Galapagos IslandsThe Galapagos Islands
Galápagos Islands (official name: Colón Islands, other name: Las Islas Galápagos, pronounced in Spanish): A part of the Republic of Ecuador, the Republic of Ecuador is an island paradise of vulcanic islands scattered on both sides of the Pacific Ocean equivalent, encircling the center of the western hemisphere, 906 km western of mainland Ecuador.
These islands are known for their large number of indigenous fish and have been explored by Charles Darwin during the second HMS Beagle cruise. Its first documented trip to the islands occurred accidentally in 1535, when Fray Tomás de Berlanga, Bishop of Panamá, was caught by surprise with this unexplored country during a trip to Peru to mediate in a quarrel between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro.
The Berlanga finally came back to the Spanish Empire and described the condition of the islands and the wildlife that lived there. This archipelago was shown and given its name in Abraham Ortelius' 1570 edition of the catalogue. In 1684 the first rough chart of the islands was made by the freebooter Ambrose Cowley, who gave the islands their names after some of his colleagues or after kings and nobles.
They were used in the definitive navigational maps of the islands produced during the Beagle poll under Robert FitzRoy and in Darwin's famous The Voyage of the Beagle. In 1832 the new Republic of Ecuador took the islands from Spain and gave them officially its name.
These islands are situated in the Pacific Ocean, 973 km off the western shore of South America. Their nearest landmass is the continent of Ecuador to which they are attached, 926 km to the east. Speographical projections focusing on the Galápagos. Schools of arched hammer heads, satellite photos of the Galápagos Islands superimposed with the name of the major islands to be seen.
The main road on the island of San Cristóbal. The Galápagos is an exciting trip. These islands are situated at the co-ordinates 1°40'N-1°36'S, 89°16'-92°01'W. The islands in the range that extend across the Ecuator are situated in both the North and South continents, with Volcán Wolf and Volcán Ecuador on Isla Isabela directly on the Isla.
Spain Island, the most southern island of the Archipelago, and Darwin Island, the most northern, are distributed over a 220 km (137 mi) radius. 9 ] The Galápagos Islands consist of 7,880 m2 of lands covering 45,000 m2 (17,000 sqm) of oceans. Isabela, the biggest of the islands, covers 5,800 km2 and accounts for almost three fourths of the Galápagos' area.
There are 18  islands (each with a surface area of at least 1 km2) of the islands (with their German names) in alphabetical order: The Baltra (South Seymour) Isle - Baltra is a small shallow islet near the center of Galapagos. It is a very dry and dry isle, and the flora is made up of salty shrubs, cactus fig s and Palo-Santi tree.
Up until 1986, Baltra was the only Galapagos destination and was served by Baltra International Airlines (Seymour). Today there are two main airfields that operate services from the mainland; the other is on the island of San Cristóbal. Privately owned airplanes to Galápagos have to travel to Baltra as it is the only airfield with accommodation.
Once in Baltra, all guests are immediately taken by coach to one of two coaches. At the first harbour there is a small cove where the ships of Galápagos wait for the people. And the second is a boat terminal that links Baltra to the Santa Cruz Isle. In the 1940' the scientist agreed to relocate 70 of the Baltra shore Iguanas to the neighbouring northern part of Seymour in an experimental project.
The train was surprisingly useful when the indigenous Baltra lizards died out after the Second World War when the Baltra is occupied by the war. In the 1980' s, Northern Seymour lizards were introduced to the Charles Darwin Research Station as part of a farming and reintroduction programme, and in the 1990' shore lizards were re-introduced to Baltra.
Until 1997 the researchers numbered 97 lizards that lived on Baltra, 13 of which had slipped on the islands. Bartholomew Island - Bartolomew Island is a vulcanic island off the eastern shore of Santiago Island in the group of Galápagos Islands and one of the "younger" islands in the Galápagos Islands.
Santiago (James) is one of the most beautiful islands in the world, with Sulivan Bay on the Santiago Bay coast, following the life-long boyfriend of Charles Darwin, Sir Bartholomew James Sulivan, who was a layutenant aboard the HMS Beagle. It is one of the few islands to host the Galápagos Pinguin, the only kind of animal living on the Ecuator.
