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Octavian emphasized his relation to Julius Caesar for his own civic and social gain by calling himself just "Emperor Caesar" (to which the Senate of Rome added the Reverend Augustus, "Majestic" or "Venerable" in 27 B.C.), without the other parts of his full name. Of course, his successors as Kaiser, his step-son Tiberius, also carried the name; née Tiberius Claudius Nero, he was adopted on 26 June 4 A.D. by Caesar Augustus as "Tiberius Julius Caesar".
He was preceded by the Kaiser appointing his follower by adoption and naming him Caesar. Claudius, the 4th Caesar, was the first to take the name "Caesar" without having been adopted by the former Caesar; however, he was at least a member of the Julio-Claudian family, the motherly grand-nephew of Augustus on the side of his mothers, the grandson of Tiberius, and the grandson of Caligula.
In turn, he accepted his step -son and grand-nephew Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and gave him the name" Caesar" in the old-fashioned way; his step -son would reign as Kaiser Nero. At the same time, the first Kaiser who took over the title and the name without any true title to either of them was the ushurpator Servius Sulpicius Galba, who after the deaths of the last of the Julio-Claudians, Nero, in 68 took over the emperors triumph under the name "Servius Galba Imperator Caesar".
He assisted in consolidating "Caesar" as the name of the future beneficiary by handing him over to his own adoptive successor Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus. At first, he did not use the name " Caesar " and sometimes used the name " Nero " as Kaiser, but later he also took the same name. Aulus Vitellius then conquered him, who was given the name "Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus".
It was Vitellius who did not accept the branonym "Caesar" as part of his name and perhaps wanted to substitute it with "Germanicus" (he gave his own boy the name "Germanicus" this year). Nevertheless, Caesar had become such an inherent part of the emperor's grandeur that his place was immediately re-established by Titus Flavius Vespasianus ("Vespasianus"), whose loss to Vitellius in 69 ended the era of unstability and the Flemish uprising.
Vespasian's sons, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, became Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus. At this time, the Caesar's designation as Emperor-designate (occasionally also with the honorary name Princeps Iuventutis, "Prince of Youth") and was maintained by him during the ascension to the Holy See (e.g. Marcus Ulpius Traianus in October 97 Marcus Cocceius Nerva's designation as Caesar Nerva Traianus and, on 28 January 98, as "Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus
The Emperor's coin design was mostly Nobilissimus Caesar "Most Noble Caesar" (abbreviated NOB Caees, N Caees etc.) after some variations among the first empresses, but Caesar (Caees) alone was also used. Caesar, the name used to describe inheritors, became more popular during the third centenary.
During the crisis of the third century, many of the Soldiers' Empresses tried to reinforce their legacy by mentioning Maximinus Thrax, Philip the Arab, Decius, Trebonianus Gallus and Gallienus. It would also be used in the Gallic realm, which from 260 to 274 autonomous from the remainder of the Roman realm and the last Gallic Kaiser Tetricus I appointed his successor Tetricus II Caesar and his consultual colleagues for 274.
In spite of all the effort of these kaiser the award of this name seems not to have made the successor more stabile in this disarray. Nearly all Caesars would be slain before or next to their forefathers, or at best survive for a few month, as in the case of Hostilian.
Only Caesar who successfully attained the status of Augustus and ruled for some considerable period of his life was Gordian III, and even he was strongly dominated by his lords. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus founded the Tetrarchy on March 1, 293, a system of two older and two younger lower empires.
Both of the same rank were identical to the former empresses, as Emperor Caesar NN. Augustus Pius Felix Invictus (Elagabalus had established the use of Pius Felix, "the devout and blessed", while Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus established the use of Invictus, "the undefeated", and was known as Augusti, while the two Under Emperor juniors were identical to former Caesar Nobilissi.
The young sub-emperors also kept the name of Caesar when they entered the leading group. Tetrarchy was quickly abolished as a system (although the four districts of the kingdom remained Pretorian prefectures) in favor of two equals, territories and the former system of empresses and designated empresses was re-established in both the Latin-speaking West and the Greek-speaking East.
Caesar was used throughout the Constantine Empire, and both Constantine I and his fellow imperial and competitor Licinius used it to identify their heir. For Constantine, this means that he had four Caesars at the moment of his death: In the 350' Constantius II himself would successively name his two co-ins Constantius Gallus and Julian as Caesars, although he killed Gallus first and was then at War with Julian before his own deaths.
