ciems forest). After Latvia was occupied by National Socialist Germany in the spring of 1941, the Daugavpils Ghetto (German: Ghetto Dünaburg) was erected in an old fort near Daugavpils. Taugavpils is the second biggest Latvian town and the capital of the Latgalen area.
The Daugavpils was situated in the southeast of Latvia on the Daugava River. Prior to the Second World War, Daugavpils was the centre of a flourishing Hebrew congregation in the Latgale area and one of the most important centres of Hebrew cultural life in East Europe. 1 ] In the course of the Latvian invasion, the overwhelming major part of the Jews were murdered in Latgale as a consequence of the National Socialist annihilation policies.
After air raids lasting several day, the Bundeswehr conquered Daugavpils on 26 June 1941, but there were still several day long fights in the surrounding area. There was a fire burning in the town, which the Nazis later made a burden on the Jews. The Nazis arrested Jews in a Jewish temple on 28 June 1941, two working days after Daugavpils' downfall, then took them out and smote them.
Others Jews were killed by chance by just going down the road. On Sunday, June 29, 1941, the Germans began to round up in Daugavpils Jews in order to subjugate them to terrorism, degradation and captivity under violent and crowded circumstances. Germans were accusing them of burning Daugavpils. The Jews in general and Lithuania's fugitives in particular were reproached for beingommunists.
In Daugavpils (Daugavpils Latvie?u Av?ze), on July 8, 1941, a paper in Daugavpils (Daugavpils Latvie?u Av?ze) issued an article in agreement with Germany's attempts to hold Jews responsible for acts of atrocity committed by Communists: And Iwens, a remnant of the Railroad Park carnage, describes it as one of the few. The Germans on July 8, 1941, compelled a detail of the Jews to excavate trenches in the railway park The next morning, July 9, the Germans began to shoot Jews and push the corpses into the trenches.
One of the men killed was a man who tried to tell a security officer that he was a veteran of the First World War who had been dressed in decorations. 16 ] While the sentries in this surgery were Lithuanian, the overseers were entirely American. In between, a policeman from Germany buzzed the beer barrel polka and shot into the back of people's heads.
24 ] The remnant of Iwens told after the conflict what he had learnt from another remnant, Haim Kuritzky, about what had happened at the pits: Bl?zmanis, the Lithuanian policeman in Daugavpils, fulfilled the SD's wish for certain Jews' repression. The SD was the one that ordered all Jews in Daugavpils to bear all six-pointed gold star on the front and back of their clothes for four years.
According to Stahlecker, head of Einsatzgruppe A: "On 25 July 1941 the Germans gave the order that all Jews should move into the Jewish prison by the next one. Besides all the Jews of Daugavpils, the Jews gathered on 26 July were also to march into the fort, among them Jews from Lithuania and the surroundings of Daugavpils.
Frankel-Zaltzman described the scene: Throughout the language of offenders and victim the English term "aktion" (literally: action) became the term "mass shooting". "The activities in the Daugavpils area took place from the end of July, when the foundation of the Gazette took place, until the end of August. On August 1, 1941, the Judaic Gazette police proclaimed that a new encampment had been set up not far from the Gazette, pointing out that Jews not living in Daugavpils should collect their possessions and move there.
Frankel-Zaltzman says: "The Jewish neighborhood was not a Jewish neighborhood that was prescribed or abolished by customs. This was an impromptu jail to detain the Jews until they could be eliminated. The Jews made up their own "committee" (sometimes called " council ") of about 12 prisoners, mostly professionals and well-known persons, to lead the inner workings of the Ghettos, which initially had more than 14,000 of them.
Movshenzon's dad was responsible for the Daugavpils town in 1918, when the Germans invaded it during the First World War, forcing Jews from other cities and settlements in Latgalia and as far as the Vidzeme region into the prison area. Men and wives were kept apart in the mall.
Part of the revenue from the work of the Jews was assigned to the Jewish Council. Mr Iwens told of a number of cases of friendly handling, including a pilot from Germany who was horrified by the pain of the kids in the mall. He was also well cared for by a Germans detachment, where he worked in the cuisine.
At another opportunity, two Germans who knew that the SD chose Jews who had no work for the hanging claimed that they were needed to work with their units, which saved at least for a while a group of about 30 in number. Iwens described the circumstance from his point of views as a Jew who was able to survive as a craftsman:
Frankel-Zaltzman, another survivalist, described how the last survivalists of the Germans learnt from a soldiers that they would not be slaughtered, as expected, on June 26, 1942, the one-year jubilee of the downfall of Daugavpils: Germans forced disciplines in the Daugavpils prison cell by hanged individuals who were seen as breaking their many rules:
Until the end of September 1941 the Nazis had murdered about 30,000 Jews in Latvia, mostly in small cities. 61 ] There were still three large Jewish centres in Riga, Liep?ja and Daugavpils. 61 ] From November 7 to 9, 1941, the Germans murdered most of the Jews left in the Daugavpils prison.