Another species on the isle is the golden tortoise. The Darwin (Culpepper) Iceland - This is the name of the Darwin Islet. Pelzrobben, Frgatten, Meeresleguane, Schwalbenmöwen, Seelöwen, Wale, sea tortoises, Rotfuß and Nazca Booties are to be seen here. SPAÑOLA (Hood) Iceland - His name was given in honour of Spain.
With about 3 years Española is the oldest isle. She has her own kind of green turtle, Galapagos turtle and mocking thrush. Españolas sea iguanas show a pronounced reddish colour shift between nesting periods. Several of the bird have tried to brood on the Genovesa Isle ( tower ), but fruitless. The Punta Suarez has a migratory, local and indigenous fauna, among them colourful sea-iceans, Española river white-lizarded saurians, crested spotted owls, swallow-headed seagulls, blue-footed gannets, Nazca gannets, red-bellied tropic buzzards, Galápagos falcons, three types of Darwin's Finch and the wavy alba.
Ferdinandina (Narborough) Iceland - The name was given in honour of King Ferdinand II of Aragon, who donated the trip to Columbus. It is the youngest and most western isle. A new, very abrupt eruption began on this isle on 13 May 2005, when an volcanic eruption of volcanic rocks and volcanic eruptions caused a volcanic eruption of 7 km in altitude.
The Punta Espinosa is a small area where thousands of seagull lizards congregate, mainly on top of dark rock. It is the home of the renowned flying unfit Kormorane, Galápagos-Penguine, Pelikane, Galápagos-Seelöwen and Galápagos-Pelzrobben. Isle of Floreana (Charles or Santa María) - Called after Juan José Flores, the first president of Ecuador, during whose reign the Ecuadorian regime took over ownership of the islands.
It' also known as Santa Maria, after one of Columbus' Caravelas. This is one of the islands with the most interesting mankind and one of the oldest populated islands. Nesting on this archipelago are wild flowers and turtle nests (December to May). Patapegadas, a seabird that lives most of its lives outside the country, can be found here.
The name Genovesa (Tower) Islands - derives from Genoa, Italy, the place where Christopher Columbus was born. It is made up of the remainder of a large sea wall that is under water. Well, the name " "bird island"" is quite legitimate. Darwin Bay is home to frigate birds and swallowtails, the only night-active seagull type in the canopy.
Gannets, sea swallows, seagulls, tropical bird, pigeon, petrels and Darwinks are also in the spot. Albemarle Isabela - This Isabela is an archipelago dedicated to Queen Isabela. It is the biggest Galapagos archipelago with an area of 4.640 square kilometres. Sea horse form of the archipelago is the result of the fusion of six large vulcanoes into a unique landmass.
There are Galapagosinguines, flying impaired Kormorane, sea-legguans, Pelikane and Sally Lightfoot-crabs on this isle. On the edges and calenderas of the volcanos of Isabela you can observe terrestrial ice cubes, Galápagos turtles, as well as Darwin Fins, Galápagos Falcons, Galápagos Pigeons and a very interesting flatland population. Puerto Villamil, the third biggest inhabited area of the islands, is situated on the south-eastern tip of the isle.
It'?s the only place the aquator runs across them. Nord-Seymour Isle in the Galápagos; Daphne Isle is in the faraway. The Marchena (Bindloe) Isle - Called after Fray Antonio Marchena, it has an area of 130 square kilometers and a peak height of 343 meters (1,125 ft).
The Galapagos falcons and sealions live on this archipelago and it is home to the Marchena Scarlet Moortilla, an indigenous beast. Nord-Seymour Iceland - His name was given after an English aristocrat, Lord Hugh Seymour. A large populace of blue-footed gannets and swallow-gulls lives on this isle. Isle of Pinzón (Duncan) - Renamed after the Pinzón brethren, the masters of the Pinta and Niña caves, it has an area of 18 square kilometres and a height of 458 metres (1,503 ft).
