Democracy in Myanmar WikipediaMyanmar democracy Wikipedia
Party for Human Rights and Citizenship
Democracy and Human Rights Parties (Burmese: ?????????????? ???????????????????, or DHRP for short) is a Myanmar based politician who represents the Rohingya of the North Rakhine state. Founded in 1989, the National Democratic Human Rights Party was initially known and held eight seats in the 1990 parliamentary elections. It won 1% of the votes and four seats Its deputies were Nur Ahmed, Chit Lwin Ebrahim, Fazal Ahmed and Shamsul Anwarul Huq.
Party for Democracy and Human Rights.
Myanmar (redirected from Myanmar) (Wikipedia Encyclopedia)
2Estimates for this county take into consideration the impact of AIDS-related excessive deaths, which may lead to lower survival expectations, higher baby deaths, lower baby deaths, lower demographic trends and changes in the demographic breakdown by gender and old age. Burma's varied populations have had an important part to play in the definition of its policies, histories and demography today, and the nation is still struggling to resolve its ethnical tension.
Since General Ne Win in 1962 carried out a Coup d'Etat that overthrew the U Nu civil rule, the army has ruled the state. Myanmar will remain under the strict supervision of the Military-led State Peace and Development Council. "Burma " is taken from the Myanmar term "Bamar" (), which is the slang language of Myanmar () (or Mranma in ancient Burma), both of which refer to the historical background of the vast majority in Burma (or the Bamar).
According to the register used, the accent would be "Bama" (pronounced[b?mà]), or "Myanmah" (pronounced[mj?mà]). Burma has been used in English since the era of the colonisation by the English. Myanmar, a member of the United Nations, supported the name shift five clear outskirts five day after the junta's announcements.
However, the goverments of many nations, such as Australia, Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, still call the state" Burma", although the applicability of the name changes themselves is recognized differently. Others, such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the German, Indian, Japanese, Russian and People's Republic of China recognize "Myanmar" as officially named.
The lack of certainty among the British spokespersons on how to say "Myanmar" leads to debates such as /?mj??n. m?r/, /ma?. 20 ] The usual Burmese debate is[mj?mà]. Myanmar is the Republic of Myanmar, which was founded as part of the 2008 constitution and officially adopted in 2010.
23 ][Quote required] Previously, the state had been officially known as the Union of Myanmar since 1989. The latter in turn had superseded the former name of the Socialist Republic of Burma in the 1974 constitution, which in turn had superseded the post-independence constitution of 1947, which only applied to the Union of Burma.
Burma is the biggest nation in Southeast Asia with a surface area of 678,500 km2 and the biggest fortyth time. The Hengduan Shan Hills in the northern part of China are the frontier. Hakabo Razi, in the state of Kachin, is Burma's highest point at 5,881 meters.
26 ] Three mountains, namely Rakhine Yoma, Bago Yoma and Shan Plateau, exist within Burma, all of which run from the Himalayas from south to north. 27 ] The Ayeyarwady River Basin, between Rakhine Yoma and Shan Plateau, is home to the vast majority of Burmese people. Woods, which include thickly growing tropics and precious Teak wood in Lower Burma, occupy over 49% of the land, which includes the areas of Ifacacia, Bamboos, iron wood and Michaeliachamaca.
Flora is scarce and atrophied in large parts of Burma (the dry zone). In Burma there are only a few species of tropical invertebrates, especially tiger and leopard. There are rhinos, buffaloes, wild boar, stags, antelopes and 11 elephant in Oberburma, which are also domesticated or raised in prison to be used as workhorses, especially in the wood-harvest.
The reptilian population includes alligators, geckoes, coobras, Burmese Python and tortoises. 30 ] For a full listing of reserves, see the Burma Reserves Listing. Following the First Burma War, the Ava Empire handed over the kingdoms of Manipur, Tenassarim and Arakan to the British. 31 ] Rangoon and South Burma were integrated into British India in 1853.
The whole of Burma came directly or indirect under Britain-India in 1886 after the Third Burmese War and the Mandalay case. Burma was run as a provincial by Britisch-Indien until 1937, when it became its own, self-governing population. On January 4, 1948, the United Kingdom became the Union of Burma.
In the early nineth centuries AD, the Pyu kings enter a phase of dramatic decay when the mighty Nanzhao empire (now Yunnan) penetrated the Ayeyarwady River valleys several time. Tibeto-Burm speaks Burmans, or the Bamar, began to migrate from the present Nanzhao empire of Yunnan into the Ayeyarwady River from AD 7.
The Burmese filled the Pyu empire and founded a small empire in Bagan in 849. However, it was not until King Anawrahta (1044-1077) that Bagan's presence spread to much of modern Burma. Prolific in commerce, Bagan Magi constructed many great shrines and palagodas throughout the land - many of which can still be seen today.
