Chin state HistoryChina State History
Some claim that Chin is the ancient name from ancient pagan Burmese epigraphs. History textbooks that have been published by English officials have described humans as Kuki, Lushai and Chin because the Brits came into close touch with Bengal, Thado and Myanmar. Then the Bengals named them Kuki, and the Thado, who gave the name Kuki to the Bengals, named the other Klan who lived next to them, Lusei, who was spoiled by the Brits to become Lushai.
Britons adopted the term "Chin" from Burma when they came to Burma (renamed Myanmar by the 1989 Myanmar Army government). Chin's name is often used in Myanmar and Zo or Mizo in India. Originally, the Chin tribe came from western China (possibly where the Lolo, a tibeto-Burman tribe, still lives today) or Tibet.
Several, now known as the Asho, migrated southwards to inhabit the Burmese lowlands. These battles forced men northward, southward and westward, leading to the emergence of many different idioms and traditions among the same population. Shortly before the arrival of Britain, the Falam Klan had gained power over most of the population.
In the early 1800s, the British conquered Chinland in the western world on the Bengal-China boundary. In the 1890s they concluded the colonisation of the Chin tribe. Chinese societies are still often split today by local rivalries at class level. More than 3 million Chinese live in Myanmar (Burma), 2 million of them in the area.
At least 800,000 Indian residents are living in the state of Mizoram. Bangladesh's Chin populace is about 50,000. Most of the Chin are living in the Indian-Burmese mountain chains, which extend from the Letha chain in the northern part to the Arakan mountain chain and the neighbouring lowlands. There are also some who are living in the Pegu and Popa hilly areas of Myanmar, among the Myanmar nation.
Britain's Colombian government split the nation into many wards. Those boundaries set by the Brits that share Chin still persist today. The standard of life of impoverished China in Myanmar and Mizoram, a contemporary Indian state ruled by the Mizo, is very different. Myanmar's Chin tribe mainly live in Chin State and neighboring areas, Arakan State, Prome-Thayetmyo Area, Yaw Valley, Kale-Kabaw-Myittha Valley, Tamu-Hkamti Area and Popa and Pegu Mountains, India's Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura and Assam States, and Bangladesh's Chittagong-Bandarban Hill Tracts.
Uncomfortable relationships between the Kuki tribe (Chin) in Manipur, India, and the non-chin tribes of this state have sometimes led to violence. Myanmar's Chins have escaped from the dominant Myanmar armies and have sought shelter in the neighbouring Misoram, where relationships with the related Miso tribe are often precarious, the Misos blaming the Chin escapees for being criminal.
Also, there are tens of millions of Chin exiles in India's New Delhi towns, Malaysia and other states. Since 2006, an ever-growing number of Chin-fugitives has been settled in the United States. Chin is part of the linguistic familiy Tibeto-Burman. A dozen different local idioms live among the Chin.
Chin's have surnames or house numbers. Sizang have a total of about 5,000 inhabitants who live in five neighbouring communities; all have the same name as the Suantak group. Consequently, the Chin usually do not use their surname in their own race unless they come into touch with the outside worlds.
Whilst the Chinese name practices are similar in other Chin, they do not necessarily begin their name with the name of a relative. Humans in the north of Mizoram and Hualngo distinguish masculine and feminine by terminating masculine with the " a " tone and feminine with the " e " tone. Chinese often have a first name from the Bible or an English sobriquet, as well as their Chin name.
They say they had their own handwriting all at once, printed on it. Though they had no hint of this scripture, the Chin's have a long verbal history that traces their history back through song. In the event that Chin's assemble in grief or to celebrate, they are singing the song of their predecessors in which the actions of their predecessors are summarized.
Those hymns kept their story going. But since most Chin's have become Christian and these hymns can be seen as un-Christian, the verbal history of their nation has been overlooked. Chin protagonists are those progenitors who were a success and whose life acts are documented in the hymns they sang.