Connecticut (Louis) Island - Nicknamed after the Pinta Island Marble, it has an area of 60 square kilometers and a peak height of 777 meters (2,549 ft). Sealions, Galápagos falcons, turtles, lizards and porpoises can be seen here. The Pinta Island was home to the last Pinta turtle left, Lonesome George.
It was taken from Pinta Island to Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island where researchers tried to grow it. Island Rábida (Jervis) - It carries the name of the monastery Rábida, where Columbus abandoned his boy on his trip to America. Up until recently, the flamingo was also found in the Laguna, but they have since migrated to other islands, probably due to a shortage of nourishment on Rábida.
There are nine types of finch that have been recorded on this isle. Isle of San Cristóbal (Chatham) - It is named after the seamen's protector, "St. Christopher". It is the first Galapagos archipelago islet that Charles Darwin travelled to during his journey on the Beagle. Fregate bird, sealion, giant tortoise, blue and red-footed booby, tropical bird, ocean iguana, dolphin and swallowtail live on this isle.
Calandrinia galapagos, Lecocarpus dawinii and tree species such as longnum vitae are included in the population. Puerto Baquerizo Moreno is the Galapagos province's main town. It is located at the tip of the south of the peninsula, near San Cristóbal airport. Holy Cruz (Untiring) Isle - The name of the Holy Cross in Spanish, its name is derived in England from the name of the ship HMS Untiring.
The city of Santa Cruz is home to the biggest man-made community in the island, the city of Puerto Ayora. Here are the Charles Darwin Research Station and the head office of the Galápagos National Park Service. Highlands of Santa Cruz provide lush vegetation and are known for their volcanic caves. The Cerro Dragón, known for its dragonflake, is also here, and along the way you can see terrestrial ice lizards looking for food.
Destination: Santa Fe (Barrington) Island - Designated after a town in Spain, it has an area of 24 square km (9. 3 sq.m mi) and a max height of 259 meters (850 ft). The Santa Fe is home to a wood of Opuntia cacti, the biggest in the island, and Palo Santo. The Santa Fe type of terrestrial Iguana is often seen, as are the Lavae Lizard.
Cantiago ( San Salvador, James ) Iceland - His name corresponds to the English Saint James; he is also known as San Salvador, after the first Caribbean islands Columbus found. It has an area of 585 square kilometers (226 square meters mi) and a maximal height of 907 meters (2,976 ft).
Navy Lizards, Sealions, Seals, Terrestrial and Ocean Tortoises, Flemingos, Dolphins as well as Haie can be found here. Animals that have been brought to the islands by man and have done serious damage to indigenous animals have been destroyed (pigs until 2002; caprine animals until the end of 2006). Galápagos and Galápagos falcons are usually seen, as is a seal population.
Wolff (Wenman) Isle - This was the name of the small isle after the Geologic Theodor Wolf. Here you can see sealskins, frigate bird, Nazca and Red-footed Booby, sea-leguanas, shuttles, cetaceans, grey owls, cetaceans, swallowtails and many more. One of the most popular inhabitants is the Vampiric Bunting, which partially feed on the bleeding of other species of bird and can only be found on this isle.
The Daphne Major - A small islet just north of Santa Cruz and just West of Baltra, this very remote little islet, though untitled, appear on Ambrose Cowley's map of 1684. The South Plaza Islands (Plaza Sur) - It is dedicated to a former Ecuadorian governor, General Leónidas Plaza. Leguans (land, sea and some hybrid types of both species) are plentiful, and from the rocks in the south part of the archipelago you can observe a large number of bird life, among them tropical bird life and martins.
unnamed island - A small island that is mainly used for recreational purposes. Known as La garua (June to November), the seaside temperatures during the summer months are 22°C, a constant and cool breeze is blowing from the south-east and south-east, heavy drizzle (garúas) lasts most of the days and thick mist covers the islands.
