sspan class="mw-headline" id="History">History
Cimbra ( Portugese pronunciation:[ku??b??, ?kw?b??]; Proto-Celtic: *Corumbriga)) is a town and a community in Portugal.... It is the 4th biggest town in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga) and the biggest town in the Coimbra County, the Centro and Baixo Mondego sub-regions. The Região de Coimbra, which comprises 19 communities and covers an area of 4,336 km2, is home to around 460,000 population.
In the Visigothic period (around the eighth century), the Coimbra earldom was founded by King Wittiza, a sub-county of his reign that was founded as a feud for his prince Prince Ardabast (or Sisebuto), who had his headquarters in Emínio (the Visigothic name for Coimbra) and continued until the Moslem incursion from the southern hemisphere.
Afonso Henriques, in the twelfth centuries, managed an area of rich land with fluvial entrance and sheltered by a walled town whose populace was 6000 people, among them mayors, chivalrous and high priests. Infante, a young man, supported the building of his residence by financing the convent of Santa Cruz (the most important convent in Portugal at the moment, built by Theotonius in 1131), promoting the building of the Old Cathedral, reconstructing the ancient Rome Cathedral in 1132, reconstructing the ancient Roman bridges, restoring wells, ovens, streets and paving stones, and restoring the old town wall.
So as to affirm and strengthen the authority of the council, in 1179 he gave a solemn undertaking (charter). As early as the Middle Ages, Coimbra was split into an Oberstadt (Cidade Alta or Almedina), where the nobility and the church used to live, and the commercial, crafts and work centers in the Unterstadt (Arrabalde or Cidade Baixa) on the river Mondego, as well as the old and new Judenviertel.
It was surrounded by a walled enclosure, of which some remains such as the Almedine Gate (Porta da Almedina) are still to be seen. In the meantime, the community began to expand on the outskirts in various conurbations, especially around the abbeys that evolved in Celas, Santa Clara, Santo António Dos Olivais.
One of the city's most important Gothic works is the monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha, built by Queen Elisabeth of Portugal in the first half of the fourteenth millennium on the banks of the Mondego stream. Coimbra, in the fifteenth and sixteenth hundreds, during the time of its discovery, was again one of the most important art centers of Portugal, thanks to the presence of locals and royals.
The Coimbra Episcopal See, the Order and King Manuel I sponsored works by Diogo Paires (father and son), Marcos and Marcos and João de Castilho, Diogo de Castilho and the French, João de Ruão and Nicholas of Chanterene, among others, who gave the city important Manueline and Renaissance works. Coimbra University was established in 1290 by King Dinis I as the Studium Generale in Lisbon. The university was moved to Coimbra in 1308, but in 1338 King D. Afonso IV brought the university back to Lisbon.
In 1537 King John III finally moved the building to the Coimbra Royal Palace and extended it to include the Coimbra Royal Palace until 1544. Ever since, urban living has centred around the state universities. A number of college buildings (Colégios) founded by the orders offered an alternate to the formal institutions for many years, but were progressively abandoned with the secularisation of Portuguese culture.
The Joanina Biblioteca (Joanina Library), a baroque building dating from the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries, is another remarkable symbol of the old college. Baroque Universidade Tower, from the Ludovice building, which was designed by the famous Ludovice architects and constructed between 1728 and 1733, is the town' s main public building. The Marquis of Pombal, Premier of King José I, in 1772 carried out a radical revolution in the universities, where the studies of science were of great importance.
Today, the collection of the academic tools and materials purchased at that time are collected in the Museum of Sciences of the University of Coimbra and form one of the most important historic academic libraries in Europe. For Coimbra, the first half of the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries was a hard time, as it was attacked by a group of France under the commands of Andoche Junot and André Masséna during the Peninsula War.
Masséna was struck hard by a troop of 4,000 Portugese militias under the leadership of Nicholas Trant when she took back the town on 6 October 1810. In the second half of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the twentieth centuries saw the town recover through infrastructural changes such as the introduction of telegraphs, lighting, a railroad system, a railroad over the Mondego River and the restoration of the Portela River as well as the widening of its streets and the extension of the town to the Quinta de Santa Cruz.
That was only the beginning of church development. The area' s economy was dominated by underground engineering throughout the entire area, with new areas such as Montes Claros, Arregaça, Cumeada and Calhabé emerging in the shadows of the town. New impulses were also given to the plans for the end of the nineteenth centuries, such as the extension of the Santa Cruz district (bairro), the destruction of the Alta de Coimbra housing estate (1940-50) to extend the university, and the building or extension of the Celas, Sete Fontes and Marechal Carmona buildings (now Norton de Matos' bairro).
