Coffee Plantation in MyanmarMyanmar coffee plantation
Coffee Arabica Guide for Myanmar
In 1885 missions started coffee cultivation in Myanmar, as the Agriculture Burma Office 1940 reports. The Ministry of Forestry first set up two coffee experimental holdings in Mergui (Myeik) and Tavoy (Dawe), but these were completed within a few years. At the same the Kayin State (Nancho area) also set up coffee estates.
Independently of this, the Karen tribe members invented and manufactured Robusta coffee, which still lasts today. In 1930 Rome Catholics brought Arabica coffee to South Shan State, North Shan State and Pyin Oo Lwin (Maymyo). Arabica coffee is still made in all these areas today. Between 1930 and 1934, a large 120 hectare Arabica coffee plantation named Chaungwe was founded in the Naung Cho Township in northern Shan State, which still produces coffee commercially today.
Until 1935/36 the entire coffee output of Myanmar was 268 tonnes with 175 tonnes of imported coffee. There was a 108 ton output of coffee toasted. Between 1932 and 1936, Myanmar was exporting a combined 95 tonnes of coffee; 60% was exporting to the Madras Presidency in India, 31% to other parts of India, about 7% to the United Kingdom and the remainder to other states.
The same Chaungwe Group founded 60 hectares of Arabica coffee (mainly the S 795 variety) near Pyin Oo Lwin in the Mandalay Division in 1952. This plantation has been preserved until today. Between 1968 and 1994, the Ministry of Industry 1 administered the state coffee estates, mainly the Chaungwe, Pyin Oo Lwin, Pwe Daung and Banbwe estates, which come from the south.
By 1971 the entire coffee area was 6379 hectares and the output 859 MT. The state-owned coffee factory was transferred to Myanmar Farm Enterprises (MFE) in December 1994, where it still exists today. The United Nations Drug Abuse Control Program (UNDCP) in 1987 sponsored a coffee substitution program in the southern and northern Shan States.
Whereas the program was largely fruitless, many homes today still have 10 to 20 coffee plants. Even today, good coffee is still obtained from these homes, but the yield is low and many coffee shrubs are suffering from coffee leaves and are not well supplied. At the end of the eighties, the Government of Myanmar (GOM) launched a large nationwide coffee plantation program.
The GOM company expanded Arabica coffee cultivation by trebling its target for the year to make it easier to eradicate it. Until 1984/85, the area under coffee cultivation was about 10,000 hectares, 86% of which was domestic and the rest export. From 1977 to 1985 the mean output was 1146 tonnes per year. Until 1986, output rose from 10,100 hectares to 1417 tons.
In 2003/4, the total acreage of land used for cultivation was 35,485 hectares. Coffee plantations were still young because GOM has been promoting coffee for the last five years. Real output was 3380 MT out of 15,351 hectares. North Burma (Shan States, Mandalay Division, Chin State, Kachin State, Kayin State, Bogo Division, Rakhine State, Mon State) have the capacity to grow large quantities of high grade Arabica coffee due to their good qualities, good ground plateaux and other appropriate ground at altitudes above 1000 meters (3300 ft) with well dispersed precipitation of 59 to 79 inch (1500 to 2500 mm) and a pronounced, substantial drying time.
Coffee is an excellent plant for growers in isolated areas, providing a good return if well maintained, and because it is largely non-perishable and hardy, it is easy to transport without wastage. The coffee can also be cultivated on slopes with patios or grassy patches and contours. In shadow cultivation it is long-lasting even with low input.
In Myanmar, some of the early plantations of the S 795 strain under Grevillea robustta shadow tree in Myanmar are still able to produce adequate yield with low input even after 75 years. GOM's heads of state established a policy in 2004 to increase the area under Arabica coffee to 100,000 hectares.
Forecasts for 2004/05 were for 20,000 hectares, 2005/06 for 40,000 hectares and 2006/07 for 40,000 hectares. By the end of 2004/05, the entire coffee plantation amounted to 35,485 hectares and the scheme was reviewed in 2005 (see chart on page 80). In addition to the areas earmarked for the Northern Shan and Mandalay divisions, four large privately owned enterprises are planning to expand coffee cultivation in the southern Shan State (Yaksauk and Indaw/Kyakgu) to over 30,000 hectares.
Tea and shady trees. Several of the large areas that have been cultivated in the last three to four years have not followed the MFE's recommendations and foundered because low input was used, low-grade Catimor strains from China and other countries were cultivated and no establish shadow was provided. Coffee should be grown in the shadow, using only the best coffee types for certain sites.
