Myanmar Facts (formerly Burma) |
Burma is an island nation, both geographic and political. The city is divided from its neighbors to the western, northern and eastern parts by hills and is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the souther. By the end of the eighteenth and twentieth century it was expanding in political terms, but the nineteenth and twentieth were a time of conscious segregation, a state of affairs that has lasted during the reign of today's army junt.
Because of the insulation, some ancient theatres have been retained, free of external influence. However, theater and dancing did not evolve in a void. The early contact with India had an important part in the evolution of Myanmar's dancing, theater, art, literary and musical life, and later, in the latter part of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Thai relations also affected theatres.
Southeast Asia: Centrally Myanmar (formerly Burma) | Eco-regions
Irrawaddy dry forests[IM0205], like the wet broadleaf woods around them, have been under intense transformation pressures for centuries. But until recently most of the large mammals, like the tigers, were still in the demolished forrests. Recently, the greater animal life in this eco-region has been pushed to the verge of disappearance.
This eco-region's low level of environmental awareness has hampered nature preservation endeavours. Situation and general descriptionThis eco-region is located in the arid region of Cymanmar. It seldom rains for more than fifteen a year. This eco-region is characterised by arid forest with precipitation of less than 800 mm.
Frequent varieties are Terminalia olive and Tectona Homiltoniana. These characterise the arid, low-growing, demoted woods. Two kinds of pipterocarp forest also exist: High Indaing and Low Indaing. While the former makes large wood, the latter slows down its development through repetitive pruning and combustion of high indaing.
Among the Indaing woods of Shorea incongifolia and Pentacme siaamensis, there are populations of native tubercular species. There is also a drought-polluted broadleaf woodland in this area. The woods are dominated by tea. Bamboos like Dendrocalamus Stricus, Bambusa Poly-Morpha and B. Tarda are also found in these forrests. In the past, the bigger animals found in this eco-region have been exterminated.
The animals living in the reserves comprise small and medium-sized animals. A number of stag types such as the baying stag (Muntiacus muntjak), the Eldhirsch ("Cervus eldi") or the Sambarhirsch ("Cervus unicolor") are preserved. Primates are the macacakak (Macaca mulatta) and the hollock gabbon (Hylobates hoolock). There is also only one indigenous mice in this eco-region (Table 1).
The mammals are almost indigenous and non-human. A star means that the distribution area of the specie is restricted to this eco-region. There are more than 300 different bird populations, among them two seldom marsh birds: the European White Storch (Ciconia nigra) and the Woollen Neck (Ciconia bicolor). There are two almost indigenous types in this eco-region (Table 2).
The eco-region also intersects with Irrawaddy Plains EBA (132), which contains two birds with reduced distribution that correspond to our native endemics (Stattersfield et al. 1998). endemics and almost endemics. A star means that the distribution area of the specie is confined to this eco-region. The majority of the woods in this eco-region are used for agricultural purposes or degradation.
Existing woods are degrading and do not have the full diversity of biodiversity. Over the last twenty years, increasing global populations and demands have pushed many of the major endangered varieties within this area. There is only one protected area in this eco-region that fulfils our IUCN requirements (Table 3).
It is an eco-region that is poorly preserved and the currently managed reserves offer little conservation for its flora and fauna. The WCMC (1997) Conservation areas overlapping with the eco-region. Eco-region numbers of nature reserves overlapping with other eco-regions are shown in parentheses. This eco-region is threatened by similarities to those in all of Myanmar and its neighbouring states.
The transformation of forest into farmland leads to the destruction of habitats and splintering of the area. A shortage of sanctuaries and poaching policies are leaving the rest of the forest free of game. MacKinnon's broadleaf forest sub-unit (09a) is the Irrawaddy Dry Forests[IM0205] and the Irrawaddy Moist broadleaf forests[IM0117].
Myanmar Coastal Forest Rain[IM0132] covers Udvardy's Burman rainforest, the southwest part of the Thai Monsoon Woods and the west part of the Indo-Chinese rainforest. Irrawaddy Moist deciduous forests[IM0117], Irrawaddy dry forests[IM0205], Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma Montane rain forests[IM0109], Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests[IM0303] and Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin forest rains [IM0131] are similar to Udvardy's Burma rainforest and Burma monsunwald.
Recent testimonials for this eco-region are currently summarized in a single paper for the whole Indo-Pacific region.