Carthage today is a prosperous suburb of Tunis, its villas are surrounded by gardens full of red hibiscus flowers and purple bougainvillea. s name" id="Name">Name[edit] Karthago (; from Latin: Carthago; Arabic: ??

??? ; Punic: ???-?????, Qart-?ada?t, "New City") was the centre or capitol of the old Karthaghi civilisation, on the east side of Lake Tunisia in today's Tunisian regime in Tunisia." In 146 B.C., the Roman Republic devastated the antique town in the Third Phoenician War and rebuilt it as Roman Carthage, which became the Roman Empire's capitol in the African provinces.

In the Middle Ages, the local government shifted to the medina of Tunis, until at the beginning of the twentieth centuries it began to evolve into a seaside resort of Tunis, which was registered as a Carthaginian commune in 1919. Carthage National Museum was established in 1875 by Cardinal Charles Lavigerie.

Paleo-Christian Museum has exhibitions that have been unearthed under the aegis of UNESCO from 1975 to 1984. Carthage /?kar??d?/ is the early contemporary Englishization of Carthage /ka?. ta?/,[3] from the Latin Carth?g? (see Greek Karkh?d?n (????????) and Etruscan *Car?aza) from the Punic qrt-?d?t (??? ????) "new city",[4] which means that it was a "new tire".

Karthago was constructed on a foothills with incisions in the northern and southern seas. Every ship that crossed the ocean had to sail between Sicily and the Tunisian coastline, where Carthage was constructed, giving it great might and clout. The majority of the ramparts were on the shores, which could be less spectacular as the Carthage ocean makes the assault from this point of view more complicated.

According to another contemporary scholar, it was often the town businessman of Carthage who possessed profitable farmland and retreated during the hot summers. Accordingly, the Greeks writer and compiler Diodorus Siculus (fl. 1. Cent. B.C.), who later had acces to old scripts and on whom he built most of his scripts, described around 310 B.C. farmland near the town of Carthage: "The cityscape of Carthage is partly known by antique authors,[29] supplemented by contemporary excavations and archaeological investigations.

Archeological digs confirm that Carthage was a "creation ex nihilo" constructed on untouched lands at the end of a semi-island (on the old coast). "It is thanks to this grave-cheology that we know more about Carthage than any other modern town in the West Mediterranean. Nevertheless, only a "poor picture" of the early pioneers' culture can be assumed, and not much about dwellings, memorials or defences.

30 ][31] The Latin writer Virgil (70-19 BC) envisioned early Carthage when his mythical figure Aeneas reached it: Carthage, the enclosed city-state, even before its firey downfall in 146 B.C. "Aeneas found where in recent times there were cottages, wonderful edifices, gates, paved paths, were tough at work: lay course after course for building a wall, roll stone to construct the fortress, a border-cut.

The Carthage was one of the oldest and biggest states in the old Mediterranean. Stories tell of several battles with Syracuse and Rome, which led to the ultimate failure and devastation of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

Carthaginians were phönic colonists with origin on the Mediterranean coastline of the Middle East. As Carthage collapsed, the close competitor Utica, a Latin allies, became the regional capitol, replacing Carthage as the centre of lead trading and management. The mud collected in the port until it became pointless, and Rome was compelled to reconstruct Carthage.

Following this unfortunate experiment, Julius Caesar erected a new Carthage town on the same site between 49 and 44 B.C., which in the first half of the 20th centuries had become the second biggest town in the west half of the Roman Empire with a total of 500,000 inhabitants.

Canthago also became a centre of early Christianity (see Canthago (episcopal see)). The first of a series of rather badly publicized Carthage councillors a few years later attracted no less than 70 runners. During the Council of Carthage (397) the Bible Canons for the Church in the West were approved.

One of the main reasons for the lightness with which Carthage and the other centres were conquered in the fifth millennium by Genseric, the Vandal Emperor, who beat the General Bonifacius of Rome and made the latter the Vandal centre, is the fact that the profound dissatisfaction of Christians in Africa was politically expressed.