Burma is now at a crossroads in the coffee development program. With the recent, very significant introduction of better manufacturing technology, grades and new manufacturing techniques, well backed by CRIETC's research, information enhancement and education, and greatly enhanced global coffee price, however, Myanmar is well positioned to benefit from the manufacture of high-quality Arabica for the global coffee markets.
Actual updates on the actual costs of setting up new coffee plantations and establishing liquidity streams during the growing of crops are provided in this handbook (see section 12) to support the design cycle by giving prospective growers good information on which to build commercial schemes for investments. Coffee yields and qualities are influenced by three different criteria.
Basically there are two types of coffee - coffeea Arabica and coffeea Canonephora (robusta) and two smaller types - coffeea Liberalica and coffeea Exelsa. Coffee is a high value and higher value coffee that is usually cultivated in colder, higher altitude areas of the tropical and subtropical regions at 1000 meters (3300 feet) or more above sealevel.
Used in the roasted and milled coffee markets, Arabica is added to Robusta's mixtures to enhance the soluble coffee qualities. The Robusta is of lower grade and the price is usually about 30 to 40% lower than Arabica. Normally Robusta is cultivated in warm areas at lower altitudes up to 1000 meters (3300 feet).
Robust as are mainly used in instant-coffee. Robusta is generally stronger and more prolific than Arabica and is said to be resistant/tolerant to foliar corrosion. The Liberica and Excelsa are cultivated mainly in low, warm climates. Our products are of bad workmanship and the prices are not high. This coffee is of importance locally in some jurisdictions and not commercially in the global coffee martin.
In Arabica, improving the genetic type is obtained by choosing the right type (variety). Ideal features of the selected strain should be: dwarf or dense habit, high yields, foliar corrosion resistant, excellent bucketability. It is a long-term cultivated plant with a life span of more than 10 years and much longer with good cultivation, so the selection of the type (variety) is very important.
Coffee beans are important, so only select those types that are best for your region. They are the highest productive and highest value cultivars that thrive in native soil and climates. Suggested Arabica strains for Northern Shan State, Southern Shan State and Mandalay Division:
A number of Catimor strains exist in Myanmar, but many are not real Catimore and should not be used. From now on, CRIETC will consult which plants are suited for cultivation after completion of the experiments and clipping experiments. Longestablished variety in Myanmar. Choice from the coffee shop Balehonnur in India.
The S 288 is the first S 26 regeneration, a naturally occurring hybrids between C. arabianica and C. liberalica. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Toleration comes from Leberica genetics, which often provide a more stubborn toleration of corrosion than Robusta genetics found in Catimor. Cup quality: Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof:
Cup quality: Big-sized beans, drought-tolerant. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: Big-sized beans, drought-tolerant. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Resistant to Race II corrosion. Cup quality: Big-sized beans. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: Big-sized beans. Launched in Myanmar in the fifties.
Growing habit: Half gnome, thick. Revenue: Rustproof: Cup quality: Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Rated as Race II corrosion proof. Cup quality: Big-sized beans. Growing habit: Half gnome, thick. Revenue: Rustproof: Cup quality: Nice big beans. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: Appropriate for higher and cooler conditions; level of coffee beet pulp illness tolerance (Colletotrichum coffaenum).
Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: Strong, big-diameter. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: A very long thin broadmeal. By the intersection between C. arabianica and C. cannephora, found in East Timor in 1927. Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Cup quality: Can withstand coffee brewing diseases (Colletotrichum coffaenum).
Growing habit: Yield: Rustproof: Extremely hardy against all breeds of rusty leaves. Hybrido de Timor is a hybrid between Arabica and Robusta from East Timor. Catimoras of various kinds and origin have been imported to Myanmar in recent years. Growing habit: Half gnome compakt. Revenue: and dies from badly managed, especially when there is no shadow.
Rustproof: Durable against all types of dirt roads, provided a thorough choice is made. Cup quality: Ever since the coffee grate began to expand rapidly in the 1970s and 1990s, there has been a joint action internationally to promote the development of Catimor because of its corrosion stability. Catimor plantations have been promoted by both the public and consumer sector due to their potentially high yields and corrosion resilience.
A number of Catimor choices already exist in Myanmar (Costa Rica, Vietnam, Yunnan, 7963 and Laos). Real Katimor do not show coffee grist, but especially the Yunnan Katimor has grist. One drawback is the small bee sizes and lower cup qualities of the original Catimor and the tendancy of the plants to produce too much and die hard.
A number of developing country programs have started in recent years to backcross Catimor to Arabica strains to enhance crop steeping performance and crop growing. Catimor are not all of the same cup qualities and work is currently under way to find the most appropriate cultivars for Myanmar. In order to cultivate and make good coffee, several important enviromental determinants have to be considered.