Cublai Khan's Mongolian troops entered North Burma in 1277 and plundered the town of Bagan itself in 1287. There are still palagodas and monasteries in Bagan, the capitol of the kingdom of Bagan. However, the Yunnan Tai-Shan, who came to the Ayeyarwady Vale, Shan States, Laos, Siam and Assam with the Mongols, became mighty gamblers in Southeast Asia.
Hanthawady Pegu or Bago (1287-1540), established by a Mon-ised King Wareru ((1287-1306) who controlled Lower Burma (without Taninthayi). Rakhine Empire of Mrauk U (1434-1784), in the Occident. There are several states of the River Shaan in the eastern and Kachin Mountains in the northern part, while the northwestern border of today's Chin Mountains is still separated.
Nevertheless, Burma's civilization has moved into a gold era. 1486 King Minkyinyo (1486-1531) separated from Taungoo of Ava and founded a small independant empire. Mohnyin ( "Shan: Mong Yang") Shans eventually conquered Ava in 1527, disrupting the fragile equilibrium of forces that had been in existence for almost two hundred years. Shans would reign over Upper Burma until 1555.
With the Burmese flight from Ava, the small Burmese empire of Taungoo under its young, aspiring Emperor Tabinshwehti (1531-1551) overcame the more mighty Mon empire in Bago and united all of Lower Burma until 1540. Tabinshwehti's successors Queen Bayinnaung (1551-1581) conquered Manipur (1556), the Sahan states (1557), Chiang Mai (1557), Ayutthaya (1564, 1569) and Lan Xang (1574) and brought most of Southeast Asia in the West under his reign.
The Ayutthaya Siamese had expelled the Myanmar people until 1593 and took Tanintharyi. Filipe de Brito e Nicote (Burmese: Nga Zinga), a Portugal soldier, promptly revolted against his Rakhine champions and establish Portugal's domination in Thanlyin (Syriam), Burma's most important sea port at the time. It was a chaotic state.
Burmese under King Anaukpetlun (1605-1628) grouped together and in 1611 beat the Portuguese. Ankaukpetlun founded a smaller reconstitued empire in Ava, which includes Upper Burma, Lower Burma and the Shan states (but excluding Rakhine and Taninthayi). In 1629-1648, after the rule of King Thalun, who reconstructed the war-torn land, the empire suffered a gradual and constant demise for the next 100 years.
Successfully rebelling with the help of France and Thai encouragement from 1740, the Mons demolished Lower Burma in 1747 and eventually put an end to the House of Taungoo in 1752 when they captured Ava shows the early Anglo-Burmese War. Alaungpaya' s deaths in 1760 reunited the land.
Allowing the new Thai empire of Bangkok to expel the Burmese from Siam until the end of the 1770'. The Bodawpaya succeeded in conquering the west of Rakhine, which had been largely autonomous since the downfall of Bagan in 1784. In 1819 King Bagyidaws (1819-1837) General Maha Bandula laid down a revolution in Manipur and conquered the sovereign empire of Assam in 1819 (again in 1821).
This new conquest took the people of Burma to British India. Britons conquered Burma in the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826). Myanmar had to relinquish Assam, Manipur, Rakhine (Arakan) and Tanintharyi (Tenessarim). The British invaded a heavily debilitated Burma during a palatial war in 1852. Following the Second Anglo-Burmese War, which took three month, the British had conquered the rest of the coast provinces:
Ayeyarwady, Yangon and Bago, who refer to the areas as Lower Burma. 1885 the Brits, alerted by the France conquer of neighboring Laos, occupy Upper Burma. Burma's kings were banished to Ratnagiri, India. UK troops spend at least another four years peacefully over the land - not only in Burma's core but also in the mountain regions of Shan, Chin and Kachin.
Overlooking Fytche Square (now Mahabandula Garden) in Rangoon city centre, designed and extended by the British to act as the Burma Proper city. For five years Eric Blair (George Orwell) worked for the Indian Imperial Police in Burma; his experiences include the novel Burmese Days (1934) and the essay "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936).
The marriage between African masculine colonists and Myanmar wives and between English Indians (who came with the British) and Myanmar led to the emergence of the Anglo-Burmese population. It was this powerful fellowship that was to continue to predominate the land during and until the mid-1960s. Burma became an important front in the South East Asian theatre during the Second World War.
Britain's government crumbled before the advance of Japan's forces, prisons and asylum were opened and Rangoon was abandoned, with the exception of the many Anglo-Burmese and Indians who stayed in their post. Originally, the Japan-led Burma campaign was successful and the Brits were driven out of most of Burma, but the Brits mainly fought with forces from the Indies.