It is surrounded by several of its neighboring communities in the Baixo Mondego area, including Penacova (northeast), Vila Nova de Poiares (east), Miranda do Corvo area ( southeast), Condeixa-a-Nova (south and southwest), Montemor-o-Velho (west), Cantanhede (northwest) and Mealhada (north and northeast).
Outside the commune there are also several quaint mining cities such as Lousã and Penacova, while spas such as Luso, Buçaco and Curia are common. Though Coimbra no longer served as the Portuguese capitol in the thirteenth centuries, it has great importance as the center of the former Beira Provincial Council, now known as the Centro area.
Along with Braga, it is regarded as one of the two most important Portuguese regions outside the metropolises of Lisbon and Portos, the center for the entire central part of the state. Coimbra is known for its historical buildings, church complexes, library, museum, park, night life, health and shops.
Most of all, the culture of the University of Coimbra has drawn the country's renowned authors, painters, scientists and aristocrats to its culture, which has earned it the status of Lusa-Atenas (Lusitanian Athens). It has also encouraged the creation and upkeep of various park, playground, garden and forest facilities, as well as the creation of the University of Coimbra Botanical Garden (considered the fifth oldest in the world),
Situated on the road to St. James in Portugal, the town of Coimbra before 2013. Coimbra has 157,510 citizens and a 200,000 seasonally employed community. More than 43,000 students and workers flock to Coimbra every year.
The Região de Coimbra has a population of around 460,000, made up of 19 communities covering an area of 4,336 km2. Coimbra's richness lies above all in the University of Coimbra with about 20,000 student population - the town has a population of 35,000 student population, which includes the other universities located there - but also in the fields of purchasing, technologies and healthcare, administration, finance, legal practices and specialised healthcare.
It has many hospitals, doctors' surgeries and two large autonomous state hospitals: the H.U.C. - Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, which is a college clinic, and the C.H.C. - Centro Hospitalar de Coimbra, which is a general one. The Coimbra also has the local office of the Instituto Português de Oncologia (I.P.O.), the local clinic of the French government, and a provincial army outpost.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal, the Portuguese National Scientific Research Centre, has its headquarters in Coimbra. On every seventh and twenty-third day of the calendar year Coimbra has an outdoor food fair in Feira dos 7 et dos 23 and a large outdoor food fair in Mercado D. Pedro V. The Baixa (downtown) of Coimbra has many cafes and pastry stores and several specialist stores that sell all kinds of goods in a typically old-fashioned architectonic setting.
Among the large multi-storey parking amenities are a medium-size mall ( "CoimbraShopping"), two major malls with hypermarkets, dining, cinemas and several stores with a choice of some of Portugal's and the world's most renowned and classy global brand names, including "Dolce Vita Coimbra", created by the US engineering and designer Suttle Mindlin and Forum Coimbra;
There are two malls on the outskirts of the town, providing an alternate to the bustling downtown area (Retail Park Mondego in Taveiro and Coimbra Retail Park in Eiras). The Dolce Vita Coimbra was awarded the MIPIM International Design Award 2006, the ICSC International Design Award 2006 and the ICSC European Design Award 2006, which proves that Portugal and Coimbra provide both historic and completely contemporary purchasing experience.
In Coimbra, the two shores of the Mondego at Coimbra are connected by three major bridges: the Ponte do Açude, the Ponte de Santa Clara (Santa Clara Bridge), the oldest, and the Ponte Rainha Santa, also known as Ponte Europa, completed in 2004. Ponte Pedonal de Pedro e Inês is the youngest and the only pedestrian crossing in the town.
Inside the town there is an extended internal coach system, the SMTUC (Serviços Municipalizados de Transportes Urbanos de Coimbra, Coimbra Municipality Urban Transport Services) and the Coimbra Obus system (the only such system in Portugal). Formerly, the town also had a tramway system (some are now housed in a transport museum).
It is a turntable for inter-regional coach connections at home and abroad. An urban transit system, the Mondego subway, was suggested, but the abandonment of the scheme came at the peak of the Portugese finance crises. Train stations. A small foothill leads from there to Coimbra-A, the central train stop in the center of the town.