At the beginning of the 7th millennium, Heraklius the Elder, the Carthaginian archbishop, ousted the Phocian Kaiser of Byzantium, whereupon his boy Heraklius ascended to the royal seat. Hasan conquered ibn al-Nu'man Carthage in 695 and ascended to the Atlas Mountains. There was an imperator navy that came and recaptured Carthage, but in 698 Hasan turned back ibn al-Nu'man and conquered Tiberios III in the Battle of Carthage in 698.

Carthage was demolished - its ramparts demolished, its waters interrupted and its ports rendered inoperable. Karthago lies about 15 kilometers east-northeast of Tunis; the closest villages to Carthago were the city of Sidi Bou Said in the northern part and the Kram hamlet in the southern part.

Acropolium of Carthage (Saint Louis Cathedral of Carthage) was built in 1884 on the Byrsa hills. Audollent in 1901 (p. 203) quotes Delattre and Lavigerie as saying that in the 1880' s the local people still knew the area of the antique town under the name Cartagenna (i.e. the Latin n-stem Carth?gine).

August Audollent divided the territory of Carthage into four districts: Cartagenna, Dermèche, Byrsa and La Malga. Byrsa is connected to the Oberstadt, which in Punic time was a fenced fortress over the port; and La Malga is connected to the more isolated parts of the Oberstadt in Roman time.

There are six TGM railway station in the suburbs between Le Kram and Sidi Bou Said: Carthage Salammbo (named after Salambo, Hamilcar's fictitious daughter), Carthage Byrsa (named after Byrsa Hill), Carthage Dermech (Dermèche), Carthage Hannibal (named after Hannibal), Carthage Présidence (named after the presidential palace) and Carthage Amilcar (named after Hamilcar).

Some of the Carthage merchant family inherited the Mediterranean commerce invented by Phoenicia and thus also inherited the competition with Greeks. Then the Phoenicians dared to venture into the west Mediterranean and founded commercial centres, among them Utica and Carthage. 98 ][99] Although Greeks were generally regarded as having greater superiority in terms of designs, Carthage also manufactured commodities in excess.

Carthage's role as a production giant was shown during the Third Punic War with Rome. Carthage, previously unarmed, was then subjected to the deadly battle of the Romans. Strabo (63 B.C. - 21 A.D.) in his Geographica says: "The state protections were expanded to his merchants by the Phoenician town of Tyre and later also by the subsidiary state of Carthage.

Stéphane Gsell, the respected archaeologist of old North Africa, summarised the main philosophies that guide the civilian masters of Carthage in their policy of internationalisation: business and trade: 1 ) To open and preserve the market for its traders, whether through face-to-face contacts with overseas nations, through contract negotiation or through the provision of certainty for remote venues; 2) To reserve the market solely for the traders of Carthage or when it was not possible to eliminate rivalry in order to control it through state arrangements with its competitors; the Greeks were positively influenced by the Carthage regime; Aristotle had a special survey carried out on this subject, which unfortunately is losing out.

"Carthage's regime is oligarchic, but it successfully escapes the evil of the monarchy by richening part of the nation one by part by putting it in its own population. It is worth remembering that the city-state of Carthage, whose inhabitants were mainly Libyphoenicians (Phoenician descent, from Africa ), prevailed and used an agrarian landscape consisting mainly of indigenous Berber free cultures and peasants whose affiliation to Carthage was open to various opportunities.

Throughout the summary, irregular verification of the Carthage authorities found in his Politica Aristotle mentioned several errors. Thus "that the same individual should occupy many positions, which is a popular practise among the Carthaginians. Mago of Carthage's famous old agricultural literature only survive through Latin quotes from several later works by Romans.

