Dictatorship in MyanmarMyanmar dictatorship
chip class="mw-headline" id="date of birth">date of birth
N Win (Burmese: ??????? IPA: 9 July 1910, or 14 or 24 May 1911 - 5 December 2002), sometimes known as U Ne Win[a], was a political and army commandant from Burma. From 1958 to 1960 and 1962 to 1974 he was Prime Minister of Burma and from 1962 to 1981 also Mayor.
In 1962 he established the Burma Socialist Programme Party and was its president until 1988. For 26 years he was Burma's Burmese army commander. He was recently likened to the Philippine Emperor Ferdinand Marcos for his part in the economical and politic breakdown of both Myanmar and the Philippines, and for his war-time.
Who' s Who in Burma, edited in 1961 by People's Literature House, Rangoon, declared that Ne Win was borne on May 14, 1911. Dr. Maung Maung said in the Myanmar edition of his Burma and General Ne Win, which was also released in German, that Ne Win was borne on May 14, 1911.
In a Burmese novel entitled The Thirty Comrades, the writer named Kyaw Nyein Ne Win's date of origin as July 10, 1910. Ne Win was one of the thirty comrades who in the early 1940' s surreptitiously completed secret naval education on the Japanese island of Hainan to fight for British sovereignty.
Second, when Ne Win passed away on December 5, 2002, Burma's papers, which were permitted to bear a remunerated Obituary, indicated the era of "U Ne Win" as "93 years". Myanmar traditionally says that a person's old-age is their old age at their next birth. He was 93 years old when Ne Win turned 92 in July 2002 when he passed away in December 2002.
Nee Win, née Shu Maung (????????), was borne in a small town near Paungdale, about 200 nautical mile (.320 km) south of Rangoon. By 1941 Ne Win, a member of the Ba Sein-Tun Ok (Socialist) Group of the Dobama, was one of thirty young men selected by Colonel Suzuki Keiji of Japan for warfare.
They were led by Aung San and founded the Burma Independence Army (BIA). At the beginning of 1942, the Jap onese army and the BIA invaded Burma after the withdrawal of Britain's armed services. Burma's occupying of Japan has helped estrange the nationists and the entire people.
Towards the end of the Second World War, on March 27, 1945, the Burma National Army (successor of the BIA) turned against the Japan after the reinvasion of Burma by the United Kingdom. One of the BNA commanders, Ne Win quickly established ties with the Britons - he attended the Kandy meeting in Ceylon and took over the leadership of anti-Communist activities in the Pyinmana area after the Red Flag Communists and Burma's Burmese Communist Party went into the suburbs in October 1946 and March 28, 1948, respectively, to campaign against the state.
Myanmar gained sovereignty on January 4, 1948 and had a parliamentarian and Democratic rule for the first 14 years, mainly under U Nu, but the nation was politically divided. Aung San was murdered together with six of his members of the chamber on 19 July 1947 before becoming independent; U Saw, a pre-war premier secretary and Aung San's prewar international opponent, was found culpable of the felony and sentenced to execution.
In the aftermath of the war, there were rebellions in the military and among nationalities. N Win immediately adopted a politics of the creation of socialist militiamen-bataillons named'Sitwundan' under his own leadership with the agreement of U Nu. It reconstructed and reconfigured the military along the policies of the governing SPD, but the land was still divided and the regime was inoperative.
U Nu asked him to act as provisional premier from 28 October 1958, when the AFPFL divided into two parliamentary groups and U Nu hardly managed to survive a censure vote against his administration in Congress. Ne Win took over again in a military coup on March 2, 1962.
As chairman of the Revolutionary Council of the Union, he became Prime Minister. Under the new government, "parliamentary democracies are unsuitable for Burma," the new government suspend the Burmese parliament and dissolve the legislative branch. On July 13, 1962, less than a weeks after the address, Ne Win travelled to Austria, Switzerland and Great Britain "for the purpose of examination".
1988, 26 years later, Ne Win refused to participate in the demolition of the Student Services office and declared that his second-in-command, Brigadier Aung Gyi, who had been cancelled and fired with Ne Win at the inauguration, had given the order and that he had to take charge as "revolutionary leader" by giving the saber with a blade and javelin with a javelin.
Government introduced a system that contained extremist nationalist, Marxist and Buddhist elements, although Ne Win was not interested in either philosophy or faith - what was called Burma's path to socialism. In 1964, he officially established the Burma Socialist Programme Partie ( "BSPP") as the only one.
In Burma, a system of state clinics and institutes was set up and health services were free. From 1962 to 1965 important legislation against lessors and profiteering was passed. He dissolved the Revolutionary Council on 2 March 1974 and declared the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma. Soon after he was President, Brigadier General Sein Win was named Prime Minister.
But until his retirement in 1988 Ne Win continued to be the head of the country's parties and thus the country's highest government. Ne-Win stepped down as president of Burma's governing Socialist Program on July 23, 1988 at the peak of the insurrection against his regimes, and about a year after the United Nations proclaimed Burma "the least advanced country".
Though he was a Kabja himself, Ne Win forbade the use of the Mandarin and took other steps to force the Mandarin people to flee the country. Win's administration fuelled anti-racism and ethnical conflict against the Chineses terrorised by Myanmar residents, the most violent unrest that occurred during the 1967 Cultural Revolution in China.
17 ] All of them were nationalised, even the China school. Likewise, China stores were plundered and burned. Burma's 1982 Nationality Act further curtailed the nationality of Myanmar citizens (as it divided nationality into three categories: full, associated and naturalized) and highly impaired Myanmar citizens, especially those without full nationality and those with a FRC, from participating in advanced vocational education, which included technical, farming, medical and economic facilities.
19 ] During this time, Burma's failed economies and wide-spread discriminations sped up an exodus of the Chinese from Burma. Also in March 1976, September 1987, March and June 1988 there were students protest. During August and September 1988, these protests turned into a nation-wide revolt against the BSPP rules as part of the so-called "Four-Eight Uprising".
Ne Win stepped down as head of the BSPP on July 23, 1988, at the climax of the Four-Eight Uprising against the BSPP. During a cruel valedictory address before the BSPP Congress, he cautioned that if the "unrest" were to continue, the "army must be summoned, and I would like to explain from here that if the armed forces shoot, they have no ancestry.
"The Tatmadaw forces fired, murdered and mutilated several hundred, if not as many as 3,000 or more protesters in various locations throughout Burma from August 8-12, 1988 and again on September 18, 1988, demonstrating that Ne Win's valedictory address was not an empty scare. He was still under housebreaking, and passed away on December 5, 2002 in his Yangon lake home.
27 ] Die was left unreported by the Myanmar press or the regime. Smith, Martin (December 6, 2002). That''dah go da daw da dyin, helan go hrlan gyin'' is the Myanmar theorem.
The Rangoon Nation and Rangoon Guardian's July 9, 1962 front page features two different versions of the address in England. A part of the nation's July 9, 1962 news item was: "General Ne Win States Give Us to Work:": Accessed July 2, 2010. Myanmar - Uprising and the politics of ethnicity.
Steinberg, David L. (2002). Burma: State of Myanmar. Chinese as Southeast Asians. Archiveed from the orginal on July 14, 2011. Accessed July 2, 2010. Letters from Ne Win's address can be found in the July 24, 1988 Rangoon Guardian and Working People's Daily.
Burma's fearless voice. Accessed December 3, 2013. Myanmar Times. Accessed December 3, 2013. Former President Myanmars U Ne Win dies. China daily December 5, 2002.