Chin HakkaChinese Hakka
Chino Hakka (Chino Hakka)
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Chinese Hakka (Chinese)
Hallo kahmai thawngpang alhhin Roman Leii Kir Thannak Timhtuahmi (Return to Work scheme) le riantuan leo marung Putmi Bachmhchanhnak ah Chin-Hakha holenh in Lehhpiak aa Tel. Thai tag timed the time after which you can get 13 18 55 ah rack can get chained.
Get out of here!
Origins and migrations of the Hakkas
At Gu?ngd?ng most Hakka are encircled by spokespersons of the Kantonese Chinesese dialect families and are mostly bi-lingual in Kantonese. At Fújiàn and Táiw?n most Hakka are encircled by Hokkien spokespersons of the Hokkien families of Mandarin languages (various names: Hokkien, Hoklo, Holo, M?n, M?nnán, Amoy &c.) and are mostly bi-lingual in Hokkien.
Today practically all Chinese (except Hong Kong, but also Taiwan) are Mandarin speakers. Of course, the language border between Hakka and Hunti is a crucial part of the Hakka personality and contributes to maintaining a powerful feeling of diversity that is also reflected in slight variations in clothing, deities of preference, the arrangement of household shrines and so on.
And like almost every other ethnical border in the whole wide globe, Hakka vs. Pinti has a long and varied story as a line of rupture for feud, excitement and struggle at the grassroots as well. Hakka origin problem. "Associated with the word kè www. kè, or "guest", Hakka has a tradition of emigrating from elsewhere, probably somewhere in the South.
The Hakka is sometimes described as "somewhere between" north Mandarin and south Cantonese. No wonder that stupid thoughts arose from the fact that the Hakka is the only "pure" Chinaman or the Hakka "half-blood mixture of Chinaman and wild Süd tribes", and such conceptions have long since fallen into disrepute.
However, for the historical, the concept of "guest", the linguistic differences and the tradition of migrating in the distant past suggest that the initial distinction of this nation and the story of its likely migrations may be a question of interest. Unfortunately, it has proved hard to obtain complete certainty about the origin of Hakka, regardless of whether the information is considered wealthy or poor.
Originating from the archive research of a Hakka PhD candidate almost a hundred years ago, the following document still provides a useful introductory look at Hakka histories, the types of determinants that affected the movement of Hakka population, and the types of information that must be taken into consideration when designing a complete Hakka narrative.
He is what one might today call the "Great Hakka Chauvinist" and likes to make comprehensive generalisations about the Hakka Virtue. Even more worrying is that he has not yet separated himself from the concepts of racial and cultural, and he is undisturbed when he sees all early Southern non-Hàn China tribes as wild and barbaric.
Corrected issue where more detail map information included in the item could not be successfully customized for web view. Traditional lettering in the body text and feetnotes is in accordance with the latest "simplified" norm (printed in pink here). Who' re the Hakka? But why should you abandon Ji?ngx? and Fújiàn? What is so special about Gu?ngd?ng? This work was started a year ago, when the author, who came from a Hakka dynasty that had emigrated from Wàizh?u Gu?ngd?ng [? ][in Húnán Gu?ngd?ng ] to ?? Wàizh?u Gu?ngd?ng or ?? ?? county in Gu?ngd?ng Gu?ngd?ng three generation ago, was recommended to use it as his theses.
Who' re the Hakka? Hakka or Kèji? ?? has awakened much interest in the origins and histories of this population. Whether only those should be considered as Hakkas who call themselves Hakkas and who carry the qualities of Hakkas in all respects, or whether the groups should be taken up in them that have been usual up to now to categorize them; as for example some persons on the North River ?? who do without the name as a person damaging their own honor, but whose language is close related to Hakka despite some differences, should be determined with difficulty.
Beyond Gu?ngd?ng it is more complicated to delimit the areas they occupy. In Southern Ji?ngx? for example, Gu?nhuà[speech] or Gu?nhuà, which we like to be associated with the Hakka, becomes less understandable than the Mandarin or Gu?nhuà ?? when we go north. The Hakkas, for the sake of practicality, are an independent group of individuals found in parts of Gu?ngd?ng, ??, Gu?ngx?, ??, Fújiàn, ??, Ji?ngx?, ??, Húnán, ??, Sìchu?n, ??, Formosa (Táiw?n, ??) and abroad who are speaking a [group] of dialects close to each other and whose traits and mores are very similar.