Hop up ^ Hitchner, R., DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt, R. Warner, J. Becker, T. Elliott. Number 314921 (Carthage)". F-LE Dido and the Founding of Carthage. Leap up ^ c.f. Marlowes Dido, Queen of Carthage (about 1590); Middle English still used the Roman shape of Carthage, e.g. John Trevisa, Polychronicon (1387) 1. 169:

{\pos (192,210)}That wanman Dido who started Carthage was complynge. Skip up ^ adjacent qrt-?dty "Carthaginian"; see Aramaic ?ada?ah ?adatha, Qeret ?adatha and Hebrew ?adatha ????, Qeret ?ada?ah. Leap up ^ "Carthage: new archaeological sites in a Mediterranean capital". Leap high ^ Martin Percival Charlesworth; Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards; John Boardman; Frank William Walbank (2000).

Hop up ^ Robert McQueen Grant (January 1, 2004). Leap up ^ Stéphanie Gsell, Ancient North African Story, vol. four (Paris 1920). Hop up ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. One story (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 273-274 (Mago cited by Columella), 278-279 (Mago and Catos book), 358 (translations).

Leap up high ^ Gilbert and Colette Picard, La vie quotidienne à Carthage au temps d'Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958), translates as Daily Life in Carthage (London: Leap up high ^ Sabatino Moscati, Il mondo dei Fenici (1966), translates as The World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) on 219-223. The name Hamilcar is also known as another Karthaghi script about farming (around 219).

Go to ^ Serge lancel, Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995), discuss winemaking and its "marketing" at 273-276. According to Lance ll (around 274), Mago was quiet about winemaking. Phoenician farming and country living are treated under 269-302. Skip to ^ G. and C. Charles-Picard, La Vie Quootidienne à Carthage au Tempo d'Hannibal (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1958), translates as Daily Live in Carthage (London: George Allen and Unwin 1961; 1968 Unwin Macmillan reprint) at 83-93: 86 (quote); 86-87, 88, 93 (management); 88 (supervisor).

Skip up ^ G. C. and C. Picard, Vie et mort de Carthage (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1970), translates (and first published) as The Life and Death of Carthage (New York: Taplinger 1968) at 86 and 129. Skip to ^ Charles-Picard, everyday life in Carthage (1958; 1968) at 83-84: the evolution of a "landed nobility".

Skip to ^ B. H. Warmington, in his Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; reprinted Penguin 1964) at 155. Skip to ^ Mago, quotation from Columella at I, i, 18; in Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (1958; 1968) at 87, 101, n37. Skip to ^ mago, cited by Columella at I, i, 18; in Moscati, The World of the Phoenicians (1966; 1973) at 220, 230, p5.

Leap up ^ Gilbert and Colette Charles-Picard, everyday life in Carthage (1958; 1968) at 83-85 (invaders), 86-88 (rural proletariat). For example, Gilbert Charles Picard and Colette Picard, The Life and Death of Carthage (Paris 1970; New York 1968) at 168-171, 172-173 (invasion of Agathocles 310 BC).

The Picard (1970; 1968) around 203-209. Skip to ^ Plato (about 427 - about 347) in its laws at 674, a-b, mentioned rules at Carthage that restrict the intake of wines under certain conditions. Cf. Lancel, Carthage (1997) at 276. Skip up ^ Warmington, Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960, 2d ed. 1969) at 136-137.

Leap high ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992) translates from Antonia Nevill (Oxford: Blackwell 1997) at 269-279: 274-277 (produce), 275-276 (amphora), 269-270 & 405 (Rome), 269-270 (yields), 270 & 277 (countries), 271-272 (cities). Skip to ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibleoteca, at XX, 8, 1-4, translates as Library of History (Harvard University 1962), Volume 10[Loeb Classics, No. 2].

390); per Soren, Khader, Slim,,, Carthage (1990) at 88. Skip to ^ Lance, Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 277. Skip to ^ Charles-Picard, everyday life in Carthage (1958; 1968) with 85 (limited area), with 88 (imported skills). Hop up ^ e.g. the Grecian writers: Skip up ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage (Paris 1992), as interpreted by A. Nevill (Oxford 1997), at 38-45 and 76-77 (Archaic Carthage): early map of the town at 39 and 42; Grabarchaeology citation at 77; brief quotations at 43, 38, 45, 39; sound mask at 60-62 (photos); terra cotta and ivory figures at 64-66, 72-75 (photos).