The weather changes with increasing height on the big islands. From one place to another there is a wide variety of rainfall, not only with height, but also dependent on the position of the islands and also on the season. Below chart, which corresponds to the 1969 rainfall, shows the variations in rainfall at different locations on the island of Santa Cruz:
In March 1969 rainfall fell over the Charles Darwin Station on the south shore of Santa Cruz 249. In Baltra Island, rainfall in the same months was only 137. Baltra is behind Santa Cruz in terms of the predominant wind from the south, so that most of the humidity in the Santa Cruz plateau escapes.
In March 1969, rainfall at Charles Darwin Station was 249. In the bigger islands, the patterns of generally humid plateaux and dryer plains affect the vegetation.
The Berlanga's ship was drifting off course as the wind subsided, and his group arrived at the islands on 10 March 1535. By 1793, James Colnett described the wildlife of Galápagos and proposed using the islands as a basis for the Pacific whaling industry. Drawing the first precise navigational maps of the islands.
Wallcatchers and furs merchants at sea slaughtered and caught tens of millions of Galapagos turtles to gain their fats. Galápagos' first known constant inhabitant was Patrick Watkins, an Irishman who was abandoned on the island of Floreana from 1807 to 1809. On February 12, 1832, Ecuador annexed the Galápagos Islands and called them the archipelago of Ecuador.
Galápagos' first sovereign, General José de Villamil, introduced a group of prisoners to the Floreana Islands, and in October 1832 some craftsmen and peasants united them. Jose Valdizán and Manuel Julián Cobos attempted a new colonisation and began to exploit a species of plaice used as a dye on the islands (Roccella portentosa).
When Valdizán was murdered by some of his workmen, Cobos took a group of more than a hundred workmen from the mainland to the island of San Cristóbal and tried his hand at growing it. Antonio Gil started another farm on the island of Isabela in 1897. In the course of a whole year, starting in September 1904, an Academy of Sciences of California research team headed by Rollo Beck visited the Galápagos and collected scholarly materials on geography, enomology, ornithology, geology, plant sciences, animal husbandry and cetology.
A small movement of Europeans came to the islands in the twenties and thirties. In the 1930' there was a number of unresolved disappeared people on the Floreana Islands among the then mostly Europeans emigrants. Galapagos affair: Equadorian law gave all Colombians the opportunity to obtain twenty acres of free lands, the right to retain their nationality, tax exemption for the first ten years on Galápagos, and the right to free hunting and fishing on all inhabited islands where they could establish themselves.
When the first settlers arrived in Europe, they were Norwegians who briefly set up on Floreana before continuing on to San Cristobal and Santa Cruz. Some years later other settlers from Europe, America and Ecuador arrived on the islands looking for a easier way to survive. Offspring of the Kastdalen and German Angermeyer families still lives on the islands.
Ecuador during the Second World War empowered the United States to build a marine bases on Baltra Island and radars at other strategically important sites. The Baltra was founded as a United States Air Force outpost. The name Baltra was "Beta Base" together with "Alpha Base" in Nicaragua and "Gamma Base" in Salinas (continental Ecuador).
Crews based in Baltra and the above places set up a geographical protective triangle responsible for Pacific patrols of hostile U-boats and also protecting the Panama Canal. Today the archipelago is still an officially recognized Iraqi army bases. You can still see the foundation and other remnants of the US foundation when you cross the isle.
1946 a penitentiary was founded on the island of Isabela, but it was closed in 1959. These islands are managed by a regional administration. Its territory is subdivided into provinces, each of which covers specific islands. A few offspring of the early Colonial Europeans and Americans on the islands still live on the islands today.
Approximately 1,000 to 2,000 inhabitants named the islands their home in 1959. More than 15,000 persons were affected in the 80s and 25,124 in 2010. There are five islands inhabited: Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz. The flight possibilities to the Galápagos are restricted to two islands:
Can Cristobal (San Cristóbal Airport) and Baltra (Seymour Airport). Baltra must be used by privately owned airplanes as it is an airfield with accommodation. Baltra's Seymour International Airports was recently refurbished (2012-2013) to take bigger airplanes. Until Forrest Nelson's Hotel Galápagos started the first organised trips in April 1969, there was no scheduled flight.
