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Merriam's definitions of Burmese
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**spspan class="mw-headline" id="Geschichte">Geschichte>>
14,747,845 men, ages 15-49 (2010 est.), 10,451,515 men, ages 15-49 (2010 est.), ages annually522,478 men (2010 est.), Tatmadaw reporting directly to the NDSC (National Defense and Seriy Council) in accordance with the constitution of Myanmar. 4 ] The NDSC is an eleven-member NSC in charge of Myanmar's domestic and international peace and defense matters.
NDSC is the highest governmental body in Myanmar. Referring to the pagan dynasty, Ava Kingdom, Toungoo Dynasty and Konbaung Dynasty armies in chronic order. It was one of the most important armies in Southeast Asia until it was overthrown by the British in the nineteenth and six decades.
It was organized into a small stationary armies of several thousand, defending the city and the castle, and a much bigger conscriptry. There were elephant, horse, artillery and navy wars. In the eighteenth-century when the technology divide between the power of Europe grew wider, the armed forces depended on the readiness of Europeans to trade in more demanding weapons.
After asserting itself against the forces of the kingdom's neighbors, the army's power against Europe's technically more progressive forces worsened over the years. Whereas it conquered the invaders of Portugal and France in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the British Empire could not stop the advancement of the nineteenth and lost all three Anglo-Burmese War.
The millennia-old Myanmar Empire and its army, the Royal Myanmar Army, were officially suppressed by the British on January 1, 1886. It would be controlled by the army for the next 12 years. Burma Socialist Programme became the only socialist parties and the vast majority of its full members were soldiers.
21 ] Government officials were trained militarily and the Army Intelligence Service acted as the state' s intelligence policeman. During the repression of protest in and around the then capitol Yangon, three light divisions of fleets, supplemented by Yangon Regional Army Command fleets and support troops from the Artillery and Tank Corps Directorate, were used.
At first, these forces were used to assist the then People's Police Force safety bastions (now known as the Myanmar Police Force), to watch the roads of the city and to protect administrative buildings and bureaus. At the end of September, the army had full command of the area. After Myanmar's opening of its politics, Myanmar has significantly changed its relationship with the great power countries China, Russia and the United States.
In 2014, Lieutenant General Anthony Crutchfield, USPACOM Vice Commandant, was called upon to contact his colleagues at Myanmar National Defence College in Naypyidaw, who are training Lieutenant Colonel Colonel and other high-ranking soldiers. 24 ] In May 2016, the Parliament of the Union of Myanmar endorsed a draft MOU on defence with Russia.
25 ] In June 2016, Myanmar and Russia concluded an EU-Russia Defense co-operation pact. 26 ] The Convention provides for the exchange of information on matters of global civil protection, as well as the combating of terrorist acts, cultural and holiday co-operation between soldiers and their families, and the exchange of experiences in peace-keeping operations. In 1958, at the 1958 C. O.C., Colonel Kyi Win presented a document setting out the need for a new army policy and document.
Tatmadaw begins to develop an appropriate army document and policy to address the demands of insurgency response, on the basis of Colonel Kyi Win's account. In July 1964, Brigadier General San Yu, then Deputy Chief of Staff (Army), sent a mission under the leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Thura Tun Tin to Switzerland, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and the GDR to investigate the organisational structures, armament, education, regional organization and strategies of popular militia in order to make preparations for the changeover to the new document.
The General Staff of the Ministry of Wars has also set up a research unit to investigate the defensive capacities and militias of neighboring states. New doctrines of complete national conflict and the guerilla counter-insurgency and guerilla strategies for alien invasions have been conceived to be appropriate for Burma.
These doctrines arose from the country's sovereign and proactive external policies, its entire defense policies, the type of threat it perceives, its geographical and territorial context, the scale of its populations compared to those of its neighbors, the relatively under-developed character of its economies and its historic and peolics.