Antique coast line from Utica to Carthage: see chart at 18. Cf. B. H. Warmington, Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; 2d ed. 1969) on 26-31. Skip to ^ Virgil (70-19 BC), The Aeneid[19 BC], edited by Robert Fitzgerald [(New York: Random House 1983), pp. 18-19 (Book I, 421-424).

See Lancel, Carthage (1997), p. 38. Here leap up ^ However, Virgin injects his own innocent Latin culture ideas into his imaginary descriptions, e.g. Punic Carthage obviously did not build any theatre per se. Cf. Charles-Picard, everyday life in Carthage (1958; 1968). The ports, often referred to by old writers, continue to be an archeological issue due to the finite, fragmentary nature of the evidences.

Vancouver, Carthage (1992; 1997) at 172-192 (the two ports). Hop up ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 32, 130-131. Skip up ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 138. Spring high ^ Sebkrit er Riana in the north and El Bahira in the south[their contemporary names].

Skip up ^ Cf., Lancel, Carthage (1992; 1997) at 139-140, citymap at 138. The country immediately southern of the mound is often called Byrsa. Hop up ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. One story (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 148-152; 151 and 149 maps (levelling work on the Byrsa, ca. 25 BC, in preparation for the new building), 426 (Temple of Eshmun), 443 (Byrsa chart, ca. 1859).

Skip to ^ Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (Paris 1958; London 1961, London 1968, Macmillan 1968 reprint) at 8 (city plan with the temple of Eshmoun, on the east hills of Byrsa). Skip up ^ E. S. Bouchier, Life and Letters in Roman Africa (Oxford: B. H. Blackwell 1913) at 17, and 75.

Leap to the top ^ On the Byrsa some traces of a high-quality housing development from the 2. cent. BC can be seen. A Soren, Khader, Slim, Carthage (1990) at 117. Skip to ^ B. H. Warmington, Carthage (London: Robert Hale 1960; reprinted Penguin 1964) at 15 (quote), 25, 141; (London: Robert Hale, 2d ed. 1969) at 27 (quote), 131-132, 133 (attachment).

Skip up^ See the section on religious Punics below. Cf. Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 141. Leap up to the top Modern archaeologists at the site have not yet "discovered" the old agera. Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 141. Skip up^ Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 142.

Skip to Appian of Alexandria (ca. 95 - ca. 160s), Pomaika known as ancient Rome, at VII (Libyca), 128th century. Skip up Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 133 & 229n17 (Appian quoted). Skip to the ^ancel, Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 152-172, e.g. 163-165 (floor plans), 167-171 (neighborhood maps and photos).

Skip up ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 139 (city plan, to Tophet), 141. Skip to ^ Lance, Carthage (Paris 1992; Oxford 1997) at 138-140. Skip up ^ Picard, The Life and Death of Carthage (Paris 1970; New York 1968) at 162-165 (carvings described), 176-178 (quote). Skip to ^ Lance, Carthage (1992; 1997) at 138 and 145 (city maps).

That was particularly good, later in Romans times. For example, Soren, Khader, Slim, Carthage (1990) at 187-210. Skip up ^ Warmington, Carthage (1964) at 138-140, chart at 139; at 273n. Skip up ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963), text at 34, cards at 31 and 34.

Hop up Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of Carthage (1968, 1969) at 395-396. Skip up high ^ For a detailed debate about the antique city: Carthage (Paris: Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995, 1997) at 134-172, old ports at 172-192; Carthage at 38-77. Hop up Pellechia, Thomas (2006).

London: Skip up ^ "Ancient History". Hop up to: a, Warington, H. S. (1988). "Destruction of Carthage: A Retraction." Hop up ^ Ridley, R. T. (1986). Destruction of Carthage". Hop up ^ George Ripley; Charles Anderson Dana (1863). Ripley, George; Charles Anderson Dana (1863).