Following Julian's rebellion in 361, the name Caesar went out of style for some period of the Emperor's reign, with the Emperor choosing to raise his son directly to the position of Augustus, as with Gratian. After that it would only find conditional use in the Eastern Roman Empire, for example in the naming of the later Leo II. in the last few month of his grandfather's age.
Caesar (Greek: ??????) existed in the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire as a term that emphasized the inheritors, although most of them decided since the times of Theodosius I to consolidate the successors of their successors by making them fellow imperials. Thus the name was more often given to second and third-born children or to the emperor's closest and powerful relatives: Alexios Mosele was the son-in-law of Theophilos (r. 829-842), Bardas the uncles and prime minister of Michael III (r. 842-867), while Nikephoros II (r. 963-969) gave the name to his sire Bardas Phokas.
It was conferred in 1081 on the Empress Mary of Alania's sister, George II of Georgia. The insignias of Byzantine Caesar were a crossless head according to Kl?torologion of 899, and the Caesar's creative ceremonies (in this case by Constantin V) are contained in De Ceremoniis I.43.
It was the highest name in the emperor's hierarchical system until the advent of La Greeks (one of Sebasto and Fribourg, the equivalent of Augustus and Emperor) by Alexios I. Komnenos (r. 1081-1118) and later by Rom. 1143-1180 by Manuel I. Komnenos (r. 1143-1180). It has been preserved in the last few hundred years of the Empire.
Pseudocodinos further notes that the Caesar was equally in the foreground to the panorama of hypersebastos, another of Alexios I, but that Kaiser Michael VIII Palaiologos (r. 1259-1282 ) had elevated his grandson Michael Tarchaneiotes to the status of www. cesar and ordered that he should come after Caesar; while under Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282-1328) the mega domesticos was elevated to the same fame when he was bestowed upon the prospective Kaiser John VI Kantakouzenos (r. 1347-1354).
After pseudocodinos, the insignias of Caesar among the Palaiologoi were a ski stadium cap in reds and gilded, adorned with embroidered golden wires, with a haze that bears the name of the bearer and pendant, the same as those of Fribourg's Fribourg and Fribourg's. Pseudocodinos wrote that the special shapes of another shape of cap, the vaulted skaranicon and the cloak, the tsamparion, were not known to Caesar.
The Persians and Arabs in the Near East continue to call the Holy Caesars "Caesars" (in Persian: R?m Qaysar-i R?m, "Caesar of Rûm", from Central Persia k?sar). Thus the triumphant Ottoman Emperor Mehmed II was the first of the Ottoman Empire's sovereigns to be named "Caesar of the Holy Roman Empire " after the Constantinople was conquered in 1453 (Ottoman Turkish: ??? Kayser-i Rûm).
Mehmed also had a bloodline to the Imperial families of the Byzantines; his forerunner, Sultan Orhan I, had marry a brilliantly gifted and Mehmed could be descended from John Tzelepe's Komnenos. The Ottomans were not the only monarchs to have such a name, for there was the Holy Roman Empire in Western Europe, whose imperial king Frederick III retraced his line of titles from Charlemagne, who received the Roman emperor's name when he was coronated by Pope Leo III in 800, although he was never recognised as such by the Catholic Empire.
Caesar's story as an emperor's titel is mirrored in the following monarchical books, which are reserved in many tongues for "emperor" and "empress" (note that the name Caesar, in English, was spoken in classical Latin[kaisar]): In the United States and more recently also in Great Britain, the word "czar" (from the name of Russia ) is a catchphrase for certain high-ranking officials, such as the "drug czar" for the head of the Office of National Drugs Control Policies and "terrorism czar" for an adviser to the President on terrorist policies.
There have been other cases where a substantive has been converted into a name, such as the Latin name of Charlemagne, among them the nickname Carolus (magnus), which became Slavic names depicted as king: certain tongues, especially romanic ones, however, often use a "modernized" one. g. César in French) for the name, which refers to both first names in Rome and contemporary usage, and even the name Caesar, which is sometimes expanded again to the above-mentioned emperor's acronyms.
Caesarism was used by Oswald Spengler in his work The Fall of the West. Imperial administrative system of the ninth century - with a reworked text of the Kletorologion by Philotheos.