Your focus is on the provinces of Gu?ngd?ng. After the Puntis of Gu?ngd?ng, their expatriates abroad are the runners-up because they have established themselves in Japan, the Philippines, Siam, Annam, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Batavia, Ceylon, Sabang, Natal, the Transvaal, the West Indies, Cuba, California, Mexico, South America, Hawaii and Australia.
A number of Hakkas extend around the whole globe. Hakkas' characters are clearly reflected in their names and histories. The Hakkas fortress on the island of Hakkas, www. hakkas.com, is the home of the Hakkas scholarly community. The Hakkas are proud of the literature of their forefathers; they assert many well-known writers.
"Finding an inner city region that accommodates locals as well as Méizh?u would not be simple. Humans are living in distributed village or house, mainly in the valley, where the farmers can stay in the middle of their field. Elsewhere, they are spread in small towns or towns among the hilly areas and pay Puntis building rents, or they gather in bigger towns and constantly fight with the Puntis for possession of the hilly areas and land they occupy.
Self-reliant and frugal, they gradually move out of their undulating areas and push the coast dwellers southwards and eastwards from them. That' s why so many Puntis dreaded and insulted her. Basically, the Hakka is a peasant, compelled by destitution to fight the non-productive land and deprive it of a naked basis of existence.
Annals, 32/16.) They usually populate the undulating and less productive quarters, while the Puntis stay in charge of the fruitful delta and plain and the Hoklos live in the coast. Few companies produce luxuries in these impoverished Gu?ngd?ng counties. There' s not much to chose between the clothes and habits of the Hakkas and Puntis.
"Human nutrition is on aggregate worse than that of the Punti, but better than in most parts of northern China. Gender in home living is not as strict as in some other Chinese. "There' s no woman as hardworking as the Hakkas.
" Annals (Ji?yìngzh?u Annals, 8/53.) Their daughters are seldom bought as slave or concubine; poligamy is not widespread because of the human condition. Ground is not fruitful and humans are impoverished. That'?s why humans can emigrate abroad. Hakkas attach great importance to the veneration of ancestors; this is typical of the entire Hakka population.
Every single one of the clans in the town, no how small, has his own little brother or sister temple??. Hakkas believe very much in "f?ng shu? "??. By and large, their practice of religion is very similar to that of the Puntis. But in some areas where the Puntis dominate, the Hakkas are regarded as invaders and have no part in the veneration of indigenous gods and elders.
In the Hakka district the Germans were very actively involved. As with other forms of dialect in China, it contains many different varieties within its borders. On first glance, the variation does not seem to be as many as in some of the traditional speech; in fact, there are enough informal language distinctions to at least bring about a good comprehension between the persons involved.
Some Cantonese people's aversion to the Hakkas is probably the reason for this common perception that the Hakkas are a crossbreed that is more civilised than the natives, but hardly eligible to be Chinese. Disgusted protest came from Hakka organisations in China and abroad. A Hakkas Massenversammlung was convened on 3 April 1921 at Gu?ngzh?u .
More than a thousand representatives, thirty of them strange representatives of Fújiàn from the five counties - Fújiàn ???, Gu?ngd?ng ?? ??, Ji?ngx? ??, Húnán ??, Ji?ngx? ?? - voted Ráo Fúcháng ("Yao Fu-shang") ???, a former member of the House of Representatives, as chairman. Some years ago some of the Hakka in Shanghai asked us to object to some of the passage Mr Wolcott had made about their group.
For the Hakka tribe the amendment was satisfying and the affair was concluded........ At least five differentories try to tell the story of the Hakka people: Familien-Genealogien are useful, but rather imprecise and sometimes untrustworthy (the author was only able to compile three genealogical indexes).
Works by international singologists are useful in giving guidance to China's resources; they are better categorized, but often seem to blend tradition with fact, not to give precise resources. In addition to the exploration of the Hakkas' histories, a closer look at their habits and languages will reveal much important information about their relationship to the past.