Hop up ^ Stevens, 1988, pp. 39-40. Hop up ^ Sedgwick, Henry Dwight (2005). Hop up ^ Bosworth, C. Edmund (2008). Hop up ^ Bouchier, E.S. (1913). Lives and letters in Roman Africa. Skip en Sie nach oben ^ François Decret, Early Christianity in North Africa (James Clarke & Co, 2011) i200. Hop up ^ Hastings, Adrian (2004)[1994].

Hop up ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Spring hoch ^ Joseph Sollier, "Charles-Martial-Allemand Lavigerie" inCatholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910) Jenkins, Philip (2011). Hop up Jackson, Samuel Macauley, Ed. New York and London: 1964 the bishop's seat of Carthage had to be dissolved again, in a trade-off with the Habib Bourguiba administration, which enabled the Catholic Church in Tunisia to maintain juridical status and presence through the pre-late Nuullius of Tunis.

Leap up ^ Charles Ernest Beulé, excavations in Carthage, ed. Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, 1861. Azedine Beschaouch, La égende de Carthage, éd. Découvertes Gallimard, Paris, 1993, p. 94. Skip up ^ Dussaud, Bulletin Archéologique (1922), p. 245. Skip up ^ Matisoo-Smith EA, AL Boocock, ALosling, J Boocock, Kardailsky O, Kurumilian Y, Roudesli-Chebbi S, et al. ^ (May 25, 2016).

"The European mitochondrial haplotype identified in the ancient Phoenician originates from Carthage, North Africa" (PDF). Leap up ^ Philippe Bonnichon; Pierre Gény; Jean Nemo (2012). Leap up ^ Encyclopedia Mensuelle d'Outre-mer employee (1954). Hop up "Qui siommes nouus? Hop up ^ Trudy Ring; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (January 1996).

Skip up ^ Illustrated Encyclopedia of World History. Hop up "More riots in Tunisia. Cf. Charles-Picard, Daily Life in Carthage (Paris 195; Oxford 1961, Re-print Macmillan 1968) at 165, 171-177. Skip to ^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Prague 1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 57-62 (Cyprus and Aegean Sea), 62-65 (Western Mediterranean); 157-170 (Trade); 67-70, 84-85, 160-164 (Greeks).

Skip to ^ Strabo, Geographica, XVII,3,15; as interpreted by H. L. Jones (Loeb Classic Library 1932) at VIII: 385. Skipi, Le monde des Phéniciens (1966 ; 1973), am 223-224, p. 223-224. Skip to ^ Richard J. Harrison, Spain at the Beginning of History (London: Thames and Hudson 1988), "Phoenician colonies in Spain" around 41-50, 42nd century.

Cf. Harden, The Phoenicians (1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 157-166. Leap up ^ For example, during the rule of Hiram (tenth century) of Tyre. Leap frog Sie hoch ^ Stephane Gsell, Histoire Ancienne de l'Afrique du Nord 1924 (Paris: Librairie Hachette 1924) bei Band IV: 113. Leap to the top ^ Strabo (ca. 63 BC - 20 AD), Geographica at III, 5.11.

Leap up ^ Walter W. Hyde, Ancient Greek Navigator (Oxford Univ. 1947) on 45-46. Skip to ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 81 (mysterious), 87 (monopolizing). Go to ^ Strabo, Geographica, XVII,3,15; in the Loeb Classic Library issue of 1932, translation by H. L. Jones, at VIII: 385. Cf. Theodor Mommsen, Roman Geschichte (Leipzig: Reimer und Hirzel 1854-1856), translates as the story of Rome (London 1862-1866; reprint by J. M. Dent 1911) at II: 17-18 (Mommsen's Book III, Section I).

Hop up ^ Warmington, B. H. (1964)[1960]. Carthage. Skip up ^ Aristotle, Politica in Book II, Section 11, (1272b-1274b); in The Basic Works of Aristotle edited by R. McKeon, English translation by B. Jowett (Random House 1941), Politica on pages 1113-1316, "Carthage" on pages 1171-1174. Skip to ^ Polybius, Stories VI, 11-18, translates as The Rose of the Roman Empire (Penguin 1979) at 311-318.

