Dvb Burmese News Facebook

Burmese News Facebook

DVB, on its new path as a commercial, independent media house in Burma. DVB continues to report news from the west coast of Burma despite the many challenges. The DVB Multimedia Group is an independent Burmese news organization. All of the recently established offices in Burma have Voice of Burma (DVB). The DVB Multimedia Group is an independent Burmese news organization.

Myanmar

Whilst the Burmese reigning army jungle has for many years been interested in developing information and communications technology (ICT) for commercial and propagandistic ends, it has also made violent efforts to limit the availability of electronic and on-line contents. The November 2010 election has altered this dynamism. Although widely convicted of errors, the March 2011 surveys put into place a nominal civil administration under the leadership of former General Thein Sein, backed by a military-backed group.

From then on, the world of politics has opened up somewhat, with beneficial effects on the liberty of the Net. Earlier news sites that were graded were opened, people detained for their on-line activity were freed, and opponents could use on-line instruments to mobilise followers. Nevertheless, there are still considerable barriers to greater liberty on the web.

Despite the increase in the use of cell telephones and the emergence of cafes in 2011, the level of services provided to telephones and connections to the web is sometimes very low and only a small proportion of the general public has frequent ICT use, especially in the countryside. 1 ] Where the grid structure has been upgraded, it is focused on the economic sectors or preparations for major global meetings such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) meeting in 2014 are planned.

Myanmar Post and Telecommunications (MPT), a state-owned enterprise, started its first formal e-mail services in November 1997. Incorporating Bagan Cybertech, the first privately held ISP in 2002, contributed to increasing the number of people using the site, even though the business was later taken over by the JD.

Myanmar Computer Science Development Law of 1996[2], which sentences the ownership of an non-registered computer terminal and connections to unauthorised computer network to up to 15 years in jail, was the government's first effort to limit the liberty of the web. Other legislation adopted later has increased a culture of anxiety and self-censorship about on-line interaction, despite the fact that in 2011 web surfers crossed the borders of permitted language and mobilised effective campaigning for policy or societal upheavals.

It is unaffordable to pay for a home broadband access in a state where an estimated 26 per cent of the people live below the income threshold[6], although there are significant differences between regions. According to the International Monetary Fund, per-head GDP amounted to USD 821 in 2011. 9 ] For example, the two largest ISP' (Internet Services Provider) charge for DSL services varies from $35 for rates ranging from $128Kbps to $250 for 2Mbps.

10 ] This is a scarce asset in Burma, in excess of the cost of installing it at $625 and the need to have a land line. 11 ] According to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the proportion of subscribers with permanent subscriptions to the Internet was only 0.06% in 2011 as a consequence of these obstacles and has therefore not changed significantly compared with the year before.

12 ] When they register an access to the web, the consumer must present their identity card, a certificate of policing and a statement in person that they are not participating in politics. However, several events occurred in 2011, indicating a failure of co-ordination between different authorities in formulating, implementing and enforcing policies.

The Burmese authorities have for years consistently limited the Burmese exiled community's physical and electronic publicity. However, this situation improved in September 2011, when the Chinese authorities removed the blockades not only on international news channels such as Reuters, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Radio Free Asia and the Bangkok Post, but also on large exiled publications such as Irrawaddy, Mizzima and the Burmese democratically voice, which had long been blacklisted by the Burmese people.

In August 2011, a long-standing publicity drive in the state owned audio-visual sector was suspended, exiled correspondents were given a visa, and a number of news agencies took part in early 2012 in public relations meetings and debates on publicity. The strict rules condemning blogs and on-line reporters to long jail sentences, in particular, are still in force and can be used at any moment to penalise those who access, disseminate or provide information to the unobstructed news services (see "Violations of user rights").

Consequently, self-censorship among web surfers is still the norm, albeit less so than in the past. Another hint that the goverment has not completely given up online bullying is that a small number of political sensible blog, among them that of Moethee Zun, one of the exiled ringleaders in 1988, has been frozen since May 2012.

As you know, for unblocked sites, the Press Scrutiny Board has instructed news agencies to remove items that have been excluded from print publish. As Popular News newspaper reports that five journalists had been sacked in January 2012, the government contacted the magazine within an hours of the information being published and demanded its withdrawal.