And how far into the past can we follow the Hakka story? They usually leave their tradition and genealogical notes in the west province Sh?nd?ng ?? at the end of the royalty Zh?u ?? . First migration. Hakka Clan are said to be among the unlucky victims of persecution.
The remains escaped into the Hénán hills ?? and ?nhu???, while a few went as far as the boundaries of Ji?ngx?. The majority of Hakka recorded a further shift and re-emigration during this time. Hakkas, p. 161.) The expatriates mainly established themselves in Ji?ngx?.
A few went to Zhèji?ng ?? and on to Fújiàn. This is the 4th time. Last and forth migratory train from the northern part took place in the Sòng family. Arriving Tartars forced the Chineses south until the emperor G?oz?ng traversed the Yangtze and founded the Southern Sòng family ?? in 1127.
A large number of faithful followers followed him and established themselves in Ji?ngx? and Fújiàn. Gradually some of them propagated on Gànzh?u ??[in the southwest Ji?ngx?] and T?ngzh?u ??[in Fújiàn], occupied the mountains and isolated themselves. Up to now we only had a bird's perspective on the migration in the Chinese in general, not only on the Hakkas.
Hakkas were probably a group of relatives who left their traditional houses of unrest to search for the Promised Land. All Hakka tradition refers to North China, as the old house and its register of families supports this aspiration. Then who are the Hakkas? It can be said that at the Sòng period, around 960 A.D., there were probably residents of northerly origins who lived in the south of Ji?ngx? and in the southwest of Fújián, especially in T?ngzh?u and Gànzh?u, who later traversed the mountains in Gu?ngd?ng and became known as Hakkas.
At the end of the SOUTH DYNASTIVE, the first waves of their migrations to Gu?ngd?ng began with Ji?yìngzh?u as the locality point. Why did men abandon their houses in Fújiàn and Ji?ngx?? Firstly, because the mountain areas could not sustain the growing populations, while the area across the Gu?ngd?ng frontier, although undulating, was thinly populated and provided more possibilities.
One local author asked himself whether all humans had turned into a fox or a bird. It has been said that only three Fújiàn tribes (Yáng ?, G?, Yuánsh?, G? ?) were still remaining, and many Fújiàn immigrants, especially from the Nínghuà region of ??, flocked in to pick up the brownfields.
But why should you abandon Ji?ngx? and Fújiàn? What is so special about Gu?ngd?ng? So far we have seen that the Hakkas have moved in two major moves from Ji?ngx? and Fújiàn to Gu?ngd?ng - one in the SOUTH Sòng era and the second at the end of the Mongolian (Yuán ?) family, a [total] three hundred year time.
How did you get to Fújiàn and Ji?ngx?? According to one theorem, the Hakkas are offspring of the Mongolian troops who were beached in the southern part after the fall of their (Yuán) family. The Hakkas would be placed in the same class as the outlawed Mongolian tribes on Zhèji?ng who succumbed to the Chinese and are now considered refugees and menslaves.
It is too unlikely, however, that this reply will be given, as it is too long to state the origins of the Hakkas who used to live in Fújiàn and Ji?ngx? before the Táng tribe and moved to Gu?ngd?ng before the Mongols arrived. There are some who say that the Hakkas are not Chinamen, but offspring of the natives of Fújiàn.
Arrival of this nation from a mountain area causes this doubts and suspicions about its origins in China. The Hakkas did not only come from Fújiàn; some of them came from parts of Ji?ngx?. Similarly, this point is countered by their similarity of languages and traditions to those of the other Chineses.
Some Aboriginal people still live in Fújiàn and other parts of the southern hemisphere, but they are generally feeble, repressed and backward, while the Hakkas have powerful traits of their male China tribe in their pride themselves in breed and heritage, autonomy and timelessness in migration and proliferation. Others believe that the Hakkas are the offspring of the five hundred thousand troops recruited by Qín Sh?huáng in 214 BC to conquer the North.
At the time when the Hàn imperial government (W? Dì ???) reconquered Gu?ngd?ng, he pursued his policies of relocating the populace to the Ji?nghuái ?? ?? [the area between the Yangtze and the generally similar northern Huai River]. Rather, the tribe was the predecessors of most of today's Punti populations instead of the Hakkas.