Spring high ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 147-148. Spring up ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 148. Skip high ^ Aristotle presents a slightly more comprehensive rendition of the roll of gatherings. Skip up ^ Check your Rome assembly. Go to ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/17-20) and at VI, 5, (1320b/4-6) concerning the settlements; in McKeon, ed., Basic Works of Aristotle (1941) at 1173 and at 1272.

Aristotle said that the monarchy was keen to be generous to the crowds and to give them a stake in the profitably exploited areas affected. "Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 149, quoting Aristotle's Politica as here. Skip to ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/23-24) re Disaster and Rebellion, (1272b/29-32) re Constitutional and Faithfulness; in McKeon, ed., Basic Works of Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1171.

Skip to ^ Aristotle, Politica at II, 11, (1273b/8-16) for one individual many bureaux, and (1273a/22-1273b/7) for the oligo; in McKeon, ed., Basic Works of Aristotle (1941) at 1173, 1172-1273. Skip up ^ Warmington, Carthage (1960, 1964) at 143-144, 148-150. "In fact, the Carthaginians were largely apolitical in comparison to the Greeks and Romans.

Leap up ^ Warmington, Carthage at 240-241, relying on the Latin scholar of historiography named Levy. Hop up ^ Picard, Life and Death of Carthage (1968, 1969) at 40-41 (Greek), .

Cf., Warmington, Carthage (1960; Penguin 1964) at 24-25 (Greeks), 259-260 (Romans). Skip i, Springen Sie auf ^ B.H.Warmington, "The Carthiginian Period" um 246-260, 246 ("No carthaginian literature hat a survived. "), in General History of Africa, Band III. Skipi ^ R. Bosworth Smith, Carthage and the Carthaginians (Londres : Longmans, Green 1878, 1902) um 12 Uhr.

Skip up ^ Picard, Life and Death of Carthage (1968, 1969) at 72-73: English version of the Romano-Punic Treaty, 509 B.C.; at 72-78: Debate. Skip to ^ Polybius (ca. ^ 200 - 118), Sindorion at III, 22-25, Selektionen translates as Ascent of the Roman Empire (Penguin 1979) at 199-203. Cf: Arnold J. Toynbee, Hannibals Legacy (1965) at I:

Skip to ^ Hanno's logbook, which was fully transcribed by Warmington, Carthage (1960) at 74-76. For example, from Varro (116-27) in his De re rustica; from Columella (fl. AD 50-60) in his On trees und On farming, and from Plinius (23-79) in his Naturalis Historia. Skip up ^ Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Prague 1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 122-123 (28 books), 140 (paragraph quote).

Cf. H. J. Rose, A Handbook of Lanin Literature (London: Methuen 1930, 3d ed. 1954; Print Dutton, New York 1960) on 51-52, where a plotter abstract of Poenulus (i.e. "The Man from Carthage") is given. Leap up ^ Eighteen rows of Poenulus are pronounced in Punic by the figure Hanno in Act 5, Scenario 1, beginning with "Hyth alonim fualonuth si ma com sit.......

and Sons 1912), translates by Henry Thomas Riley. Skip to ^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim, Carthage (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990) at 42 (over 6000 found inscriptions), at 139 (many very brief, on sacred stele). Skip up ^ An example of a longer script (of about 279 punchic characters) can be found at Thugga, Tunisia.

Hop up Glenn E. Markoe, Carthage (2000) at 114. Hop up Picard and Picard, Life and Death of Carthage (1968, 1969) at 30. See Victor Matthews, "The Limbri Prunici of King Hiempsal" in the American Journal of Philology 93: 330-335 (1972); and, Véronique Krings, "Les Limbri Prunici de Sallust" in L'Africa Romana 7: 109-117 (1989).

Skip up ^ Pliny the Elder (23-79), Naturalis Historia at XVIII, 22-23. Skip up ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage (Paris: Librairie Arthème Fayard 1992; Oxford: Blackwell 1995) at 358-360. Here he notices that after the collapse of Carthage a folk response took place among the Romans against the deceased Cato the Elder (234-149), the Ruman tensor, who had campaigned infamously for the demolition of the town.

Lance (1995) at 410. Skip up ^ Ronald Syme, but in his Sallust (University of California, 1964, 2002) at 152-153, rebates on each value uniquely mentionned by the libri punici in his Bellum Iugurthinum. Go to ^ Lance, Carthage (1992, 1995) at 359, asks about the origin of these volumes.

Hop on ^ Hiempsal II was the great-grandson of Masinissa (r. ^ 202-148), through Mastanabal (r. ^ 148-140) and Gauda (r. 105-88). Skip up ^ Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum (ca. 42) at 17, translates as The Jugurthine War (Penguin 1963) at 54. Skip to ^ R. Bosworth Smith, in his Carthage and the Carthaginians (London: Longmans, Green 1878, 1908) at 38, complaining that Sallust has refused to deal directly with the story of the town of Carthage.

Hop up ^ Duane W. Roller, The World of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene. Comments on the works of Juba II are discussed by D. W. Roller in The World of Jube II and Cleopatra Selene (2003) in sections 7, 8 and 10. <font color="#ffff00" size=14>="Jump up ^ The fragments of Greek historians (Leiden 1923-), ed.

Hop up ^ Duane W. Roller, The World of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene (2003) at 189, n22; cf. 177. Skip up ^ Pliny the Elder (23-79), Naturalis Historia V, 8; II, 169. Cf. Picard and Picard, The Life and Death of Carthage (Paris: Hachette[1968]; New York: Taplinger 1969) on 93-98, 115-119.

Hop up ^ Serge Lancel, Carthage. One story (Paris 1992; Oxford 1995) at 358-360. Skip up ^ See the Berber relationships section here. Skip to ^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenician (London: British Museum, Berkeley: University of California 2000) at 21-22 (affinity), 95-96 (economy), 115-119 (religion), 137 (funerals), 143 (art). Skip to ^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at 115-116.

Hop up Allen C. Markoe, Phönizier (2000) at 119. Cf., Attridge & Oden, Philo of Byblos (1981); Baumgarten, Phönizische Geschichte von Philo of Byblos (1981). Hop up^ Donald Harden, The Phoenicians (New York: Prague 1962, 2d ed. 1963) at 83-84. Hop up Sabatino Moscati, Il Mondo dei Fenici (1966), translates as The World of the Phoenicians (London: Cardinal 1973) at the age of 55.

Skip to ^ Soren, Khader, Slim, Carthage (1990) at 128-129. Leap to the top ^ The old Romanised Jew Flavius Josephus (37-100 years) also mentioned a missing work by a Poenician; he quoted from a Poenician story of a "Dius". Josephus, Against Apion (ca. 100) at I: 17; found in The Works of Josephus by Whiston translation (London 1736; printed by Hendrickson, Peabody, Massachusetts 1987) at 773-814, 780.

Hop up ^ Glenn E. Markoe, Phoenician (Univ. of California 2002) on 11, 110. This of course also goes for Carthage. Leap up ^ Strabo (ca. 63 B.C. - 20' A.D.), Geographica at III, 5.11. He knows all the Lingo's, but he' s pretending not to. Markoe, Phoenician (2000) at 110, at 11.

Skip to ^ Soren, Ben Khader, Slim, 'Carthage (New York: Simon and Schuster 1990) at 34-35 (script), at 42 (inserted in quote: [the alphabet]). Skip up ^ Steven Roger Fischer, A Geschichte of Writing (London: Reaction 2001) at 82-93. Skip to ^ David Diringer, Writing (London: Thames and Hudson 1962) at 112-121.

The Excavations of Nathan Davis, 1856-1859... </ i> ; but.... miles, richard (2011), carthage must be destroyed: Raven, S. (2002), Rome in Africa, Third ed. Soren, David; et al. (1990), Carthage: August Audollent, Carthage Romaine, 146 BC - 698 AD, Paris (1901). ernest Babelon, carthage, Paris (1896).

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