Doktrin was founded on "three totalities": populations, times and spaces (du-thone-du) and "four strengths": labor, materials, times and morals (Panama-lay-yat). It did not devise any concept of either strategically denying or counter-attacking. Tatmadaw launched specific war education programs at the Commandraining Centres in April 1968 at various local commandos.
Bataillon-sized surgeries were also carried out in the Southwest Regional Command. At the first BSPP convention in 1971, the new army document was officially approved and adopted. 31 ] The BSPP established guidelines for the "complete extermination of the rebels as one of the duties of defense and state security" and demanded "the dissolution of the rebels by the power of the labourers as an immediate goal".
These doctrines secure Tatmadaw's place at the centre of the country's policy-making. During the entire GNP age, the entire popular military dogma was used exclusively in insurgency fighting missions, as Burma was not exposed to any immediate alien invasions during the entire time. The then Lieutenant General Saw Maung, Tatmadaw's Deputy Chief of Staff, remembered his commander during his address at the Command and General Staff School in 1985:
Myanmar is home to some two hundred thousand military units (army, naval and aerial forces) of almost 35 million population. It' s just not possible to protect a land the greatness of our land with just a few of them.... so in the event of a military incursion abroad, we must muster the human race according to the dogma of "total popular war".
Army Light Infantry Divisions (LID) were operated under a separate commander. There were also a number of departments under the G-Bar, which were equivalent to the Army function force, such as intelligence, signals, training, armament and artillery. A-Stab was in charge of the Adjutant General, the Directorate of Medical Services and the Marshal's Office.
Q-Stab was made up of the Supply and Transportation, Order, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering and Military Engineering departments. Navy and Air Force Offices within the Ministry were led by the Deputy Chiefs of Defence of these services. Everyone was assisted by a field commander at the supreme division.
The local task force was carried out within the Regional Armed Forces Command (RMC), whose borders were corresponding with the Seven States and Seven Divisions of the State. 35 ] The Regional Commanders, all higher ranking armed forces officials, usually of brigadier general order, were in charge of conducting regional and regional missions.
Dependent on the RMC's dimensions and operating conditions, 10 or more Kha La Ya are available to regional commander. Tatmadaw commando structures since 2000. Tatmadaw's organizational and commando structures have drastically altered since the 1988 war. By 1990, the country's top-ranking Armed Forces official had been made Commander General (equivalent to the position of Feldmarschall in the West armies), President of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, and Commander-in-Chief of Defence Services.
Since 1989, each ministry has had its own chief of staff and command. Now the Army Commander-in-Chief has been appointed General (Bo Gyok Kyii) and also served as Assistant Commander-in-Chief of the Defense Services. Both the Air Force C-in-C and Navy have the equivalence of Lieut General, while all three Chiefs of Staff have been lifted to a high general stand.
The Bureau of Special Operations (BSO) directors, the Q- and A-staff directors and the Director of Defence Services Intelligence (DDSI) have also been appointed Lieutenants General. In 2002, a new chain of command was established at the Ministry of Defence sector-wide. Its most important role is that of Joint chief of staff (Army, Navy, Air Force), who leads the commanders-in-chief of the Navy and the Air Force.
Founded around 1994, the Office of Strategic Studies (OSS, or Zit Maha Byuha Leilaryay Htana) was entrusted with the formulation of defense policy and the design and teaching of the Tatmadaw. Lieutenant-General Khin Nyunt, who is also Director of the Defense Service (DDSI), headed the OSS. The regional military commandos (RMC) and the light infantry divisions (LID) have also been reorganized, and the units now report directly to the commander-in-chief of the army.
As a reaction to the army's expansion and reorganization, a number of new subordinated commando centres were set up. This includes Regional Operation Commands (ROC or Da Ka Sa), which report to the Regional Operation Commands, and Military Operations Commands (MOC or Sa Ka Kha), which correspond to the West German IFD.
