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Dominitian (; Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 - 18 September 96 A.D.) was Holy Roman emperor from 81 to 96 A.D. He was the younger sister of Titus and the father of Vespasian, his two forerunners on the Austro-Hungarian empire, and the last member of the Flemish family.
He was in fierce conflict with the government because of the authority of his government, whose authority he severely restricted. During the regency of his fathers and brothers Domitian had a subordinate and largely formal part. Domitian was proclaimed Kaiser by the Praetorian Guard after his brother's deaths.
Domitian, as Kaiser, boosted the economic situation by upgrading the value of the coins of Rome, extended the defence of the empire's borders and launched a mass construction programme to rebuild the town. Major battles were waged in Great Britain, where his General Agricola tried to capture Caledonia (Scotland), and in Dacia, where Domitian could not win a crucial win against Decebalus.
Domitians regime showed powerful authority; he saw himself as the new Augustus, an illuminated desert, who was to lead the Rome realm into a new eras of splendour. Domitian was therefore loved by the masses and the armies, but was regarded by the members of the Senate as a bully. Domitan's rule ended in 96 when he was murdered by royalty.
In the aftermath of his murder, Domitan's memorial was sentenced to obscurity by the Senate of Rome, while senior writers such as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger and Suetonius promoted Domitian's views as gruesome and paranoid tyrants. Instead, the contemporary revisers have described Domitian as a reckless but effective auto-crat whose social, economical and politic programmes formed the basis for the tranquil second world.
Domitian would reign longest of the three flavians, although his early childhood and his early careers were largely overshadowed by his older brothers. During the First Jewish-Roman Wars Titus had attained great popularity. Titus took over many positions after her sire Vespasian became Kaiser 69 after the year of the four kaiser wars. Domitian was honoured but not responsible.
In contrast to his sibling Titus, Domitian was not trained at the royal family. 20 ] A more in-depth account of Domitian's look and characters is provided by Suetonius, who dedicates a significant part of his life to his person. In The Emperor Domitian, historian Brian Jones comes to the conclusion that the prejudices of survivors make it difficult to judge the real essence of Domitian's persona by birth.
It seems he missed the inherent radiance of his brothers and fathers. A change of perspective between Titus and Domitia points to an incident about which theoreticians have been speculating. But Titus' comeback made the comparatively minor importance of Domitian, both military and political, even clearer. The oldest and most skilled of the Vespasian children, Titus divided the tribunic's authority with his fathers, obtained seven consulates, the censor, and was commanded by the Praetorian Guard; forces that made it clear that he was the empire's destined heirloom.
Domitian's second sons had honorifics such as Caesar or Princeps Iuventutis and several priestly degrees, among them August, Pope, Brothers Avalis, Master Brothers Avalium and Sacerdus Collegium Omnium, but no position with empire. Domitian, as emperor, quickly renounced the Republic façade that his fathers and brothers had retained during their time.
66 ] By transferring the center of power (more or less formally) to the royal courts, Domitian made the Senate's authority superfluous. He believed that the Roman Empire should be ruled as a godly empire, with itself as a good desert at the forefront. He was actively involved in the construction of many monuments for his own use, among them the villa of Domitian, a huge and magnificent building located 20 km outside Rome in the Albanian Mountains.
He himself constructed the palace of Domitian on the Palatinate Hill in Rome. There are six other mansions connected to Domitian in Tusculum, Antium, Caieta, Circei, Anxur and Baiae. Domitian's stadium was inaugurated in 86 AD as a present to the Roman nation as part of an emperor's construction program after most of the Martian field structures were damaged or destroyed by fire in 79 AD.
This was Rome's first ever international track and field event and is now taken by Domitian's own Piazza Navona. Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who extended the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia, now Scotland, was in charge of the war. Dominian also created a new League in 82, the Legio I Minervia, to battle the Chatti.
88 ] Domitian is also counted against the most eastern proof of the presence of Rome, the stone engraving near Mount Boyukdash, in present-day Azerbaijan. 87 ] Agricola came around 77 as gubernator of Britain and immediately started campaigning in Caledonia (modern Scotland) far right. 103 ] The destruction of the slaughter standards, or Aqila, was a sign of a devastating failure and a grave insult to Rome's nation's pride.