From the Coimbra Parque at the southern border of the center there was also a small railway line (Linha da Lousã). It was possible to go from Coimbra-Parque to Miranda do Corvo, Lousã and Serpins. It is also possible to take the trains between Coimbra and Figueira da Foz (Ramal de Alfarelos) and Coimbra, Guarda and Vilar Formoso (Linha da Beira Alta[international]).
The A1 highway, which links Lisbon with Porto, serves Coimbra. There is a local airport in Cernache (Aeródromo Municipal Bissaya Barreto) (CBP)[PCO], 7.5 kilometers (4.7 miles) SW of the area. The name Coimbra was given to A cinidade Dos Esteudantes (The Student City) or Lusa-Atenas (Lusitan-Athens), mainly because it is the seat of the oldest and one of the biggest Portuguese higher education institutions - the Coimbra Higher Education Institution, a publicly owned higher education institution whose roots date back to the thirteenth centuries.
Today it has 70 different nationality groups; almost 10% of its student population are from abroad, making it the most internationally oriented Portuguese school. It is also the place where Portugal's oldest and largest association of college graduates was formed - the Associação Académica de Coimbra (Academic Association of Coimbra), created in 1887.
There are also some other colleges and universities in the city: the Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, a publicly owned technical college; the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra, a college for nurses; and some colleges such as the Instituto Superior Miguel Torga; the Instituto Superior Bissaya Barreto; the Escola Universitária Vasco da Gama; and the Escola Universitária das Artes de Coimbra, an arts university.
Coimbra's universities were chosen by a large number of university graduates from all over Portugal due to the broad range of degree opportunities in different areas, the student-friendly surroundings of the town and the reputation of many of its educational establishments, which are linked to Coimbra's old traditions as the historic higher educational centre of Portugal.
It also has a large number of primary and middle level primary and tertiary education establishments, both publicly and privately, including some of the best in the nation, such as the Escola Secundária Infanta D. Maria (public), the Escola Secundária José Falcão (public), the Escola EB2/3 Martim de Freitas (public), Colégio Rainha Santa Isabel (private) and Colégio de São Teotónio (private), as well as several nursery and kindergartens.
The Coimbra Hotel and the Tourism School are also available. The Coimbra Festival commemorates its city day on 4 July in honor of Queen Elisabeth of Portugal (wife of King Denis); a sacred and civil ceremony that commemorated the former queen's existence, including a firework show following the nightly Penitentiary Marches.
The following is a list of Coimbra's major educational institutions: Coimbra fish is a sophisticated style of Coimbra fish musicality. Some of the most remarkable and historic followers include Carlos Paredes, on guitar, and Zeca Afonso, on vocals, while the Orfeon Académico de Coimbra (Portugal's oldest and most renowned scholarly choir) and the Associação Académica de Coimbra are important organisations that support the cultivation of the arts and style of this musical area.
Coimbra also has a modern kind of modern kind of entertainment, with several centres of lively entertainment and some of the most famous Portuguese nightclubs and events. Furthermore, the Conservatório de Música de Coimbra, the Conservatories of the Associação Académica de Coimbra and the Faculty of Literature's programs are attended by many of the best conservatories in the state.
Coimbra's oldest and most renowned scholarly chorus, Orfeon Académico de Coimbra, an independent organisation of the Associação Académica de Coimbra, founded in 1880 by a jurist from the University of Coimbra (UC), and the UC Associação Académica de Coimbra's own department of advocacy are important organisations in the advancement and conservation of Coimbra fishado.
Legend has it that the applause for the Lisbon fun fair would be accompanied by clapping one's hand, while in Coimbra coughing, as if to clear one's throats, is the characteristic way. And Coimbra is also known for its student parties. Latada or Festa di Latas ("The Tin Can Parade") is a home coming paradise that takes place at the beginning of the school year and welcomes newcomers.
Festa de Latas dates back to the nineteenth centuries, when Coimbra pupils felt the need to make the most of their final year of education by expressing their pleasure as loudly as possible and using everything they had at their fingertips, namely metalboxes. Following the march through the town' s boulevards, the new residents are "christened" in the Mondego River and join the Coimbra Brotherhood of Academics.
Pupils of the year before last, usually pupils of the third year, receive their Grelos (a small volume). Beforehand, the pupils must have attended the Dom Pedro 5 square in the mornings, where they must be given a beet to receive the Caloiros during the celebrations of the town. In addition to the tins that they have bound to their feet, the new pupils are wearing all sorts of suits, which are put together according to the creative and imaginative ideas of their patrons or godparents who are older pupils.