One turning point in the loudness, severity and effect of Facebook communication was the Myitsone Dam dispute. It was part of a multi-billion USD dam building program under China's state-owned China Power Investment Corporation (CPI) at eight sites along the Irrawaddy River, an important source of income for the Burmese population and a natural culture crossroad.

In August 2011, when the National League for Democracy (NLD) chair Aung San Suu Kyi criticised the campaign, Facebook members divided news feeds, distributed and commented. In addition, domestic weekly newspapers have adopted the policy of publishing political news on-line rather than presenting it to the authorities for permission in advance, as is necessary for printed use.

In this way, the reader could not only read non-censored messages, but could also make commentaries. Afterwards, at the end of September 2011, President Thein Sein gave in to government requests by announcement of a provisional postponement of the work. However, despite this vitality, the use of Facebook for mobilisation is still dangerous and could result in imprisonment.

In addition to the use of on-line sociopolitical mobilisation tool, the user community, with the approval of the authorities, has organised meetings to exchange general ICT-related information. The third BarCamp in Burma took place in February 2012. While the new civilian-led administration of President Thein Sien, which took up its post in March 2011, has brought unparalleled enhancements to the free world of the Web, the reform lacks a solid legislative basis.

Consequently, under the oppressive legislation of the former army june, the user is still at threat of persecution and detention and a small number of people detained for on-line activity remains in detention. Recording severe penalties against discerning web surfers has promoted self-censorship and the perception of ubiquitous watch.

Public agencies either supervise online activities prior to arrests or misuse prisoners during interrogations to obtain their passports and digital documentation. Cyber café proprietors are obliged to keep a record of the Burmese and foreign customers' privacy and browser histories and to present them to the relevant government agencies once a months.

1 ] "Internet cafes must apply for a commercial licence again", Mizzima, 27 May 2011, http://www.mizzima.com/business/5333-internet-cafes-must-reapply-for-a-business-license.html. In June 1989, the Burmese Army Junior Chiefs change the English name of the land from Burma to Myanmar. Democratic campaigners and their international backers, and the US administration included, have used Burma. 3 ] Computer Science Development Act, 20 September 1996, Section X, https://www.myanmarisp.com/ICTnews/law10-96.

In February 2012, MCPT Minister Thein Tun told Parliament's third ordinary meeting that the number of web surfers had risen to 500,000 in 2011-2012. "The Third Periodic Meeting of First Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Continues", The New Light of Myanmar XIX, No. 287 (February 2, 2012), http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/NLM2012-02-02.pdf. Burma's telecommunications college director Kyaw Soe also said at Burma's economic meeting on May 19, 2012 that there are 500,000 people using the Burmese web.

Authors' interviews with topics of the meeting, 25 June 2012. In its 2011 figures, the International Telecommunications Union quotes a similar estimation, probably from the state: "In 2011, the International Telecommunications Union will use a similar estimate: ITU, "Percentage of people using the web, permanent (wired) broadband subscription, permanent (wired) broadband subscription", 2011, access July 13, 2012, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ICTEYE/Indicators/Indicators.aspx#. 5 ] Dans Soo Kang, "Strategies for National CERT of Myanmar", atelier sous-régional de l'UIT-ASEAN CSIRT/CIRT/CERT/CERT pour CLMV, 29 novembre au 1er décembre 2011 à Yangon, (Myanmar Korea Information Society Development Institute - KISDI) http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/asp/CMS/Events/2011/CIRTWkshp/S8_Dr_Insoo_Kang. pdf ; "Myanmar führt 1.

This figure is likely to be prudent as it is derived from information gathered prior to a significant rise in the price of fuels in October 2005 and August 2007 and an inflated wage increase in April 2006. 8] International Monetary Fund, "World Economic Outlook Database", International Monetary Fund, April 2011, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx? sy=2009&ey=2016&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=88&pr1.y=5&c=518&s=NGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&grp=#a=#cs1.

10 ] The currency swayed between 750 and 860 Kyat per US Dollars in the course of 2011. 11 ] "Internet Cafes are expecting lower monthly fees when the number of users decreases", Popular Journal[in Burmese], access on January 4, 2012, http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/29866. "Initial Installation Cost Reduced for Wimax Inter-net Service", Popular Journal[in Burmese], http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/32988.