They were the major sources of accommodation in the Galápagos. Baltra, an isle ruled by the army, was opened for accommodation in 2006. For accommodation on the shore, Baltra also needs a permit from the army administration. Others allow you to camp on the campsites on the beaches, which are called "leisure" areas for the people.
San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Floreana and Isabela are the islands where land-based accommodation is available. Until 2012 more than half of the Galapagos tourists made their trips with daily boat and these small hotel. Cruises are still the best way to see the island's rich surroundings and fauna.
The Galápagos has only 116 places for visitors: 54 shore places and 62 dive or snorkel places. Although the first protection law for the Galápagos was passed in 1930 and amended in 1936, it was not until the end of the fifties that measures were taken to monitor the local population.
The International Union for the Conservation of Nature organised a fact-finding visit to the Galápagos in 1955. 1959, in the anniversary year of Charles Darwin's publishing of The Origin of Species, the Government of Ecuador stated 97. 5 per cent of the total area of the islands are covered by natural parks, with the exception of already colonized areas. In the same year the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) was established.
CDF, an Belgium-based non-governmental organisation (NGO), has the main task of conducting research and providing the results of this research to the Galapagos authorities for the efficient administration of the Galapagos region. CDF' s research work began with the founding of the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island in 1964. Much of this work is now being carried out by the Galápagos National Park Service using the research results and methods of the CDF.
Galapagos Country Iguana, Conolophus spp. Galápagos Falcon, Buteo Kalapagoensis, the island's chief catcher (at the top of the feed chain) and "environmental police" Imported flora and fauna such as wild caprine birds, felines and bovine species that have been inadvertently or voluntarily transported to the islands by man pose the greatest danger to Galapagos.
Indigenous wildlife, which lacks on the islands an abundance of wildlife, is defenceless against imported game. These differences pose a big challenge to the islands and the indigenous peoples who live there. They have infiltrated large areas and exterminated indigenous plant life in the wetlands of San Cristobal, Floreana, Isabela and Santa Cruz.
The Galápagos have been imported into many different habitats by a pirate. As Thor Heyerdahl referred to papers in which the Viceroy of Peru was mentioned, in the knowledge that UK buccaneers were eating the caprine birds they themselves had abandoned on the islands, he ordered the release of dog owners there to kill the beasts. 17 ] Even when the colonisation of Floreana by José de Villamil was unsuccessful, he ordered the transfer of caprine deer, asses, oxen and other livestock from the Floreana farm to other islands in order to colonise them later.
There are six types of small, alien vertebrate animals that have built up self-sufficient Galapagos population and can become invasive: However, the fast-growing chicken industries on the populated islands have caused concerns among nature activists because they are concerned that indigenous animals could bring diseases to indigenous population. Galapagos Sea Reserve is threatened by a number of factors, including human rights, economic and social risks and environmental degradation.
The main threats to the reserve come from domestic, continental and overseas fisheries that target illegal aquatic organisms within the reserve, such as hammerheads ( "sharks" and other species) for their fins, and off-season harvesting of seacucumbers. Developments threaten both terrestrial and maritime biodiversity. Introductory, dans The Galapagos : A Natural Laboratory for the Earth Sciences.
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The Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands. Hop up ^ Cho, Lisa (2005) Moon Galapagos Islands. Galapagos: the islands that have transformed the whole planet. Galapagos, a nature story. "The Hidden Treasures of the Galapagos Islands" (PDF). News from Galapagos (in Spanish) (55): 66. Galapagos Darwin: Steps into a new realm.
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Hop up ^ "Wild Galapagos Dog and Cat." The Galapagos Sanctuary. The Galapagos Sanctuary. "non-indigenous small land vertebrate animals in the Galapagos." Comprehension of invasive species in the Galapagos Islands. Socially and ecologically interactions on the Galapagos Islands. "Unauthorized angling of sharks in the Galapagos Sea Reserve" (PDF). Maritime policy. Skip high ^ "World Heritage Committee writes in the tombs of the Buganda Kings (Uganda) and away Galápagos Islands (Ecuador)".
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