One for each of the faculties of the University of Coimbra: Even though they are the Coimbra University Festival, other Coimbra University graduates, such as those studying polytechnics or those studying at institutions in the public sector, are every year called by the University of Coimbra to lead and organize these activities in order to take part in the Tin Can Parade and the Ribbons burn.
Accademic celebrations are open to the whole municipality and draw a large number of domestic and foreign visitors. The Coimbra musical life is vibrant and provides for most flavors with many festival and event activities beyond the scholarly festival and Coimbra's classic fandom game. There are several centres of contemporary musical life and some of the most famous night clubs and musical celebrations in Portugal.
In addition, the Conservatório de Música de Coimbra, the music-related sections of the Associação Académica de Coimbra and the musical programs of the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Coimbra are considered to be among the best musical academies in the state. Among the contemporary groups and performers with a certain level of popularity in the Portugese musical world are André Sardet, Bunnyranch, WrayGunn and JP Simões.
Centro is the third biggest local medium sized business in Portugal. Rádio and Televisão de Portugal, the Portugese state-owned broadcasting company, has branches and provincial studio in Coimbra. Diário de Coimbra and Diário As Beiras are the two main papers located in Coimbra. Coimbra University Students' Association also has remarkable publications such as the Rádio Universidade de Coimbra and A Cabra news.
There are many beautiful and enjoyable areas in Coimbra such as parkland, playing fields, garden and woods. Probably the most popular garden in the town is the Botanical Garden of the University of Coimbra, the fifth oldest in the canteen. Portugal Dos Pequenitos Parc is an education thematic parc constructed during the Estado Novo.
It is a replica of Portugal's monuments of architecture and was finished in the fifties. The Paul de Arzila Nature Park is also worthy of note, covering an area in the commune of Coimbra (in Arzila) and in the neighboring communes of Condeixa-a-Nova and Montemor-o-Velho. Near the town centre, near the town itself and completely in the town of Coimbra, there are many mountains and rivers.
In Coimbra there is the Coimbra Académica Association - O.A.F. (simply known as Académica), an independent company of the University of Coimbra Student Services, established in 1872 and which has had an independent soccer association charter since the 1980s. The Académica club play in the Portuguese league in the Estádio Cidade de Coimbra.
The Clube de Futebol União de Coimbra, another traditional sport association in the town, owns a Portuguese second division league squad and is another important Coimbra group. The Coimbra Associação Académica de Coimbra University Students' Association offers courses in a variety of disciplines including but not limited to the following: soccer, ice sports, rockball, rockball, ball games, beach tennis, swim ming-pooling, rock climbing, etc.
Estádio Cidade de Coimbra (30,000 seats), which hosted the European Football Championship in 2004 and comprises the Piscinas Municipais and Pavilhão Multiusos de Coimbra public indoor and outdoor pool facilities, both close to the ground; Estádio Municipal Sérgio Conceição; and Estádio Universitário de Coimbra, an important sporting centre of the Coimbra Universities on the L.L. side of the Mondego, are the most important athletic and sporting centres in Coimbra.
Other venues where some of Coimbra's most important outdoor sporting events will take place will be the Jorge Anjinho pavilion (headquarters of Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F.), pavilion Dos Olivais and pavilion do C.F. União de Coimbra. The most important sport clubs in Coimbra are: Afonso Henriques (c) was one of the following persons borne or dying in the commune of Coimbra.
1109; Guimarães/Viseu - 6 December 1185; Sé Nova), first Portugese sovereign who built his residency in the county of Coimbra; he was interred in the monastery of Santa Cruz; Sancho I (11 November 1154; Sé Nova - 26 March 1212); Afonso Henriques' eldest child, Sé Nova ), second royal of Portugal, in charge of ending the frontier dispute with Galicia and relocating the expansion of the empire to the southern hemisphere, conquering Muslim countries and expanding Portugal's territories; Afonso II (23 April 1185);
The third Portugese sovereign, Sé Nova (25 March 1223), Sé Nova, was able to preserve the piece established by the achievements of his fathers and grandfathers and strengthen his relations with the Catholic Church; the pious one, St. Nicholas II (8 September 1209; Sé Nova (4 January 1248); Toledo (Spain)), was pushed from the seat by an association of noblemen who, while thankful for the reconquista of their sovereign on Moorish land, were badly administered by his family.