12] Internationale Fernmeldeunion, "Fixed Broadband Subscriptions, 2000-2010 Data", UIT, Aktualisiert im Dezember 2011, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/index.html. 13 ] "Decline in cyber café user and hourly rate due to low call speeds", Popular Journal[in Burmese], access on January 7, 2012, http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/29371. 14 ] Interviews with explorers in Hinthada, Irrawaddy region, and in Prome, Pegu Division, January 7 and 8, 2012.

15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired within this Month",[en birman] Popular Journal, 11 novembre 2011, http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/31653. ; Sai Zom Hseng, "Burma's internet 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired within 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired within 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repayed 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired within 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 10 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired 10 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 6 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired 22379 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired 2233 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired=aWaddy 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaiw 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired 3 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Dis 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired Dis 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be a Craw 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired Y 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Rep 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired Y 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 2006 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired November 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be November 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired This 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be November 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired This 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 2006 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired This 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 2006 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired in 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be 2006 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be Repaired in 15 ] "Internet Fiber Disruption be in... 16 ] "Internet cafés must depend on the use of Pfingo and games",[in Burmese] Popular Journal, called on January 7, 2012, http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/30157.

17 ] "China Support's Burmese International Security,"[in Burmese] Popular Journal, called on January 8, 2012, http://popularmyanmar.com/mpaper/archives/33163. 18 ] "Sino-Myanmar Corporations Collaborate in Telecommunications Technology", The People's Daily Online English, November 13, 2011, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90778/7643265.html. Name of the ReportName=/WTI/CellularSubscribersPublic&ReportFormat=HTML4.0&RP_intYear=2011&RP_intLanguageID=1&RP_bitLiveData=False ; "Myanmar (Burma) Telecoms Mobile and Internet", BuddeComm, Zugriff 2. Janvier 2012, www.budde.com.au/Research/Myanmar-Burma-Telecoms-Mobile-and-Internet.html. _intYear=2011&RP_intLanguageID=1&RP_bitLiveData=False ; "Myanmar (Burma) Telecoms Mobile and Internet", BuddeComm, Zugriff 2. Januar 2012, Accessoirement. 21 ] "Myanmar Introduces 1st Telecommunications Service Call Center", Xinhua, December 12, 2012, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/sci/2011-12/21/c_13131320009. htm; As of February 2012, the MCPT Newsletters report that there are 2.

Eight million cell phones in Burma. www.mcpt.gov.mm/sites/default/files/pdf/1-1%20Smart News Journal%20.pdf. MCPT Newsletter[in Burmese], February 29, 2012. 22 ] "Myanmar wants to add more wireless connections within 5 years", The Financial Express, 23 April 2011, http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/more.php? news_id=11101&date=2011-04-24. 23 ] "Burmese price of Burmese smart cards halved", The Irrawaddy, 6 March 2012, http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php? page=23158. 24 ] "CDMA 450MHz Not Everyowed InterNet Uses,"[in Burmese] Popular Journal, launched January 8, 2012, http://popularmyanmar. com/mpaper/archives/32811 .

25 ] Interviews with telephone user in Rangoon, January 2, 2012. 26 ] Nilar Aye, "Current Status of PKI Development in Myanmar", The Workshop on CA-CA Interoperability Framework in ASEAN August 5-6, 2010, http://www.gits.net.th/Documents/CACA_Interoperability_ASEAN/CA_Workshop_2_8_8_10_Myanmar_updated. site supprimé. pfd (site en anglais seulement). Myanmar Internet left to continue to meet mit interruption", People's Daily Online English, 3 novembre 2010, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90781/90877/7187341.html.

27 ] Ye Kaung Myint Maung, "Nation's First Cyber City Take Shape", The Myanmar Times, December 24-30, 2007, http://mmtimes.com/no398/n001.htm. 28 ] Authors interviews an Information Ministry officer who asked to stay anonym, July 27 and December 30, 2010; borderless reporter, development of a national web portal or repression? November 2010, http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rap_birmanie-2.pdf. in German.

29 ] Authors interviews an Information Ministry officer who asked to stay anonym, July 27 and December 30, 2010; borderless reporter, development of a national web portal or repression? November 2010, http://en.rsf.org/IMG/pdf/rap_birmanie-2.pdf. in German. 31 ] Shwe Aung, "Not possible for 5,000 Kyat per Sim-ticket, says the MPT official,"[in Burmese] Burma's voice in democracy, January 10, 2012, http://burmese.dvb.no/archives/19809.