There is no such thing as a purely traditional Hakkas, they cannot say that they are the cleanest and "cream of the China people". "Huntington, Op. cit., p. 167.) The first Chineses, after having settled in the Huánghé River ?? [Yellow River], mingled with the subdued indigenous Miáo ?, or with the nomadic, and made today's Chines a diverse population.
However, the Hakka family's record and tradition go back again and again to Hénán as their native homeland and their migration to the south at the end of the Jìn and Táng dykes, when they escaped from the arriving barbaric invaders. Here is a list of the Hakka family's most important remains. Hakkas point to their similarities in matrimony and funeral practices; after hundreds of years of being separated from their old homes, they are able to maintain their Kenyan language and use.
Every familiy has one or more t'ang ?[hall] name() that have been passed down from the past, and in most cases they are from Hénán. The Hakka immigrants, like the Hakka immigrants in the new US settlements, established a "New Hénán" where they set up and replicated the traditions and traditions of their home country.
But the first migrations from the Nothern was not so great, and their colonists probably married each other and mixed up the locals so that they left their identities. Another migratory phenomenon, which is greater in number and cultural intensity, probably involved the residents left in the Ji?ngx? and Fújiàn area. The Hakkas accidentally claimed the Gu?ngsh?n region to be their home in Gu?ngzh?u ??, while the Fukkas traced their origins back to Gùsh? in the same county, Gùsh? in the same area?
They say that if the allegations of many Americans that their predecessors were permitted to participate in the Mayflower in 1620 were true, a [whole] ship would have been needed to transport the [pilgrim crowds]. As a result, many abandoned their houses and went across the river Dàji?ng ??[Yangtze] to Ji?ngx? and then to Fúkiàn.
When they came to the area under the Wáng family's control, Gu?ngsh?n, they discreetly laid claims to Gu?ngsh?n as their home county [in order to be entitled to Wáng guest accommodation because of their shared place of origin]. Hakka does not mean race. Hakkas got their name because they were not the natives of the areas they inhabit today.
These were so named by the local or Puntian people when the emigrants came to Gu?ngd?ng . Hakkas are not "strangers" in some of the areas they inhabit. The Hakkas took their name everywhere because their languages and habits were little known. The Hakkas were suspected to be from the Mongolian troops or the Qín [dynasty] mix ? or from the indigenous people of Fújiàn, but they all seem unlikely after thorough investigation.
Probably the Hakka forefathers migrated from northern China to the southern hemisphere after the riots at the end of the Jìn and Táng tribes [i.e. early 400s and early 900s]. It' not uncommon for a whole town to wander, as in the case of many Gu?ngd?ng towns that move abroad.
And it was this mind of struggle and "never die" that made the Hakkas so independent, proactive and proud of the breed. It' s tradition, its qualities, its customs and its language point to a historic context in northern China. The Hakkas, however, are not the "cream of the people" or the "purest of the Chinese".
Did they come from China, or were they semi-civilized clans? Let's not forget that the Kingdom of Yuè ?[which extends over South China and the North of Vietnam - Yuè is the Mandarin pronunciation of " Viet "] had become very strong under the reign of G?u Jiàn ?? and ruined its neighbour, the State of Wú ?, in 473 B.C. Then Yuè came to Power and was eventually dissolved by [the State of] Ch? ? in 333 B.C. into the States of "Hundred Yuèè" ??
Yuè [population] remains then spread to Fújiàn, Ji?ngx? and Gu?ngd?ng. Hàn Caesar W? Dì ??? changed the inhabitants of this territory several exchanges with those in the area Ji?nghuái ?? ?? [the area between the Yangtze and the generally similar Huai Rivers running along it].
When the first waves of Chinese fugitives arrived in the Jìn family ?, the nature of the current populace had become very complicated. Therefore, the hypothesis that the Hakkas are descendants of these Yuè returnees cannot be disproved as unfounded. However, does one of the Hakka tradition refer back to the Yuè area or do their folk references refer to it as Yuè?
