Chichen ItzaItza Chichen
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Churchen Itza was a focus in the northern Mayan lowland from the Later Classical (around 600-900 AD) to the Terminal Classical (around 800-900 AD) to the early part of the Postal Classical (around 900-1200 AD). This website shows a variety of architecture style reminding of the style of Mexico and the Puuc and Chenes of the northern Mayan Plains.
The feathery snake statue at the foot of one of the staircases of El Castillo. Evidences in the Chilam Balam book point to another, former name for this town before the Itza Hegmonia arrived in the north of Yucatán. During its heyday, Chichen Itza was one of the most important economies in the north of the Mayan Depression.
16 ] Chichen Itza participated in the waterborne trading lane through the Isla Cerritos harbour on the northern coast and was able to obtain non-available local supplies from remote areas such as observidian from Mexico and bullion from the south of Camerica. Jaguarthron in the pyramide "El Castillo".
Chichen Itza site plan evolved during its early settlement period between 750 and 900 AD The definitive plan was established after 900 AD, and in the tenth decade the town became a provincial capitol that dominated the area from the centre of Yucatán to the northern coastline, with control over the eastern and western shores of the promontory.
20 ] The first hieroglyphical date found in Chichen Itza corresponds to 832 A.D., while the last known date was noted in 998 in the Osariotempple. It was centred on the area south-west of the Xtoloc Zenote, the principal architectural features being the sub-constructions that now form the basis of Las Monjas and Observatorio and the basalt plateau on which they were erected.
Towards the end of the early classical era (around 600 AD) Chichen Itza gained local importance. However, towards the end of the Later Classical and in the early part of Terminal Classic, it became an important local capitol that centralized and dominated centralized and dominated socio-cultural, economical and cultural activities in the north of the Mayan Depression.
Chichen Itza's rise is approximately correlated with the demise and splintering of the main centres of the lower regions of the Maya. After a few recolonial springs of the Maya (e.g. the book Chilam Balam by Chumayel), Hunac Ceel, emperor of Mayapan, captured Chichen Itza in the G13. Whilst there is some archeological proof that Chichén Itzá was once plundered and looted, there seems to be greater proof that it could not have been of Mayapan, at least not when Chichén Itzá was an vibrant town.
Archeological evidence now shows that Chichen Itza decreased as a local centre until 1250, before the ascent of Mayapan. In 1843 Chichen Itza began the public performance with the Incidents of Travel in Yucatan by John Lloyd Stephens (with illustration by Frederick Catherwood). It tells Stephens' trip to Yucatán and his trip through Mayan towns, includes Chichén Itzá.
Désiré Charnay measured Chichén Itzá in 1860 and took many photos, which he publishes in Cités et ruines américaines in 1863. Augustus Le Plongeon and his spouse Alice Dixon went to Le Plongeon Chichén in 1875 and dug up a sculpture of a character on his back, knee lifted, elbow with a slab on his abdomen.
In the 1880' Teobert Maler and Alfred Magdslay discovered Chichén and stayed there for several days to take comprehensive photos. In Biologia Centrali-Americana, Chichen Itza publishes his first long account. The American consul of Yucatán, Edward Herbert Thompson, bought the Hacienda Chichén with the remains of Chichen Itza in 1894.
Thompson spent 30 years exploring the antique town. Among his findings were the first dating carvings on a fall in the temple of the first series and the excavations of several tombs in the Osario (temple of the high priest). Thompson' is best known for excavating the Cenote Sagrado (Holy Cenote) from 1904 to 1910, where he found artefacts of solid wood, brass and wood carvings, as well as the first samples of what was thought to be pre-Columbian Mayan scarf and woodwork.
The excavation work at El Castillo began in 2009. The INAH has constantly endeavoured to dig up and renovate other memorials in the archeological area, among them Osario, Akab D'zib and several structures in Chichén Viejo (Old Chichen). The archeologists of the city of Cobos, led by Rafael (Rach), began excavation work near El Castillo in 2009.