In July 1945 the Brits had reconquered the land. Street, July 1944. Though many Burmese originally struggled for the Japanese, some Burmese, mostly from minority communities, also ministered in the Burmese army. 40 ] In 1943 the Chin Levies and Kachin Levies were founded in the Burmese frontier counties under UK admin.
Burma Rifles were part of the Chindite fighters under General Orde Wingate from 1943 to 1945. There were many others who struggled with the British Special Operations Executive. Burma Independence Army under the leadership of Aung San and the Arakan National Army struggled with the Japanese from 1942-1944, but changed to the Allied side in 1945.
It became an autonomous country on January 4, 1948, after the Union of Burma, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first president and U Nu as its first prime minister. In contrast to most other former UK settlements and over sea areas, it did not become a member of the Commonwealth. U Thant, then Permanent Representative of the Union to the United Nations and former Secretary to the Prime Minister, was appointed Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1961; he was the first non-Westler to run an intergovernmental organization and served as UN Secretary-General for ten years.
Among the people of Burma who worked as secretary general at the UN was a young Aung San Suu Kyi, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. Democracy ended in 1962 when General Ne Win was leading a war putsch. For almost 26 years he reigned and followed a policy under the heading of Burma's path to socialism.
From 1962 to 1974, Burma was governed by a revolutionary board led by the General, and almost all facets of Burma's economy (economy, medias, production) were nationalised or placed under state rule (even the Boy Scouts). In order to strengthen the country's position of authority, Ne Win and many other top generalals stepped down from the army, took civil office and held general election in a one-party system from 1974.
One Win's ascent to government in 1962 and his unrelenting pursuit of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognized as nationals of the Union of Burma) resulted in the exodus/exclusion of some 300,000 Myanmar Indians. 50 ] At that period, the Anglo-Burmese either escaped the land or chanted and interfered in the wider community of Burma.
The Socialist Republic of Burma adopted a new Constitution in 1974. The 1988 riots over economical maladministration and governmental repression resulted in wide-spread pro-democracy protests throughout the nation known as the 8888 Uprising. On May 31, 1989, the army regime laid down the plan for the People' s Assembly election.
52 ] SLORC in 1989 transformed the British name of the land from "Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma" to "Union of Myanmar". For the first free electoral process in almost 30 years, the May 1990 session was the first. Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD) won 392 out of a possible 489 places, but the results were cancelled by SLORC, which declined to resign.
53 ] Under the leadership of Than Shwees since 1992, the army regimes has reached ceasefire arrangements with most guerrilla groups. Aung San Suu Kyi, Burma's head of the Burma army administration, had an important part to play in the 2007 protest against the state. On September 29, she then made a second open show when she was permitted to briefly step out of detention and met with a UN ambassador who tried to convince the ruling party to facilitate its action against a pro-democracy insurgency that the Myanmar administration grudgingly endorsed.
Burma's 2008 constitution referenda took place on 10 May and pledged a "disciplining democracy" for the nation in the futu. UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown said: "This is a strictly policy statement to stop them from taking part in next year's scheduled election of the government. The Myanmar government has halved the penalty for Yettaw and suspended the remainder three and a half years after the Yettaw-deportion.
As of October 2010, a new banner was introduced and the country's formal name officially renamed the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, which replaces the old Union of Myanmar of 1989. Myanmar's governing Myanmar Yunnan declared on 9 November 2010 that the Union Solidarity and Development Party received 80% of the vote.
That assertion is widely contested by pro-democracy groups in the opposing parties and claims that the army regimes participated in an unbridled deception in order to reach its outcome. The Burmese army forces set pro-democracy leaders Aung San Suu Kyi free on 13 November 2010. The National Coalition of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), a federal exiled since December 1990, was constituted by electoral representatives to the 1990 People's Assembly elections with the task of re-establishing democratic rule.
NCGUB was banned by the army regime. Intergovernmental propagandist states:: "The Tatmadaw and the nation will co-operate and destroy all those who harm the trade unions. In the 8888 Uprising on August 8, 1988, the army opened fire on protesters and passed war laws. Saw Maung's administration then cancelled the results of the elections.
Aung San Suu Kyi headed by the National League for Democracy won over 60% of the votes and over 80% of parliamentarians' seat in the 1990 elections, the first in 30 years. The U.S. GAO in April 2007 recognized funding and other constraints imposed by the U.S. Army Administration on the provision of global human aid.
In its GAO Assessment of Assistance Programmes in Burma, the GAO highlighted the government's particular effort to obstruct the human rights work of multinational organizations, with limitations on the free flow of internationally recruited personnel within the state. In February 2006, the army jungle adopted directives formalising this policy. It states that the policy requires that programmes by human groups "strengthen and protect the nation's interest" and that non-governmental organizations consult with public officials and choose their Myanmar personnel from a list of individual persons drawn up by the state.