So if the Hakkas were offspring of Yuè, why had they forgotten their identities and became "Hénán-ized"? They lived in a remote, hilly and far -removed area, and were able to form a homogeneous group, uniting in custom and speech, different from the Puntis or Hoklos [Fukienese].
So we tried to follow the origins and migration of the Hakkas until they eventually passed the boundaries from Fújiàn-Ji?ngx? to Gu?ngd?ng . In the second part of this document we look at the later histories of the Hakkas - how they expand on Gu?ngd?ng and the neighbouring regions and how they migrate abroad.
He is a man who has been a victim of his own savagery and slaughter (Míngsh? Sìchu?n, Vol. 309.) His extremely cruel treatment and slaughter of human beings wherever he has gone have turned the county [of Sìchu?n] into a wasteland. Once the peace had been restored, migrants from the neighbouring counties - Húnán, Húb?i and Ji?ngx? - streamed into the wastelands. A group of Hakkas from Gu?ngx? also went along and their offspring now inhabit two counties fifty leagues west of Chóngqìng ??[in Sìchu?n].
It was this occupancy of the Punti country that soon made the Hakkas fearful and unpopular; the Puntis became more and more frequently involved in Clan battles. In 1854 the Hakkas and Puntis fought each other in a fight for their victory. Tàipíng's rebellion had extended to Zhàoqìng www.tàipíng, where many Punti followed the uprising. However, most of the Hakka families living there stayed faithful to the Hakka family.
Puntis, who were more powerful in people and means, beat the Hakkas in these areas and drove out those who were not slain. At the end of the year the Hakkas were the outnumber and drove to the shore. Soon they were evicted by the Puntis with the help of the emperor's troops, which was the first obvious act of formal intervention in the competition.
And in September 1866, a new sovereign came and sent eight thousand forces under the grain dweller of Gu?ngzh?u to the western counties to force the Hakkas to surrender their weapons and scatter. Chìx? The small part of the city Chìx? was separated from X?nníng and reserved for the Hakkas.
So ended the long bloodied dispute in which more than one hundred and fifty thousand Hakkas died. A few became outlaws; a few were bought as servants of refrigerated vessels in Macau; a few fled to other regions; a few moved to Formosa, Saigon and Singapore; a few remained behind and mingled with the Puntis. This internment campaign gave many the false idea that the Hakkas had always been the subject of ruthless prosecution since the Qín era Sh?huáng and had devoted themselves to far-fetched theory about their origins.
However, this unhappiness does not mean the end of Hakka's grip. Hakka's unique Hakka areas around Ji?yìngzh?u were unaffected by the conflict and are still under Hakka's rule. Fighting for the DPRK against the Manchus exposed many Hakka patriots and Martyrs. Hakkas abroad donated large amounts to help the 1912 revolution.
Hakka's impact can now be felt in all areas of work. Chén Ji?ngmíng F?kuí, Zh?ng ??? Zh?ng Ji?ngmíng, Huáng Qíxiáng www. chén.com, Huáng Qíxiáng www. chén.com, Huáng Qíxiáng www. chén.com, Huáng Qíxiáng www. chén.com, Huáng Qíxiáng www. chén.com, Huáng Qíxiáng www.ch, Huáng Qíxiáng híxiáng híxiáng ww.ch, Huáng Qíxiáng híxiáng híxiáng híxiáng Qíxiáng híxiáng Qíxiáng háng Qíxiáng híxiáng háng Qíxiáng háng híxiáng háng Híxiáng háng wagka. The Hakkas are known as a leading company in trade and industrial sectors in China and abroad; the Cháozh?u-Shàntóu railway (Cháo-Shàn Ti?lù ????) was constructed by Hakka companies and is now largely controlled by Hakka dealers.
As China's communications and transport infrastructure has been modernised, and contacts are more common, the Hakkas have begun to mix with the Kantonese and others. We want all of China to speak one and the same dialect and to call itself Hakkas or Puntis, Kantonese or Hunanesian, Norderner or Southerner, Manchu or Mongolian.
All of us should abandon our classic paths and work together for the good of China. Data B.C. 333 Kingdom of Yuè ? devastated by Ch? ? ?. approx. 300Hakkas based in Sh?nd?ng Hakkas, Sh?nx? ??, ?nhu? Kingdom Hakkas first migrated to Hénán ??, Ji?ngx?, Ji?ngx? ??. 214500,000 million army colonialists sent to Gu?ngd?ng ?? and Gu?ngx? ??