Professor Ezergailis accepted the Nazi character of 1,134, but this was predicated on a spring that appears to refer to shots fired on a unique date - November 9, 1941. The shooting in this case of about 3,000 persons was perpetrated by the command Ar?js under surveillance of Germany and could have been meant as a test run for the much bigger Rumbula-Massaker near Riga on 30 November and 8 December 1941.
Later, a remnant who was working in the prison camp was describing the crime scene: In the four-month period from July to November 1941, the Nazis in Daugavpils murdered at least 15,000 Jews. Of the thousands of prisoners in the dungeon, only 900 survived the November shooting.
After the November carnage, a number of Jews with work permit outside the Gazeta were based (casinated or "quartered") in the bigger older fort, sometimes known as the Zitadelle, on the northern side of the Daugava River. They did various jobs for the Germans, and although they were not remunerated and there was a shortage of meals, they were better off than the Jews imprisoned in the cell.
Latvia's Hilfspolizeien were not seen since the Zitadelle was under the management of the Germans. Following Bundeswehr troops were connected with the Daugavpils Gazette or the management of slave labor: in a much smaller post of this fort. Rudolf Lange, SD Commandant in Latvia, ordered Tabbert to dissolve the Jewish prisoners.
Tabbert's men and the command Ar?js enter the camp in the early hours of the night, after the working Jews have been taken out to the construction area. 70 ] The Nazis carried out another "selection" on that day and killed the vast majority of the Jews in the area. Others claim that of the Jews in the old stronghold on the western side of the stream, only one or two survive May 1.
73 ] According to Iwens, who was in the Zitadelle and listened to the tale a few and a half years later: "Iwens was a man who was in the citadel: The Nazis, among other things, killed the older kids in the dungeon themselves by putting them up against a brick wall and firing them. Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, pages 90 to 91.
Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, page 278. Lumans, Latvia in World War II, page 243. Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, page 14. Lumans, Latvia in World War II, around 156 and 227-228. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 1, "The Tragedy Begins" and "It Burns, Brethren, It Burns...".
Lumans, Latvia in World War II, at 140, 153 and 154. How Dark the Heavens, p. 24-31. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling Nr. 94.771, Part I, "Schwarzer Sonntag - 29. Juni 1941 - Die Männer werden weggenommen": "Sunday 29 January, early in the mornings, the watchwoman came and said to us that there was an order that all Jews up to the ages of 60 must assemble in the fair.
" Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94777: Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, page 31. How Dark the Heavens, page 104. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 1, "Yellow Spots". On 101-107 a merchant, destruction of the Jews of Latvia. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 1, "Wir sind in Reihen ausgerichtet" ^ Loman, Latvia in the Second World War, page 247.
Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 1, "The First Akztion" ^ Iwens, "How Dark the Heavens", page 47. Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, pages 276 to 279. Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, page 277. Gilbert, The Holocaust, page 179, citing Maja Zarch, the Shelter.
Lumans, Latvia in World War II, page 243: "Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, on pages 48-49, 57, 99-103, 186-191. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling no. 94771, part 3, headline "God is helping - for the moment" ^ Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, page 126. Kaufmann, The Destruction of the Jews of Latvia, 104, described the hanging of Mascha Schnieder, who was probably the same one.
A Woman is Hung in the Ghetto" ^ Gilbert, The Holocaust, page 295. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 2, "Quarantine in the Ghetto - The Taste of Hunger", "My Father Steals" and "A Mother in the Ghetto". Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, pages 70-71.
Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, page 89. Frankel-Zaltzman, Haftling No. 94771, Part 2, Sunday, November 10, 1941, Third Day of Slaughter. Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, pages 67-92. In particular, see page 92, "We were again able to reside in the Zitadelle That was a great relief," and page 93, compared to the Gazette, our lives were good.
" Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, pages 279 and 280. Iwens, How Dark the Heavens, at 191-207. Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, page 275. Frankel-Zaltzman, Paula, Haftling No. 94771 initially issued Montreal 1949, which was reissued in five parts in digital form by the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies.
The Jaeger report, "Complete list of executed persons executed in the Einsatzkommando 3 zones until 1 December 1941".