It' a card from Chichen Itza. Itza Chichen was one of the biggest Mayan towns with an area of at least 5 sqkm. It was erected on fractured land that was man-made to form the large architectonic groups, with the greatest efforts devoted to leveling the areas for the Castillo pyramids and the Las Monjas, Osario and Main Southwest groups.
Architectural style comprises a number of architectural genres, among them the Puuc and Chenes style of the Yucatán Peninsula in the north. Chichen Itza's building is grouped in a number of architectural settings, each of which was divided by a number of low partitions. Its three best-known are the Great North Platform, which comprises the El Castillo Monument, the Temple of Warriors and the Great Ball Court; The Osario Group, which comprises the homonymous Xtoloc Temple and Pyramide; and the Central Group, which comprises Caracol, Las Monjas and Akab Dzib.
To the south of Las Monjas, in an area known as Chichén Viejo (Old Chichén), accessible only to archeologists, are several other areas, such as the group of the initial series, the group of falls and the group of the Old Castle. Its Puuc-styled architectural design focuses on the area of ancient Chichen, but also on the former monastic group of nuns (including the Las Monjas, Annex and La Iglesia buildings); it is also present in the Akab-Dzib building.
On one end of the Great Ball Court is the North Temple, also known as the Temple of the Bearded Man (Templo del Hombre Barbado). These small brickwork has a detailled bas-relief carvings on the interior wall, which includes a middle statue with a carvings under his cheek reminiscent of face-haired.
At the southern end is another, much larger sanctuary, but in shatter. From the Jaguar's upper jaguar sanctuary you can see the square and has an entry protected by two large pillars engraved in the famous feathery snakework. At the entry of the lower Jaguar Sanctuary, which opens behind the Ballplatz, there is another Jaguar thron, similar to the inner El Castillo Sanctuary, only that it is well carried and has no color or other decor.
Outside pillars and inside temples are decorated with lavish bas-reliefs. It' s constructed in a combined Maya and Boltec style, with a stairway leading up each of its four sides. It is situated between El Castillo and the Cenote Sagrado. This is the most northern of a number of houses situated just south of El Castillo.
The Sacbe Number One is a dam leading to Cenote Sagrado, the biggest and most extensive in Chichen Itza. Warrior Temple is a large stair styled temple surrounded by lines of pillars representing them. It is similar to Temple B in Tula, the Toltecany' s capitol, and points to a kind of intercultural relationship between the two areas.
However, the one in Chichen Itza was built on a large scale. 2. On the top of the stairs at the top of the Pyramide (and going to the entry of the Pyramide Temple) is a Chac Mool. It surrounds or buries a former building named The Chac Mool Temple.
An important member of this conservation was Earl H. Morris, who released the work of this exploration in two books titled Temple of the Warriors. There are a number of pillars along the southern walls of the Warrior's Temple, although they would have sustained an extended system of roofs when the town was occupied.
Western-group that expands the front of the Warrior's Shack. One northern group follows the southern face of the warrior shrine and contains columns with woodcarvings of troops in bas-relief; a north-eastern group, apparently forming a small shrine at the south-eastern edge of the warrior shrine, contains a rectangle with woodcarvings of humans or deities as well as creatures and snakes.
This northeastern columned shrine also contains a small miracle of technology, a canal that drains all the rain water from the 40-metre distant estate to a former enote, a hill. Carved columns are a small yet stylish edifice consisting of a front balcony with an inner passage leading to an alter with a chac mool.
Temple of the small tables, which is an unrepaired hill. Thompson Temple (referred to in some springs as the Palace of Ahau Baalam Kauil), a small two-level edifice showing a frieze of jaguars (Balam in Maya) and a glyph of the Mayan gods Kahuil.
The quadratic layout anchor the southerly end of the Knights Tower building. Southwards of the Northern Group is a smaller plateau with many important buildings, some of which seem to be aligned with the second biggest tenote in Chichen Itza, Xtoloc. Osario itself, like El Castillo, is a stepped pyramidal shrine that dominates its plateau, but on a smaller scale.