140-86Hàn [emperor] W? Dì ??? swaps the Huái Hé stocks ??[river basin] and Zhèji?ng ??, Fújiàn ??, Gu?ngd?ng ??. Hakkas' second emigration reached Ji?ngx??? and Fújiàn ??. 8855000 troops under the leadership of the Wáng brother Wáng left Hénán in the direction of Fújiàn for security reasons. The third Hakkas immigration reached the southern boundary Ji?ngx?-Fújiàn Ji?ngx?.
Last and forth migrations southwards. Hakka's first migratory waves on Gu?ngd?ng. Launch of the second migratory movement from Ji?ngx? www. fújiàn.com and fújiàn.com to Ji?yìngzh?u www. fújiàn.com. com. ?? ?? Hakkas hike in the Khungking area. The Hakkas are replacing Punti and Hoklo army breeders. There were 1723-1735 hakkas spreading to the western and south-western side of Gu?ngzh?u ??
Hiakkas enters under the eight banes. Hoccas should submit the deposit to B?ij?ng ??. 1860 Anglo-French Wars against China. Hoccas are used in the bamboo rifle Corps for Allies. Haskas migrates to Gu?ngx? ??, H?inán ??, Formosa and oversee. 1912Foundation of the Chinese Republic. Vol. II, pp. 160-164, on the outline story of the Akas; Vol. VIII, pp. 316-318 on the Hakka dialect; pp. 316-321 on the marital duty; and Vol. XX, pp. 263-267 on ethnological sketches of the Akas.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Hakkas Articles, p. 828, Volume XII, 11th Edition (Cambridge, 1910). HUNTINGTON, Ellsworth Character of breeds (N. Y., Scribner, 1924), pp, 149-171 on migration of Chinese to the south. LECHLER, Rev. Rudolf "The Hakkas Chinese" in the Chinese Recorder (1878) IX.
KLEIN, Archibald The Far East (Oxford, 1905), p. 149 on the story of the Hakkas. LIU, Ch'iang (Liú Qiáng ??) "Isolation and contact as factors in the cultural development of China, Korea and Japan before 1842," in the China Soc. and Pole. XI Science Review (1927) XI, p. 492-493, on the mixing of early Chinais.
MEADOWS, Thomas Taylor The Chinese and Their Rebellions (Londres, Smith, 1856). pp. Miscellany (Shanghai, 1896) II, p. 475. PITON, Rev. Charles "Les Hia-K'ah dans la province de Chekiang et les Hakka dans la province du Canton", in the Chinese Recorder (1870) II, pp. 218-220. "Hakkas' Origin and Story; in China Review (London, 1873-1874) II, pp. 222-224.
RICHARD, L Comprehensive Geography of China (Shanghai, 1908), p. 199, 204-207, 343-344. Milton T. (Ed.) Christian Occupation of China (Shanghai, 1922). For Hakkas, see Rev. D. Oehler, pp. 351-353. WILLIAMS, Samuel Wells The Middle Kingdom (N. Y... Scribner's, 1901), I, p. 138, and II, p. 586-591, on the Hakkas.
Articles in the Bulletin of the Society of Anthropology of Paris, Series 3, Volume 2, S. 557-578 (Librairie de l'Académie de Médicine, 1879). DELAVAY, M. Lettre on the Hakkas story in Mission Catholique, 1879. Bd. Xl, S. 505 -606. de RIALLE, Girard The Hakkas. Articles in the Review d'Anthropologie (Jan. and April 1885).
GIRARD, Dr Henry Notes on the Quangsi Chinese, 1898 L'anthropology articles, volume IX, pp. 144-170. The Hakka Chinese. Articles in verb. MacIVER, D Ann English-Chinese dictionary in the vernacular of the Hakka people. Herald of North China, June 29, 1867 (Shanghai). Articles about Hakka reproduced from China Mail, Hong Kong.
Rev. Charles. A visit to Hakka country in Canton Aargau. VOMEL, Johann Heinrich Von Der Hakka Dialekt.