It is subdivided into seven states (???????) and seven territories (??????????????), formerly division. United States has imposed a prohibition on new investment by US companies, a prohibition on imports and an embargo on the Union of Myanmar and a freeze on US holdings because of the continuing violations of humanitarian law by the US army regimes, the continued imprisonment of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and the failure to respect the results of the 1990 People's Assembly elections.
114 ] The EU has also imposed penalties on Burma, such as an arms embargo, an end to preferential trading practices and the suspending of all assistance except human assistance. 115 ] US and EU policy sanctioning against the US Army regime, combined with a boycott and other immediate pressures on businesses by adherents of the democratic movements, has led to the retreat from the land of most US and many EUs.
It was rank 12th in the rest of the word for its number of forces in action. 25 ] The army is very powerful in the land, with high positions in the cabinets and ministers occupied by army officials. There are no formal statistics on defence expenditure. Estimations differ widely due to the uncertainty of currency exchanges, but defence expenditure is very high.
126 ] The government is importing most of its arms from Russia, Ukraine, China and India. With the help of Russia, the state is constructing a research reactors near May Myo (Pyin Oo Lwin). In September 2000, the IAEA was notified by the Militärjunta of its plans to build the power plant. Today, rice farming is a major agricultural activity in Burma.
Today the state is lacking sufficient infrastructures. 152 ] Scarcity of power is widespread throughout the whole nation, even in Yangon. It is also the world's second biggest manufacturer of opioid, with an 8% share of total global output, and is an important resource for illicit narcotics, which includes methamphetamines. John Fredriksen's Seadrill, a Norway-based corporation, is participating in the off-shore drilling of crude for Burma's military junta to generate income from the sale of crude and imported crude-oils.
Burma's new capitol, Naypyidaw, is on the verge of being completed. A large part of Yangon's city dwellings are high-density. Myanmar has about 56 million inhabitants. 161 ] Populations are approximate as the last part of the survey, carried out by the Ministry of Internal and Religious Affairs under the supervision of the Armed Forces Junior, was carried out in 1983.
162 ] No trusted countrywide nation-wide survey has been conducted in Burma since 1931. More than 600,000 Burma migrants have been recorded in Thailand, and another million work Illegal. Myanmar migrants make up 80% of Thailand's migrants. Burma has a dense populace of 75 per km2, one of the lowes in Southeast Asia.
Conservatives estimate that there are over 295,800 Burmese nationals, most of them Rohingya, Kayin and Karenni, mainly on the Thai-Burmese frontier. Thai-Burma Burma is one of the many Burmese communities, and the Thai-Burma borders consortium (TBBC) takes charge of the shelters.
Myanmar is a country of many nationalities. There are 135 different racial groups recognised by the administration. Although it is very hard to check this claim, there are at least 108 different ethnolinguist groups in Burma, mainly composed of different Tibetan-Burmese tribes, but with large communities of Daic, Hmong-Mien and Austro-Asian (Mon-Khmer) tribes. The bamar form is thought to represent 68% of the total populace.
10% of the populace are Shan. The Kayin make up 7% of the total populous. 170 ] The Rakhine tribe makes up 4% of the total populous. About 3% of the world' s inhabitants are foreigners. 89 percent of the country's populace are Buddhists, according to an ABC World News Tonight May 2008 [quote required] is one of the many coming-of-age rituals in Burma's civilization.
During the colonization by the UK, Burma also adopted cultural aspects from the West. Burma's education system is similar to that of the United Kingdom. 180 ] According to the CIA World Factbook, Burma's populations are 68% and ethnical groups 32%. But the exile community says that the ethnical populations are 40%, which is implied by the CIA account (official US report).
Myanmar, the native of the Bamar and Burma's main foreign currency, is related to Tibetan and China. Some of the oldest known epigraphs in Burma date from the eleventh c. This is also used to spell Pali, the holy Theravada Buddhist jargon, as well as several minor ethnical tongues, among them Shan, several Karen and Kayah (Karenni) vernaculars, with the inclusion of special signs and diacritical signs for each one.
181 ] The Myanmar dialect includes a common use of honors and is age-oriented. 177 ] Burma's social scene has historically emphasized the importance of literacy. The second and third level courses take place in state colleges. Burma's school system is run by the government's Ministry of Public Health. Colleges and specialist institutions from Oberburma and Unterburma are run by two distinct units, the Department of Higher Training of Higher Burma and the Department of Higher Training of Lower Burma.
Burma's educational system is UK-led, due to almost a hundred years of UK and Chinese presence in Burma. The WASC and the College Board recognise four internationally recognised colleges - The Yangon School ( "ISY"), Crane School Yangon ( "CISM"), Yangon and ISM.
Because of the Burmese military regime, there are not many major news agencies in Burma, although there are a number of them.