On the top there is a sanctuary, but unlike El Castillo, in the middle there is an opening in the top of the spire that opens down to a 12-metre lower caves. Thompson dug up this cavern in the latter part of the nineteenth centuary, and because he found several artefacts and frames like pearls of haute priest lyre, he called the building the high priest's house.
Xtoloc is a recently renovated Xtoloc template outside the Osario platform. He towers above the other great enote near Chichen Itza, called after the Mayan term for iguan, "Xtoloc. "There are a variety of pilaster paintings of humans, as well as depictions of flora, fauna, birds and mythology.
There are several oriented structrures between the Xtoloc and Osario temples: Venus platform (similar in appearance to the eponymous El Castillo structure), the platform of graves and a small, round one, untitled. The three buildings were erected in a series from Osario.
In addition, the Osario plateau ends in a barrier containing an opening into a bag leading several hundred ft to Xtoloctempple. On the edge of the Osario are two small houses, which archeologists believe were homes for important personalities. Southwards of the Osario group there is another small plateau with several of the oldest ones in the Chichen Itza area.
Casa Colorada (Spanish for "Red House") is one of the best conserved in Chichen Itza. His Mayan name is Chichanchob, which according to INAH can mean "small holes". There is a large carving of hieroglyphics in one of the chambers, mentioning the lords of Chichen Itza and possibly the town of Ek Balam near by and containing a Mayan date correlated with 869 AD, one of the oldest such data found throughout Chichen Itza.
El Caracol" Astronomical Complex. The Monjas is one of the most remarkable buildings in Chichen Itza. On the eastern side there is a small shrine (known as La Iglesia, "The Church") adorned with lavishly crafted costumes. The name Old Chichen (or Chichén Viejo in Spanish) is the name of a group of buildings in the southern part of the centre, where most of the city's architectural styles are located.
Included are the Initial Series Group, the Phallic Temple, the Great Turtle Platform, the Temple of Owls and the Temple of Apes. Itza Chichen also has a multitude of other monastic structure that are crowded in the centre of the ceremonies of about 5 km2 (1.9 km2) and several outposts.
About 4 km southeast of the archeological area of Chichen Itza is a net of holy caverns, known as Balankanche (Spanish: Gruta de Balankanche), Balamka'anche' in Yucatec Maya. You can see a large variety of antique potteries and icons in the caverns where they were abandoned in pre-Columbian time before the flora was shed.
Paintings of a reliefs, lower terraces, Temple of the Warriors, by Octavio Medellin 1938. In 1894 Edward Thompson acquired the Hacienda Chichén, to which Chichen Itza also belonged, and he had a steady flow of people. You called on Governor Felipe Carrillo Puerto to construct streets to the more renowned memorials such as Chichen Itza.
Governor Carrillo Puerto formally opened the motorway to Chichen Itza in 1923. Barbachano Peon bought the entire Hacienda Chichén, among them Chichen Itza, from the successors of Edward Thompson in 1944. 36 ] At about the same the Carnegie Institution finished its work in Chichen Itza and left the Hacienda Chichén, which Barbachano turned into another holiday resort.
Mexico issued the Ley Fédéral Sobre Monumentos y Zonas Arqueológicas, Artísticas and Históricas (Federal Law on Memorials and Archaeological, Artistic and Historical Sites) in 1972, which brought all pre-Columbian memorials of the country, as well as those in Chichen Itza, under federally owned control. 68 ] Every year several hundred if not thousand of people came to Chichen Itza, and with the expansion of the eastern Cancún area more were foreseen.
Warrior Temple 1986. Notice that the Temple of the Great Tables, just to the right of it, was not restored at that inception. Itzá[ s?], often with the opposite focal point in English to CHEE-chen EET-s?; by Yucatec Maya: Chi'ch'èen Ìitsha'[t??i?t??è?n ì?ts?a?] (Barrera Vásquez et al., 1980.) "at the estuary of the well of the Itza" ^ Uuc Yabnal becomes Uc Abnal, which means "Seven Abnals" or "Seven Lines of Abnal", whereby Abnal is a surname, after Ralph L. Roy's (Roys 1967, p.133n7).