A lot of Chin Clan have the legend that their creator came from a pit in the ground, a cavern known as Sinlung. Chin used to be an animist. Therefore the nation sacrificed to the wicked when they became ill or when their harvest was not. Chins also believe in a mighty creature by the name of Pathian who is good to them.
During Burma's Burmese occupation, Christians came to the Chins country as Christians. You were persecuted by other missionsaries who did medicinal work under the Chins and were preaching to them. Finally, the vast majority of Chinese (estimated at 90%) followed Christians, among them Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, Catholics, Anglicans and other confessions.
They are known for a variety of different cults, with a number of different church types, even in small towns. Also there are "new religions", native species of Christianity, and some chin in Myanmar and Mizoram that became Jews, followed the Old Testament and called themselves the lost tribe of Israel.
While most of the Chins' animistic convictions gave way to Christianity, some survived, such as using stonemasons to feast. A lot of the church advise against using traditionally produced drinks such as vinegar. Myanmar's Chins have witnessed pressures from the Myanmar armed forces to become converted to Buddhism, the country's main religious group.
Several Chinese youths were taken to Buddha dormitories, and the crucifixes built by Chin's on the tops of hills were demolished and substituted by Buddha troops of Myanmar troops. Getting permits from the Chinese authorities to fix or reconstruct churches is very hard for Chin parishes. Myanmar's army detained and even murdered ministers and other ecclesiastical staff, according to US administration accounts and humanitarian groups.
Chin/Mizo's festive day is the November/December festival at the end of the year. Christmas is called after the vernacular of the local population, e.g. Khuado, Khuangcawi, etc. Much Zu is prepared by the ladies, a fermenting alcohol based on wheat corn, sorghum and flour, which is the Chin main ingredient.
Christmas and Easter are cherished by the Chin with worship, song and celebration. Children go from home to home with candle and flashlight and sing Christmas songs. In Myanmar, the Chin family also commemorates the coming of pilgrims and the foundation of their country's religious communities.
Chin National Day is celebrated at the beginning of the year by Myanmar migrants. It takes a few whole day, a few week or even a few month before the Chin's give the baby a name. One of the most common tasks of the girl is to transport drinking and drinking tap waters from the spring or brook to the farm.
In Myanmar, Chin's lifespan is brief as infant deaths are high and healthcare provision is very restricted, so many depend on conventional medicines. Mizos in India have better acces to hospital, clinic and healthcare staff. Singing the hymns of their forefathers, especially the hymns of the dead.
Until the British came, the Chins usually didn't shook their hand, but today it's customary. Humans come to see each other early in the dawn or at any hour of the night. When a young man was of legal majority, i.e. 16 years old, a wedding could be organized in the Chinese tradition.
Given that the Chin follow their ancestors for many ages, the ancestry of each was known. Today, young couples are likely to gather at ecclesiastical events and choose who they want to get married, but parents' blessing is still important. Where most Chinese are living, the country is very fissured.
Fruitful lands are in short supply, and therefore the life standards for most Chinese are very simple, although there is a much higher quality of life for the Mizo/Chin peoples in India than for Chinese in Myanmar. Aizawl, the capitol of the state of Mizoram, has 340,000 inhabitants. Municipal homes are mainly made of timber and partly covered with natural trees, which have been constructed on a row of mounds linked together by streets, pathways and staircases.
Streets and an international airfield link Aizawl with the remainder of India. Myanmar is a country where attacks by troops and slave labourers cause life problems for the Chin and cause many to seek shelter and work in other states. Chin in rustic areas are building their own homes with wood and tree wood, which they themselves are cutting.
The most Chin homes are subdivided into two parts. The majority of Chinese have very few commodities, weave their own clothes and make all their own paraphernalia, mostly from natural hemp. Humans use their quilts to keep themselves hot when they go out in the morning or evening in the mountains. The Chin Hills of Myanmar transport goods mainly on people's backs and shoulder.