32 ] Ba Kaung, "Burmese Burmese ISP questions monopolistic state interests", The Irrawaddy, February 15, 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/77. 33 ] Hpyo Wai Tha, "Burmese Sim Cardholder Prize Smashed by Half", The Irrawaddy, 15 février 2012, www.irrawaddy.org/archives/464. ? http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/464. Zarni Mann, "11'SIM Card' Campigners Detailained for Questioning in Rangoon", The Irrawaddy, 29 février 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/464.

34 ] Ba Kaung, "Burmese Burmese ISP questions monopolistic state interests", The Irrawaddy, February 15, 2012, http://www.irrawaddy.org/archives/77. 35 ] Sai Zom Hseng, "Burmas Internets, The Irrawaddy, 3. novembre 2011, http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php ? art_id=22379&Submit=Submit=Submit=Submit. 36 ] Interviews with two café proprietors and three Yangon home users, December 28-29, 2011.

37 ] Qichen Zhang, "Burma's Burmese goverment unblocks foreign websites incl. YouTube", OpenNet Initiative, September 20, 2011, http://opennet.net/blog/2011/09/burmas-government-unblocks-foreign-websites-including-youtube. 38] Tun Tun Tun Tun, "Gmail for Sale", Mizzima, September 12, 2011, http://www.mizzima.com/business/5915-gmail-for-sale.html. 39 ] Htet Aung, "Junta Make Interphone Illegal", The Irrawaddy, 16 March 2011, http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php? art_id=20949&Submit=Submit; Aung Myat Soe, "Government prohibits international phone conversations on the Internet", Mizzima, 16 March 2011, http://mizzimaenglish.blogspot.com/2011/03/government-bans-internet-overseas-calls.html.

40 ] "VoIP phone conversations can be addressed", IE Vol. 12, number 12, 24 March 2011. 41 ] Nayee Lin Latt, "Burmese Authorities Crack Down on VOIP Calls", The Irrawaddy, 7 avril 2011, http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php ? art_id=21092&Submit=Submit=Submit. 42 ] Aung Myat Soe, "Government Prohibits the Use of the Internet Overseas", Mizzima, March 16, 2011, http://mizzimaenglish.blogspot.com/2011/03/government-bans-internet-overseas-calls.html. 43 ] Two Burmese IT professionals and four reporters, June 20-25, 2012.

44] Smart News, Volume 1, no. 4, April 25, 2012, http://www.mcpt.gov.mm/sites/default/files/pdf/1-6-smart-news.pdf. 45 ] Shwe Aung and Francis Wade, "Internet cafés prohibit CD, DVD, USB drive ", May 16, 2011, www.burma, cf. 46 ] AP, "Myanmar Behörden entsperren einige verbotene Websites", Yahoo ! actualités, 16 septembre 2011, http://news.yahoo.com/myanmar-authorities-unblock-banned-websites-050311492. html ; Qichen Zhang, "Burma's Government's Unblocks Foreign Websites Including YouTube", OpenNet Initiative, 20. septembre 2011, wwww.birmanie.org.

47 ] Joseph Allchin, "Govt Drop the DVB Slogan'killer media'," Burma's Discount Voice, August 17, 2011, http://www.dvb.no/news/govt-drops-dvb-%E2%80%80%98killer-media%E2%80%99-slogan/17085. 48 ] "BehindBlueCoat: Studies on commercially viable filtration in Syria and Burma", The Citizen Lab, November 9, 2011, http://citizenlab.org/2011/11/behind-blue-coat/? Burma", Forbes, 9. novembre 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2011/11/09/researchers-spot-blue-coat-web-control-gear-in-another-bad-regime-burma/. A Burmese, Ein update aus Burma", The Citizen Lab, 29 novembre 2011, https://citizenlab.org/2011/11/behind-blue-coat-an-update-from-burma/.

