a dark chapter "G" on a gold square covered with a spike.
Goettingen is a partner country: Goettingen has: at least two bowling lanes, an indoors pool facility and several open-air baths. Goettingen is an official "university city" and above all known for its university. Goettingen has two theaters, the Deutsches Theater and the Junge Theater. There is also the Theater im OP Göttingen ("ThOP"), which usually presents students' work.
The Göttingen Municipal Museum presents long-term and alternating exhibits with period and artwork material, although most of the museum is currently shut for renovations. In the Old Town Hall take place temporal expositions of works by lokal, provincial and internationn artists. In the Pauliner Church in the buildings of the History University Library there are various changing exhibits, mostly of a purely historiographical character.
A number of important museum and collection facilities are located at the campus. In Göttingen there are four cross-cultural parks and the German Association of International Parks. There are three large botanic Gardens at the University: Forest botanical gardens and Plant Geographical arboretums of the universities of Göttingen, un inhabited'arboretum and botanical gardens. An urban graveyard, the Stadtfriedhof, is covered with groups of woods.
Stadtradio Göttingen, financed by the State of Lower Saxony indirect, transmits on FM 107. at 1 megahertz ( MHz) and will cover all parts of the town and some neighbouring cities and hamlets. Die regionale newspaper Hessen-Niedersächsische Allgemeine has editorial office in Göttingen. Become a Nazi city: culture and politics in Göttingen between the world wars.
The University of Michigan Press. Hop up ^ "Göttingen: Hochspringen^ " Torun twinned cities ". Toru? twinned cities. Toru? Torunia [City Toru? Council] (in Polish).