In order to promote the veneration of the royal household, he built a Dynasty tomb on the site of the former Vespasian residence at Quirinal and finished the temple of Vespasian and Titus, a sanctuary devoted to the veneration of his idolatrous fathers and brothers. 55 ] In memory of the achievements of the Flubian army, he had the Templum Divorum and the Templum Fortuna Redux built and finished the Titus Arch.
Dominian also persecuted corrupt civil servants, removed juries when accepting payoffs, and repealed the law when a dispute of interest was alleged. 69 ] He made sure that slanderous scriptures, especially those that were turned against themselves, were punished with either emigration or deaths. Though little is known about Nerva's past and present existence as emperor in 96, he seems to have been a very adaptive and survivor of several changes of government and has become one of the most trustworthy advisers to the Flavians.
129 ] The uprising had been repressed and the empire was returning to order. Tacitus as well as Suetonius talk of an escalation of persecution towards the end of Domitian's rule, which indicates a strong rise around 93 or sometime after the unsuccessful rebellion of Saturninus in 89. 135 ] At least twenty senatoric adversaries were executed, among them Domitia Longina's former spouse Lucius Aelius Lamia and three of Domitian's own members of the Sabine Sabinus Flavius estate, Titus Flavius Clemens and Marcus Arrecinus Clemens.
138 ] Some of these men have already been hanged 83 or 85, which did little honor to Tacitus' idea of a "reign of terror" in the latter days of Domitian's rule. Suetonius said some were sentenced for corrupt practices or betrayal, others for trite accusations Domitian justifies by his suspicions: .
Suetonius said some signs had predicted Domitian's deaths. A few leagues before the attack, Minerva had seemed to the Kaiser in a nightmare. It proclaimed that it had been unarmed by Jupiter and could no longer give Domitian her shelter. 111 ] After a patronage he had gotten, the sovereign fabric that his change would be at noon.
Domitian was desperate on the night of the attack and asked a manservant to tell him what it was. A conspirator himself, the valet told the king that it was already later in the afternoons. 146 ] Apparently reassured, the Kaiser went to his office to endorse some enactments.
Stephanus and Domitian had fought on the ground during the assault, during which Stephanus was knifed by the Kaiser and soon dead. After Domitian's demise, . ), possibly cut from a Nero sculpture. However, contemporary scholars find this extremely untrustworthy, finding that vicious rumors such as that of Domitia's supposed embezzlement were zealously reiterated by post-domain writers, highlighting the pretense of a sovereign who preached a public reversion to Augustan morality while in private revelled in excess and presided over a cursed judge.
167 ] Nevertheless, the representation of Suetonius has been dominating the history of imperialism for hundreds of years. Juvenal and Pliny the Younger are other powerful writers of the second half of the century, who was a Tacitus scholar and in 100 years handed over his celebrated Panegyricus Traiani to Trajan and the Senate of Rome, who glorified the new eras of re-established liberty and condemned Domitian as a bull.
In his satirical satire, Juvenal satirised the Domitian Courtyard and portrayed the emperor and his retinue as corrupt, brutal and victim. In the third half of the 19th and early 20th centuries even by early church scholars who recognized Domitian as an early chaser of Christians, as in the John Acts.
Ronald Syme pleaded in 1930 for a full revaluation of Domitian's fiscal policies, which was largely seen as a catastrophe. 173 ] His programme, which was strictly effective, kept the Latin monetary system at a level it would never reach again. Domitian's royal name has the same English significance as "Commander Caesar Domitian, the Emperor, Conqueror of the Germans".
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Domitian: Comons Wikimedia has mediums in connection with Domitian. "of the Titus Flavius Domitianus (A.D. 81-96)." The encyclopaedia of the Roman rulers and their families. Loucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus, Lucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus, Titus Aurelius Fulvus, Titus Aurelius Fulvus, Manius Acilius Glabrio, Manius Acilius Glabrio, Sextus Pompeius Collega, Lucius Nonius Calpurnius Torquatus Asprenas, Gaius Manlius Valens,