Only a few humans own a horse, and barrows cannot be used in the mountains because there are few highways. Humans take corn from the fields to their homes. Myanmar has power only in the municipalities, but even there the services are occasional. The majority of Chin homes have their own cat and dog. The majority of Chin-lovers are large and have an average of about five kids per group.
Teenage daughters get married and move in with their men. In the countryside, family members work together on their farm and older and younger generation are living in the same family. Chinese traditions differ in who will inherit their parents' home. The men's traditionally dressed everyday was the loin apron, and when the day was cool, the men used the same cover under which they sleep at nights and wrap it around them to expose them to heat.
Ladies wore long clothes like a loom tail, and to keep out the coldness, they wrap their covers around themselves. Today a coat, a longer rock and a necklace made of prickly pig feathers are used by Chin/Mizo ladies as dancing outfits. Currently the Chin men are wearing pants, denim or briefs with T-shirts or other tops and coats, while the Myanmar woman is wearing jean and sarong, and skirts, clothes or denim in Mizoram, with pullovers or coats for the outdoors.
Notwithstanding these changes, traditionally interwoven plaids are still used as cape and ceremony gift, and traditionally stitched fabrics are used for jeans, shirts, jackets and even ties. Men and woman chins wear both fabric as well as fabric messenger bag embroideries. Pumtek (petrified wood) neckbands or pearls and sterling silver wristbands are popular with ladies.
Several older ladies still have classic face tattoos. Though the chins work every day in the field, they may not reap enough nourishment for the year. Chin rarely eats flesh. Maize and sorghum are the basic foodstuffs for those at higher altitudes. It is the basic diet for those staying in more productive areas where it can be cultivated on slopes.
Chin were only imported into condiments by the Burmese and Indians, so they are not widespread. The Chin Farmer tool is essentially a pickaxe, a long blade and an axe. Peak, crusher bar and shovel were invented by the Brits and became very common. Cookware and meals from China, India or other parts of Myanmar are sold to the Chins, but local ceramics are also important because they are used to cook maypole, Chin's basic diet.
With Mizoram preparing for the 2008 bloom of Chinese flowers by constructing streets and airfields for helicopters to land foodstuffs, early in 2008 Mizoram began to publish stories of famine in China's Myanmar areas. In view of the global lack of rices and the sharp rise in prices for rices in Myanmar following Cyclone Nargis in May 2008, this was seen as a particularly hazardous position for the Chinese.
There were no Chinese folk colleges before the UK in the second half of the nineteenth c.. Though a script system devised by Paucinhau (1859-1948) became widespread in the Chin Hills in the thirties, Christians trained human beings to type their languages using the Latin script.
Finally, the missions translators converted the Bible with the Latin script into Chinese so that the Chinese script was wasted. Today, the Chinese are no longer permitted to use their own languages in Myanmar school. A lot of youngsters cannot literate or work in their own languages. Even though the UK government had very few colleges, the missions founded many of them.
Today Mizoram (in India) has a high alphabetisation number. The general educational standard in the Chin region of Myanmar, however, is very low as the Myanmar government does not have sufficient educational levels. Laws and ordinances imposed by the armed forces government have hindered Chinese students' access to health and technical work.
Due to the difficulties facing humans to easily live, they try to motivate them to go to schools and study so that they can find work, but it is difficult to find a job in Myanmar even for the best chin. Much of the tradition has vanished through the Christian faith.
Rather than singing folk music, locals are familiar with music. The majority of youngsters do not know how to perform folk singing, although there has been a renewal of folk dance for men and woman, especially in Mizoram. Myanmar's Burmese army government is dominant among the Burmese (Burmese) community and oppresses the culture of other tribes, such as the Chins, but there are a few Chinese culture group appearances on Myanmar's nationwide holiday season.