50 ] People who wanted to get hold of his blogs got a mail from: "Interview with six Rangoon web surfers, two Mandalay and one Prome Township site visitor, 10-12 January 2012. 51 ] See Web Liberty 2011. 52 ] Built on an estimate of 500,000 Burmese web-surfers. Do Tun Tun Tun Tun, "Facebook's Mini-Revolution in Burma", Mizzima, 17. août 2011, africa. org, tv.

NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. ; Jeremy Wagstaff, "Slow Association NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. (. : NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012 NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. Bar NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, S NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. was NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, was NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. was NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. was NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. was NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, first NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. first NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, law NLD, "Daw Aung San Suu Kyi eröffnete das BarCamp Yangon 2012", Ligue nationale pour la démocratie, 14 février 2012, http://www.nldburma.org/social-activity/education/477-daw-aung-san-suu-kyi-opened-barcamp-yangon-2012.html. first : Burma, Myanmar steht vor einem IT-Problem", Firstpost Business, 3. März 2012, http://www.firstpost.com/business/slow-connection-myanmar-faces-an-it-logjam-232895.html. 56 ] Burma Constitution (English version), viewed on December 20, 2011, http://burmadigest.info/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/myanmar_constitution-2008-en.pdf. 57 ] Burma Lawyers' Council, Myanmar Law (1988-2004), viewed on 20 December 2011, http://www.blc-burma.org/html/Myanmar%20Law/Indexs/lr_law_ml_index.html.

58 ] "New Burmese Broadcasting Act postponed", Mizzima News, February 6, 2012, www.burma.com 59 ] Electronic Commerce Act, State Peace and Development Council Act No 5/2004, last viewed on 20 December 2011, http://www.blc-burma.org/html/myanmar%20law/lr_d_ml04_05.htm. 60 ] Francis Wade, "Prison Conviction for Facebook'Slanderer'", Burma's Liberal Voice, August 3, 2011, http://www.dvb.no/news/prison-threat-for-facebook-'Slanderer'/16865. 61 ] Joseph Allchin, "DVB VJ additionally 10 years in prison", Symphony, 14 September 2011, www.dvb.no/news/dvb-vj-given-additional-10-yrs-in-jail/17646.

UN," Burma's democratically elected voice, November 24, 2011, http://www.dvb.no/news/jailing-of-dvb-reporters-'arbitrary'-un/18889. 63 ] Aye Nai, "Ex-Army-Kapitän zu 10 Jahren verurteilt", Symphony, 29 août 2011, www. com, Burma. com. In January 2010, a former junior militia officier and a minister of exterior were condemned to life, and another minister of exterior was imprisoned for passing on information and photos about junnels and a general's visit to North Korea for 15 years.

Until May 2012 the killings were not made. This is an oral statement by Bo Kyi, co-founder of the Association for Assisting Political Prisoners (Burma), July 1, 2012. 66 ] Aye Nai, "Ex-Army-Kapitän zu 10 Jahren verurteilt", Symphony, 29 août 2011, www. com, Burma. com. 67 ] "Monitoring of the Media and the Web under a New Civil President", Reporter ohne Grenzen, May 17, 2011, http://en.rsf.org/burma-surveillance-of-media-and-internet-17-05-2011,40296.html.

Myanmar", May 10, 2007, http://opennet.net/research/profiles/burma. Authors' interview with two reporters and two IT professionals, 28-30 December 2011 and 3 January 2012. 70 ] "KNG Kamchin News website today under attack by hackers 14. 09," Kychin News Group, 14 septembre 2011, http://democracyforburma.wordpress. com/2011/09/14/kng-kachin-news-website-attacked-by-cyber-hacker-site-attacked-by-cyber-hacker-since-today-14-09/ (site abandonné). 71 ] Ko Htwe, "The Irrawaddy Hacked", The Irrawaddy, March 14, 2011, http://www2.irrawaddy.org/article.php? page=20931.

72 ] Shawn W. Crispin, "Burmese news site endured hecking, DDoS attacks", Journalist Protection Commission, May 2, 2011, http://www.cpj.org/blog/2011/05/burmese-exile-news-site-endures-hacking-ddos-attac.php. 73 ] Aye Lae, "Is Burma really the number 1 in online aggress? "Mizzima, 2. août 2011, http://www.mizzima.com/news/inside-burma/5708-is-burma-really-no-1-in-internet-attack-traffic.html. Interviews with two Burmese exiled correspondents in Washington DC, December 20, 2011.

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