Multi-jurisdiction is sucbeob (or in Mayan spelling sakb'eob'). See Quetzil Castaneda (1996) In The Museum of Maya Culture (University of Minnesota Press) for a volume on Chichen tourist, which includes a section on the Equal Day and Night Celebration. To a 90-minute ethnographical documentation of New Age spirituality at Equinox, see Jeff Himpele and Castaneda (1997)[Incidents of Travel in Chichen Itza] (Documentary Educational Resources).
"Collapse of the Northern Maya and its consequences." Old Mesoamerica. Provisional report on the 1959-60 Field Season National Geographic Society - Tulane University Dzibilchaltun Program: with funding from the National Science Foundation and the American Philosophical Society. "in the post-Classical Mayan society. The taphonomy of human remnants from Chichén "Itzás Cenote Sagrado".
A New Perspective on Human Sacrifice and Ritual Body Treatments in the Old Mayan Society. Sky watching in three great ancient cultures. Beyer (in Spanish) (in Yukatek Maya), Hermann (1937). The inscriptions of Chichen Itza (PDF).
"Yucatan Comra 80 hat en la zona de Chichén Itzá"[Yucatán purchases 80 hectare in the Chichen Itza Zone]. Continuous and changing text and image at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico: An inscriptions, iconography and architecture studied at a Mayan site ranging from classical to early post-Classical. The world of Sylvanus Morley and the ancient Mayas.
"Yucatán Chichén Itzá (Guía de viajeros)". At the Museum of Mayan Culture: Tour through Chichén Itzá. Tíich', the Mayan presentation of the heritage". Old towns of the New World: An ERT-3D array for the investigation of the underground of the pyramid El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico (PDF). Mayan and Spanish in Yucatán, 1517-1570.
"I' m Chichén Itzá: Terminal Classic in the Mayan Lowlands: Maya ( (4th issue, reworked edition). Maya. Old People and Places " range (6th issue, completely reworked and extended). Mayan treasures from the holy well of Chichen Itza. Artefacts from the victim's cenote, Chichén Itzá, Yucatán: "The game of life and death - The Mayan ball game".
The Maya: "New prospects for man sacrifices and post-sacrificial bodily treatment in the old Mayan society: A New Perspective on the Victims of Humankind and Ritual Physical Treatment in the Old Mayan Societies. Antique Maya: "Chichén Itzá could be visited twice as many times in 5 years if it is declarated a marvel" (auf Spanisch).
Occurrences of travel in Chichén Itzá: "Architectural Paintings in the Northern Mayan Area." "Ball Courts of the Northern Maya Lowlands". Mayan society. Chumayel's book: The Yucatec Maya guide manual, 1539-1638. "in the post-Classical Mayan civilization." This is Maya: Mayan art and arquitecture. Archeological research at the ruins of Chichen Itza, Yucatan.
"The Tardío and Chichen Itza Clásico Press Room (600-800/830 DC)". "An itinerary through Chichen Itza with a brief story of the place and its archaeology". Complete illustrated story of the Aztecs & Maya: This is the definite chronicles of the old tribes of Central America & Mexico - among them the Aztecs, Maya, Olmec, Toltec & Zapotec.
Itzá chichen: Cana Conquistador. Interpretation of the defence system in Chichen Itza, Yucatan" (PDF). An unwritten history of the ancient Maya (reprint). Recent excavations in Chichén Itzá, Yucatan". The epiclassical to early post-classical Meso-American worlds of Chichén Itzá, Tula. Itzá Nueva Maravilla del Mundo Moderno" (in Spanish).
Ancient Maya ((6th (completely revised) edition). Mayan Civilization' Ascent and Fall. Animals in the Mayan codes. "Mexico stalemate: the fight of Chichen Itza." K'ak'-u-pakal, Hun-pik-tok' and the Kokom: The political organization of Chichén Itzá (PDF). About the Carnegie Maya: the Carnegie Institution of Washington Maya Research Program, 1913-1957.
Archaeological studies among the ancient cities of Mexico. This is a study of Mayan arts, their themes and historical development. Sceneries of the Itza: Archaeology and artistic heritage in and around Chichen Itza.