The majority of Chin's are mountain peasants who cultivate their crops in a curved way, where the land is grubbed up with fire and alternately cultivated. Under British supremacy many Chin's were troops in British Chin rifles. After Burma's sovereignty, China continued to join the Burmese armed forces, but this tendency declined after 1988, when the general perception of the armed forces as oppressive was particularly strong in areas with ethnically minorities, such as the Chinese state.
Since 1988, Chin alumni have been forming an organized opposition group, the Chin National Front, which is one of the few Myanmar insurgent army that has not agreed a ceasefire with the Myanmar state. Chin National Front sporadically conducts guerilla attacks on Myanmar army troops based in Chin territory. Exilchinesi study guides established groups for refugees and humans and often present the misery of the Chinese nation at various meetings and groups of tribal nations.
At Misoram, a group that had been fighting against the India administration was negotiating a solution, and the former insurgent rulers are now celebrity political figures in the state administration. The Chin and Mizo urban dwellers have a wide range of jobs and trades and run small business and enterprises. It is not only Chin peasants who have escaped from Myanmar as fugitives, but also the best trained youngsters, who have created a braindrain to other states.
Children who find work in India, Malaysia or elsewhere usually try to get cash home via subterranean cash remittance systems. Chin's in Iraq have founded exiled press offices and web-based journals, among them the Khonumthung Newsgroup and Chinland Guardian. Among the tradtional sport were fighting, combat sport and highjumping.
British football was brought into the Chins by the British, and today it is by far the most favourite game. Ecclesiastical activity, such as vocal groups, is a prime resource of conversation for many Chin/Mizoites. Both Mizoram and Manipur have live concert booths of rocks and songs with countless groups that record and perform, as well as Chin flight groups abroad.
A few Chin Popsingers have become famous in Myanmar. Chin/Mizo are known for their tradition of loom making and embroidering, which includes rugs, jackets, skirts as well as pockets. Serious drug related issues are affecting youngsters on both sides of the Myanmar-India boundary. Manipur and Mizoram in north-eastern India have some of the highest HIV/AIDS infections in India due to drug use.
In Myanmar in particular, there are few opportunities for drugs or HIV/AIDS cure. The traditional Chin/Mizo company was a patriarchal one, with the man as the leader of the family. But there were very few differences between what men and men could do. In general, societies as a whole were quite neutral in terms of sex.
Females are the primary labourers in the agricultural sector. Even though the men work with the females and the larger ones fell the larger ones, the females organise and manage the work. Having worked all morning in the fields and carried wood on their backs, they are still supposed to crush grain of wheat and flour when they come home.
Cookery can be done by the kids under the supervision of the ladies. Men can run around the villages, visit acquaintances and family, while wives prepare meals, feeding kids and doing housework. Often female educators, sellers, shopkeepers as well as proprietors of other small enterprises are located in the Chin/Mizo regions of Myanmar and India.
Myanmar exiled Chinawomen have established self-help groups and schooling centres for Myanmar migrants. In 2008, Cheery Zahau, an exiled Indian Chin Women's Organization campaigner, presented a documentary to the global humanitarian fellowship in which she was told that Myanmar's Chin girl and woman soldier raped Myanmar's troops as a way to terrorise the Chin population.
Chinese woman take part in an opposing clandestine government that smuggles information on people' s freedoms. The traditional Chin/Mizo community and Protestant Christianity in the area are not particularly tolerance towards gays, as the focus is on male-female marriages, but gays and transgenders are usually not molested.
Carey, Bertam S. and Tuck, H. N. The Chin Hills. China human rights organization. http://www.chro. or/ (29 June 2008). Chinese textiles from Myanmar, India and Bangladesh. Lehman, F.K. The Structure of Chin Society. It'?s a Chin Compendium. Interview with Burmese refugees in Guam. Razor's Edge: Survival crisis for refugees from Burma in Delhi, India.
U.S. State Department. History of Zo. Mizoram, Aizawl, India: