Capital de ChinaThe capital of China
What was the name of China before Emperor Chin reigned?
It was known among the ruling Qin (Chin) rulers of the time. China's reunification in 221 BC under the First Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (or Shih Hwang-Tih) was the beginning of imperial China, a time that continued until the downfall of the Qing Empire in 1912.
Old China had always been a gathering of more or less sovereign states in northern China. It was such a messy time that the Chinamen called it the warring states' and it ended only when all of northern China was united under a unique kingdom, the Ch'in Dyandy.
Xia is the first time that the China people called it a Xia but it was regarded as mythic until early Iron Age sites were excavated in Erlitou in Henan province. Since then, archeologists have discovered municipal places, bronzes and graves in places quoted in antique historic documents as Xia's, but it is not possible to check if these remnants of Xia are without writing down anything from that time.
From the 18 th to 12 th centuries BC, the second ruling elite, the loose feudale Shang, definitely resided on the Yellow River in the east of China. It was the first united state of China founded by the Qin family in 221 BC.
The provinces and autonomous regions of China
The province is located in the northern part of the northern plain of China and extends into the highlands of Inner Mongolia. The province surrounds Beijing, the capital of China, and Tianjin, an important trading port, and borders Liaoning and Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan and Shandong to the south and the Bohai Sea to the east.
The topography of the province has three important features: The Bashang plain at 1,200 to 1,500 meters above sea level, which makes up 8.5 percent of the province's surface; the Yanshan and Taishang mountains (including hills and lowlands), which are mostly below 2,000 meters or 48.1 percent, and the Hebei plain at 50 meters or 43.4 percent.
The province is located near the north.
The coastline of Hebei covers 487.3 kilometres and a coastal area totalling 1 million hectares. The province has suitable natural conditions for the development of the maritime oil industry, the maritime chemical industry, transoceanic transport and tourism by sea. Ginhuangdao is an important ice-free port in northern China.
The rivers Huanghe (yellow), Haihe and Luanhe, which cross the province, facilitate the development of aquatic plants. To date, 116 mineral species have been discovered in the province and the reserves of 67 of them have been verified. Forty-five minerals in the province have reserves that are among the country's top ten.
There are more than 3,000 plant species in the province, including 140 cellulose plants, 1,000 medicinal herbs and more than 100 woody plants. Cotton production accounts for one seventh of national production, and maize and fruit production for one tenth each. It is the only province in China with plateaus, mountains and hills, plains, lakes and coasts.
Throughout the province there are 304 ruins and groups of ancient buildings, including 58 historical monuments, which are under the primary protection of the state. Like Shaanxi Province, Hebei is at the forefront of historical monuments. Two large mining areas in Kailuan and Fengfeng and the North Chinese oil field.
The province is currently implementing an environmental protection and conservation programme aimed at "restoring the blue sky, blue waters and green areas", improving the village's environment and the environment and enabling a coordinated development between economy and environment.
At the end of 2000, there were 9,195 Environmental Officers and 78 Environmental Observatories at various levels throughout the province. The province has currently established 12 nature reserves with a surface area of 121,500 hectares. Ninety-two percent of the major polluting companies have met the standards for environmental protection.
Besides the Han ethnic group, there are 53 ethnic minorities in the province, including the Mann, the Ha ï, the Mongols, the Zhuang, the Koreans, the Muiao, the Tuyia, etc... By the end of 2000, 3.27 million rural people were in an unstable economic situation, although they had already solved the problem of basic services, and 2.43 million still needed support from the regional government.
The province has established economic and trade relations with 170 countries and regions of the world, 35 of which are importers of products worth over 10 million yuan. The province and several of its cities have established friendly relations with 47 cities in 17 countries around the world, and almost 60 non-commercial companies from Hebei have invested in opening factories in 30 countries and regions.
By the end of 2000 Hebei had invested a combined 10 billion dollars in foreign investment and 2,579 foreign-Chinese joint ventures had been established in the province. Five important pillars have been established: the chemical (pharmaceutical), metallurgical, building materials, machinery and food industries.
As an important agricultural production province in northern China, Hebei mainly produces cereals, cotton and oilseeds. The province has sought to develop an ecological and distinctive local economy and has widely used biological and computer technology in agriculture, modernising traditional agriculture.
Five major pillar industries have emerged, namely the chemical (pharmaceutical), metallurgical, building materials, machinery and food industries. High-tech industries have become new sectors of economic growth in the province, and the production capacity of many products of the above industries is already at the top of the country, even in the world.
Huasheng antibiotic production capacity is first in the country and second in the world; Lekai brand light-sensitive materials production volume is first in the country; and the Jiya liquid crystal display and complete equipment, Huayao crystal, Tianwei drive and conversion products and Fengfan electroaccumulator, each occupy first place in the country.
A system of market networks has been established at provincial and municipal level, which will be extended to the cantons, villages and neighbouring municipalities. The Beijing - Tianjin - Hebei Economic Zone has 120 million consumers, with a market capacity representing 10% of the national population.
It is the hub connecting the east, south and southwest with the north-east, north-west and north of the country, the centre of cargo handling and also an important gateway to the sea. Since ancient times Hebei has been a well-known centre of concentration and distribution of products in northern China.
The entire province has a installed capacity of 8,837,500 telephone lines and 8,467. The rate of generalization of telephones reached 14.91% throughout the province and 54.61% in the cities. There are 42 broadcasting and replay stations in the province, and television reaches 97.42 percent of the population.
The province is served by 15 mainline railways with the largest volume of freight traffic in the country. There are 17 state highways running through the province, with a second largest volume of goods traffic in the country. This is the best way to transport goods.
Qinhuangdao Port, the second largest in China, has an annual loading and unloading capacity of around 100 million tonnes, while Jingtang Port has acquired an annual capacity of 6.51 million tonnes. The province also uses Beijing Capital Airport and Tianjin International Airport.
Introduce advanced and adaptable funds and technologies to develop the plant and forestry and fruit sectors, accelerate the comprehensive development of agriculture and the conversion of low and medium yield fields, introduce improved seeds, develop water-saving and low rainfall agriculture and promote industrialised agriculture.
2. Use foreign funds to accelerate the construction of roads, power plants, environmental protection works, affordable housing and other public works. 3rd Continuation of structural adjustment, optimization and upgrading of the five main industries: chemical (pharmaceutical), metallurgical, building materials, machinery and food.
4. Encourage foreign entrepreneurs to use resources and advanced technologies and equipment to invest in electronic information, new materials, biological engineering and other leading industries. Effort to introduce foreign funds into domestic and foreign trade, finance, tourism, services and other branches of the tertiary sectors in order to develop more open areas to the outside world. a) Projects for new agricultural technologies, comprehensive development of agriculture, energy, transport and important raw materials.
For example: exploitation of land, mountains and undeveloped sandbanks (except for sites with military facilities) and processing of low and medium yield fields; introduction and development of seeds and improved species for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries; integrated development and exploitation of coal ores; development of new energy resources; construction of roads, ports, civil airports and waterworks; development of new building materials, non-ferrous metal composites, industrial plastics and plastic alloys, semiconductors, special photoelectric materials etc.
For example: high-performance welding robots and production lines for welding; electric furnaces with a maximum capacity of 50 tons; large and medium computers; satellite communication systems, etc. c) Projects that meet market demand and contribute to increasing the product category, open up new markets, expand sales abroad and increase exports.
For example: new varieties and technologies for the production of high-quality and high-yield crops such as sugar, fruit, vegetables, flower and grass plants; printing and dyeing of special fabrics for use in industry, highly simulated man-made fibres and high-quality fabrics and their further processing; new drugs developed with biotechnological technology. d) Projects for new technologies and equipment for integrated use of general resources and recycling as well as for the prevention and reduction of environmental pollution.
For example: treatment of urban waste water with a daily capacity of 142,500 tonnes; environmental environment monitoring and remediation; production of cleaning agents, catalysts and other means to monitor leaks from vehicles; recycling of resources and their integrated use; monitoring and surveillance of pollution and auditing technologies, etc. e) Other projects supported by state laws and regulations and projects approved by the government whose products are entirely for export.
Construction of the Zhangbaiwan-Shuangfensi light rail system in Chengde; 2nd Shijiazhuang-Cangzhou highway by the Hebei Provincial Transport Department; 3rd Xuanhua-Datong highway in Hebei by the Hebei Provincial Transport Department; 4th Shijiazhuang-Cangzhou highway in Hebei. Construction of the second port of the Jingtang Port Authority; 5. in the Caifeidian port area, construction of the berth for the unloading of imported minerals for 200,000 tonne vessels by the Jingtan Port Authority; 6. extension of the fishing pier for 5,000 tonne vessels by the Marine Fishery General Company of Qinhuangdao; 7.
Annual production of 200 tons of stainless steel valves in the field of economic and technological development of Cangzhou, 9.
Construction of a molybdenum mine with a daily production of 5,000 tonnes by the Zhangquanzhuang gold mine, Xuanhua district; 11,
Expansion of the new transformer factory with an annual production capacity of 2 million kilowatts by the transformer factory of the city of Tangshan; 13.
Construction of a workshop with an annual production capacity of 100,000 light vehicle transmissions and 100,000 bevel-helical transmissions by Hebei's Tianye Automobile Group; 15th Expansion of the agricultural truck factory with an annual production capacity of 200,000 units by Tiantong Group Co,
Construction of a mirror factory without blind zones, with an annual production capacity of 200,000 units, by the Commercial General Co. of the Yongqing District; 18.
Construction of a thin-walled copper tube mill with an annual production capacity of 5,000 to 7,000 tons in the area of economic and technological development in Bazhou; 22nd Production of 2,000 DSP industrial controls by Yanshan University Industrial Group; 23.
Expansion of the production of motorcycle batteries with an annual capacity of 5 million units by the Fengfan Group; 25th annual production of 30 million Ni-H batteries by the Baoshi Electronic Group of Shijiazhuang; 26th 3rd annual production of Ni-H batteries by the Baoshi Electronic Group of Shijiazhuang.
Annual production of 1,500 Erbio-doped fiber amplifiers by the No. 3 Radio Element Factory; 27th Construction of a production line for transparent, electrically conductive glass for color liquid crystal monitors by Laicheng Electronics, Co. Ltd. in Qinhuangdao; 28th Liquid Crystal Display of Hebei Development Co. 29th Annual production of 500,000 meters of woollen fabric by the Donggao Group of Hebei; 30th Transfer of the STN liquid crystal display production line portfolio through Liquid Crystal Display of Hebei Development Co.
1000 tons of PVC pipes, Baoshuo Group of Hebei; 31st Construction of a refined ink packaging line, Jinyan Paper Co, Expansion of the production line for high-quality sanitary sets with an annual capacity of one million units by Ceramic Gropu General Co. of Handan; 33rd Production of refined gaucha powder in the area of the economic and technological development of Cangzhou; 34th Construction of a beverage production line with an annual capacity of 10,000 tons by Datianli Medical Care Foodstuff Co. of Cangzhou,
Annual production of 2 million rare earth ceramic gears through joint investments with the Developmemt and Construction General Company in Shanhaiguan's economic and technological development zone; 36. Annual production of 3,000 tons of rare earths with permanent magnetism on Nd-Fe-B magnets in the Yanjiao development area; 37th Annual production of 15,000 tons of acetate cellulose by Xinyu Sanyang Co,
Annual production of 30 million contactless IC cards and 20 million modules in the economic and technological development zone of Beidaihe; 39th Construction of a veterinary factory by Hebei Provincial Livestock Directorate; 40th Construction of a biochemical pharmaceutical factory by Kankang Pharmaceutical Development Co.
Expansion of production of AKD neutral/alkaline gelling agent for paper production with an annual capacity of 10,000 tons by Forest Products General Co. of Hebei Province; 42nd annual production of 250,000 square meters of granite slabs by Huayi Stone Material Group of Hebei Province; 43,
Annual production of one million square meters of slotted glass by the Flat Class Factory of Zhangjiukou; 45th Construction of a 50,000 mu flower plantation center by the Ministry of Agriculture of Hebei Province; 46th Construction of a flower and tree plantation center in the Beijing-Tianjin area by Lanfang City Plantation; 47.
Construction of a breeding farm with 200,000 pigs by the Gaobeidian Living Hog Raising Group; 49 Reconstruction of the 40,000 square meter valuable fish farm by the Balitan Fish Farm, District of Shanghai; 50 Expansion of the lean pork farm with an annual production of 100.
Rearing 100,000 oxen by the Guyuan District Livestock Directorate; 52nd Industrialized production of winter data of 100,000 Mu by the city of Huanghua; 53rd Industrialized production of 100,000 Mu by the city of Huanghua.
Construction of water supply plants of 80,000 tonnes per day in Yongqing, Langfang; 55; Construction of sewage treatment plants of 100,000 tonnes per day in Gaocheng City; 56.
Construction of a five-star grand hotel Yandu with a surface area of 87,356 square meters by the Guesthouse Group Co. of Hebei; 58th Tourism development on Zushan Mountain, by the Tourism Development Co. of Baoding.
Construction of the international park to disseminate knowledge about earthquakes in the city of Tangshai; 61st Construction of an open-air vegetable farm by the Ministry of Agriculture of Hebei Province; 62.
Foreign investment in the production of high-protein maize by the Ministry of Agriculture of Hebei Province; 63rd foreign investment in strawberry production through cooperation by the Ministry of Agriculture of Hebei Province; 64th foreign investment in the construction of a meat duck farm by the Directorate of Livestock and Aquatic Products of Renqiu Province, Hebei Province; 65.
Foreign investments for the construction of a production line for 4Q series stem mowers and crushers by the Farming Machinery Factory in Shijiazhuang City; 66 Foreign investments for the construction of a Jihe White Pig Farm by the Hebei Province Livestock and Veterinary Research Institute; 67.
Mixed foreign investments for the construction of a marsh shrimp farm by the Hebei Aquatic Technology Popularization Station in Hebei Province; 68 Mixed foreign investments for the construction of a Chinese shrimp farm by the Hebei Aquatic Technology Popularization Station in Hebei Province; 69.
Mixed investments abroad to build a fishmeal processing plant by Marine and Fishery General Co. of Qinhuangdao; 70 Mixed investments abroad to establish a fishing company by Marine and Fishery General Co. of Qinhuangdao; 71. Foreign investments to build a production line for planting and fertilizer application machines by Farming Mechinery Factory in Shijiazhuang City; 72 Foreign investments to build a denim and clothing factory by Color Weaving and Textile General Co.
Investment abroad in the construction of a wool textile production line by Tianxiang Group Co. in Baoding; 75th Construction outside a trailer factory by Trailer General Factory in Zhangjiakou, Hebei. They are exempt from land tax and the tax on the use of the vehicle and ship licence for five years, starting from the year of commencement of production and operation.