Altitude affects a number of these determinants and must be taken into account together with temperatures, precipitation and hydration, soils, gradients and aspects when deciding where to grow coffee. Arabica coffee requires a height of more than 1000 metres above sealevel. Arabica coffee at low altitudes does not have the qualities demanded by global coffee market.
Myanmar should select areas above 3300 foot, on the basis of bucket testing, if there is currently enough good country. Areas over 1300 metres (4265 ft) are producing high grade coffee for premier coffee. A high height enhances the beet and the possible cropping qualities.
Delayed maturation due to colder climates in conjunction with higher elevations allows the intrinsic properties of acids, aromas and strong beans to fully unfold. The fat runner is considered to be between large and medium-sized beans, with a greater width to length proportion than a large runner.
Coffee from Arabica favours a cold climate with an optimal daytime temp. of 20° to 24°C (68° to 75°F). Mean median pyin oo win and banbwe in Myanmar (Figure 1) are: Exposure to 86°F (30°C) and above causes crop stresses and stops photo synthesis. Medium termperatures of less than 15°C (59°F) restrict crop growing and are regarded as underoptimal.
Since Arabica coffee is prone to freeze-thaw, the use of shadow tree reduces the appearance. Precipitation for Arabica coffee is more than 1200 to 1500 mm (47 to 60 inches) per year. In order to achieve an even bloom, coffee needs a phase of constant exertion with little or no precipitation.
The Myanmar coffee areas clearly have a cold, arid phase of stressful. A free drainage floor with a min. 3 ft (1 m) shall be provided for effective operation. Water jams or "wet feet" cannot be tolerated in coffee. It can be cultivated on many different soils, but the best is a fruitful, vulcanic reddish ground or deeper, sandy-loam.
The preferred earth for coffee is 5 to 6 pH. There are few results from tillage studies, but indicators indicate a pH below 5 with little available P and thus a lack of many other micronutrients. The majority of Myanmar's high plateau towns have a gently sloping terrain and no additional action is needed.
Avoid growing coffee on the bottom of a hill or in flat dunes where cool fresh water can swim, as this is more likely to cause freezing damages. Normally it is best not to grow the lower third of a hillside because it is cooler and sometimes soaked with water. Avoid exposure to heavy wind or wind shelters such as Grevillea robustta, which have become common before coffee tree plants are planted.
While coffee needs enough drinking soda during the cultivation and cultivation phases, it also needs a drought stressed season followed by enough rains or watering to encourage even blooming and a good fruity appearance. In many plantations humidity stresses occur at a season when they need enough drinking oil for planting and cultivation (see page 90 of the phenylological cycle).
In the absence of frequent rains, young replanted tree should be sprinkled with fresh plants (or manually sprinkled at least twice a weeks if no sprinkling is available) to maintain settlement. Coffee plantations should be set up near a source of drinking aid for possible watering and treatment of cherries. The need for freshwater can be met by using appropriate, well-established shady tree and Mulch.
To understand how to cultivate the coffee trees, an appreciation of the coffee plants, their composition and growth is vital. Like the area of cultivation and the cultivated cultivar, cultivation has a major impact on coffee production and coffee yields. A large part of this handbook covers the hands-on handling of the coffee trees from plantation to picking.
Coffee plants vary in form according to type and type. Each coffee consists of an erect stem with prime, minor and minor laterals. It has a major root, side and small feed root (see Fig. 4). There are two different kinds of twigs in the coffee tree:
When pollinated, a piece of berry becomes a 10 to 15 mm long berry with two grains (the coffee beans). It consists of flesh (coloured peel and a meaty mucus), then vellum, then silver peel (seed peel) and then coffee pod (Figure 6).
It is the task of the endodontic system to anchor the plants securely in the ground and to absorb mineralisation. The importance of cultivation methods (pricking in tree nurseries, herding, mulching, watering and planting) for the allocation and functioning of plants must be emphasised.
During the first three years the roots develop and it is important that the crops are well provided with nutrients such as nitrate, phosphorus, calcium, magnesia and sulfur. Phoenology of the coffee tree relates to the natural evolution ary of the coffee tree throughout the year, both physically and physiologically. Phoenology is often described as the culture circuit or cell biological circuit of the herb.
Coffee, like all crops, reacts to the changes in the surroundings (temperature, precipitation, dryness, length of day) in which it is grown, under the influence of the season. Coffee trees grow from autonomic roots and shoots to reproduction when the season changes, where they flower, set and ripen fruits for the next crop, then regrowth begins for the next season.
The time is very important for these methods to optimize the coffee plantation.