He maintained command of the Signal Directorates, the Armaments Corps Directorate, the Artillery Corps Directorate, the Defence Industry, Security Printing, Public Relations and Psychological Warfare and Military Technology (Field Division), the People's Military and Border Forces, the Defence Services Computers Directorate (DDSC), the Defence Museum and the Historical Research Institute.
The Military Technology Directorate (Garrison Department), Supply and Transport, Order Services and Electrical and Mechanical Engineering are located under the Quartermaster's General Office. Further impartial departments in the Ministry of Defence are the Judge General, the Inspector General, the Inspector General, the Directorate-General for Procurement, the Archives, the Central Military Accounting and the Stock Commander.
The SLORC was abrogated in 1997 and the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) was founded by the MP. All high-ranking RMC soldiers and commander are members of the RMC. The new Ministry of Defence Affairs was set up and led by a general Lieutnant. OSS and DDSI were eliminated on 18 October 2004 during the cleansing of General Khin Nyunt and naval secret services.
The new secret service force, known as the Military Affairs Security (MAS), was established to take over the DDSI function, but the MAS was much smaller than the DDSI and the MAS was controlled by the division's neighbour. At the beginning of 2006, a new Regional Military Command (RMC) was established in the recently founded administration capitol Naypyidaw.
Maj. General Aung San1945 - July 19, 1947Founder of the Modern Myanmar Army, leader of thirty comrades, BC5332Gen. Thura Kyaw Htin6 March 1976 - November 3, 1985Retired at 60 years of age. Retired. Myanmar Air Force was founded on January 16, 1947, while Myanmar (also known as Burma) was still under UK domination.
Since its foundation, the main task of the Myanmar Military has been to assist the Myanmar Army in the fight against insurgencies. Myanmar Defence Industries (DI) is made up of 13 large plants across the nation, producing some 70 key military, naval and aerospace equipment.
MA was developed to supersede the old German-designed but local-produced Heckler & Koch G3s and G4s that have been equipping the Burmese military since the 1960'. Heavy-ies was founded with Ukraine's support, mainly for the assembly of the BTR-3U Myanmar military navy. In the next 10 years, a new BTR-3U APC will be installed on wheels from parts of Ukraine in Burma.
In addition to BTR 3Us, HI also produces a range of army, naval and air force vehicles and vehicles. Twenty-five percent of the seat ings in both Burma's parliamentary buildings is reserved for members of the armed forces. The Human Rights Watch Report 2002 states that the violent recruiting and abduction of minors into the army is the order of the day.
Myanmar announces USD 2.4 billion defense spending for 2014. Myanmar: Constitution of the Republic of Myanmar" (PDF). Survey on public opinion in Burma: Myanmar announces 2 USD. 4 billion defense spending for 2014 www.janes.com/article/32436/myanmar-declares-usd2-4-billion-defence-budget-for-2014. Myanmar Defece budgetary breakdown https://web.archive.org/web/20141028185816/http://www.mizzimaburmese.com/2013-10-20-16-16-07/2013-11-01-01-48-27/item/31153-2014-10-28-03-38-37. Myanmar - Uprising and the politics of ethnicity.
Radio and television in Myanmar. "Burma and the Great Powers: Changes in relations with China, Russia and the USA". How should the USA engage Myanmar? "The Myanmar House adopts the Russian Strategic Alliance Agreement". Russia, Myanmar sign militarily co-operation agreement". www.defenseworld.net. "Defense co-operation with Myanmar-Australia and other countries: a brief guide". www.aph.gov.au.
Myanmar Military Reshuffle sees new head of security appointed. Asia Times Online:::: Southeast Asia Newspaper - Myanmar, the city of landmines". "Burma's military kidnaps 1,000 children." Human Rights Watch - Burma Report. US House supports measures to sanction Myanmar's military, Nudge Gem Sector Reform.
Burma Historic Lexicon (Myanmar), Vol. 59 of the Historic Asia/Oceania Explanation. Burma/Myanmar: What everyone needs to know.