Afonso III, his sibling, invaded Portugal with the help of the Catholic Church and banished him to Toledo; Afonso III (5 May 1210; Afonso, unlike his sibling, devoted special care to the management of his kingdom (stylized kingdom of Portugal and the Algarve) and held the first Portugese Cortes, which re-united the management, aristocracy, merchants and landlords, but his taxation of the Church led to his excommunication, which probably led to his early demise and the reign of his son Denis; Elizabeth of Portugal (Holy Queen Isabel), woman of King Denis I.
Seb Nova - 17 May 1558; Amares), a Renaissance writer who was studying Greek, Latin and philosophy at university (when she was in Lisbon), but travelled abroad and met classic authors in Spain and Italy before being welcomed at the courts of John III of Portugal between 1526 and 1527; Pedro Nunes (c.
Jacquim Machado de Castro (19 June 1731 - 17 November 1822; Lisbon), an18th century statuette artist known for his horseman sculpture of Joseph I of Portugal, with in-depth analyses and charts, which today occupy the center of the Praça do Comércio; Carlos Seixas (11 June 1704 - 25 August 1742; Lisbon), important songwriter, performer and schoolteacher; Carlos Seixas (11 June 1704 - 25 August 1742; Lisbon), a young and highly respected artist, painter and singer; Joaquim Machado de Castro (19 June 1731 - 17 November 1822; Lisbon), a 19th centuries sculpture artist known for his horseman sculpture of Joseph I of Portugal, with in-depth analyses and charts, which today occupy the center of the Praça do Comércio; Carlos Seixas (11 June 1704 - 25 August 1742; Lisbon), important songwriter, performer and schoolteacher; Joaquim Machado de Castro (1931 - 1731; Lisbon);
Joao Ameal, literal alias of the Portugese historical writer, reporter, political figure and writer Joao Francisco de Barbosa Azevedo de Sande Ayres de Campos, 3rd Count of Ameal (23 October 1902 - 23 November 1982); Malio Simões Slides ( 2 July 1903 - 8 July 1974); She was a co-founder of the Academia de CoimbraandInstituto de Música before presenting a classic musical programme on Swiss public television and later in Mozambique; Sister Lúcia (28 March 1907);
Mr Carlos Mota Pinto (25 July 1936; Mr Pombal - 7 May 1985), Associate Professor and Political Officer, Portuguese Prime Minister between 1978 and 1979, Vice-President in 1983 and President (1984-1985); Mr Mário Crespo (13 April 1947 - ), Member of the press and commentator; Mr Alberto Raposo Pidwell Tavares, known as Al Berto (11 January 1948 - 13 June 1997);
Lisbon ), a writer; Zita Seabra (25 May 1949; Santa Cruz -), a political woman; a former high-ranking member of the Portuguese communist party, who abandoned the idea of communism before the Berlin Wall came down and criticised it, later joining the Social Democratic Party; Pedro Passos Coelho on 24 July 1964 - ), a political man, Social Democratic Party leader and former Portuguese prime minister;
Zérgio Conceição (15 November 1974 -), an internationally active soccer player who represented Portugal at a World Cup and a Euro Cup for 10 different clubs; Zé Castro (13 January 1983 - ), an internationally active soccer player who represented Deportivo de La Coruña from Spain; Zeca Afonso, a Portugal player. Nowo Piloto, Portugese soccer player, skipper of the Associação Académica de Coimbra - O.A.F. soccer group.
Lieutenant Luis de Matos, Portugese mage. Andre Sardet, Portugese vocalist and performer. Albuquerque Filipe, Portugese racing cyclist. Joao Neto, Portugese master of judge. This is Miguel Veloso, Portugal's national player. His name is Carlos Paião, and he is a Portugese vocalist and song writer. "Portugese". University of Coimbra - Alta and Sofia. unesco.org. Weather information for Coimbra (Portuguese Meteorological Institute)".
Coimbra Climate Standards 1961-1990. "Act No 11-A/2013, page 552 41" (pdf) (in Portuguese). Coimbra Public Transportation Statistics. Moovit's Global Public Transit Index. It' it' it' it' it' it'' it'' it'' it'' it'' it'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''.
Coimbra, Portuguese: Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. Funchal" (in Portuguese). Damão, Índia (in Portuguese). Coimbra, Portuguese: Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. São Paulo Cidade Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Commons Wikimedia has related to Coimbra related newsletters. Vikivoyage has a guidebook for Coimbra.