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Campaign Burma - Wikipedia
China expedition forces in Burma. They were mainly originating from Britisch-Indien. The majority of them remained and were defending in India and did not take part in the counter-attacks in Burma. 3,000 were Merrill's marauders, the remainder were engineers and Luftwaffe staff. All in all, it rules out the approximately 3 million civilian deaths in the Bengali starvation, in part as a consequence of the Burmese occupations in Japan and Britain's policy and slackness.
Burma campaign was a campaign of fighting in the UK Burma settlement, the Southeast Asia theater of World War II, mainly between the powers of the UK Empire and China, with the assistance of the United States, against the invasion troops of the Imperial Japan, Thailand and the Indian National Army.
The armed force of the Empire reached its peak at about 1,000,000,000 ground and aerial units and mainly came from Britisch-India, with UK armed units (equivalent to 8 ordinary IFDs and 6 regiments of tanks), 100,000 East and Westafrican colonies and a smaller number of ground and aerial units from several other dominions and colonies.
6 ] The Myanmar Independence Army (known to the rightful Myanmar administration and the Allies as the Myanmar Traitor Army - BTA) was formed by the Japanese and led the first assaults against the British Empire force. There were a number of remarkable characteristics of the ad campaigns. There was a shortage of transportation infrastructures with a focus on the use of equipment and aerial transportation to move and serve soldiers and extract more people.
It was also strategically complicated, with the British, the United States and the Chinese all having different political agendas. This was also the only Pacific Theatre country-based Western Allied propaganda programme that ran from the beginning of animosity until the end of the conflict. With the expansion of Southeast Asia into India, its territory comprised some areas that the British were losing at the beginning of the conflict, but also areas of India where the advancement of Japan was finally stifled.
That, together with other elements such as starvation and clutter in Britain-India and the priorities the allies attached to the Nazi-Germany' s failure, extended the camp and split it into four phases: In 1942, the Allies' efforts to launch attacks in Burma from the end of 1942 to the beginning of 1944 were unsuccessful; the 1944 Japan-induced attack in India, which eventually foundered after the Imphal and Kohima fighting; and lastly, the success of the Allied attack, which re-occupied Burma from the end of 1944 to mid-1945.
Japan's goals in Burma were at first restricted to taking Rangoon (now known as Yangon), the country's main port and city. It would shut down the land pipeline to China and represent a strategically important bastion for defending Japan's profits in B Malaya and the Dutch East Indies. Iida, which originally consisted of only two fleets of soldiers, went to the north of Thailand (which had sign a pact of mutual respect with Japan) and in January 1942 started an assault over jungle-covered mountains into the south of Burma's Tenasserim region (now Tanintharyi region).
Successfully attacking over the Kawkareik Pass, the Japs conquered the Moulmein harbour at the Salween River estuary after having overcome the hard opposition. Then they moved north and flanked consecutive UK fortifications. Forces of the seventeenth Indian infantry division tried to withdraw across the Sittaung River, but the Japans arrived at the crucial footbridge in front of them.
Losing two factions of the seventeenth Indian division means that Rangoon could not be Defend. Despite some troops arriving, counter-attacks collapsed and the new commandant of the Burmese army (General Harold Alexander) ordered the evacuation of the town on March 7 after its harbor and petroleum factory were demolished.
Remains of the Burmese army erupted in the northern part and barely escaped the encircling. The 200th Division of China stopped the Japs around Toungoo for a while in the Yunnan-Burma Rd, but after their collapse the street was open to motorized forces of the Japan 56 Division to smash the Sixth Army of China in the Karenni States in theheast, to penetrate the Shan States to the north, to take Lashio, to overtake the allied defenses and to cut off the Yunnan Forces.
Following the overthrow of Rangoon in March 1942, the Allies tried to resist in the northern part of the nation (Upper Burma) after being strengthened by a Russian expeditionary group. They were also strengthened by two troops provided by the conquest of Singapore, defeating both the reorganized Burma Corps and the China troops.
Since their troops were isolated from almost all supplies, the Allied leaders eventually agreed to remove their troops from Burma. During the Battle of Yenangyaung on 16 April in Burma, 7,000 UK troops were surrounded by the 33rd Division of Japan and killed by the China Association's 33rd Division. The Burmese Corps succeeded in getting most of the way to Imphal, in Manipur, India, just before the onset of the May 1942 tsunami, after losing most of their gear and transportation.
India's armed forces and Indian military forces reacted very slowly to the needs of the forces and migrants. Almost none of the Chinese knew of the withdrawal for want of communications when the Brits withdrew from Burma. Some of the X-Force hired by Chiang Kai-shek have realized that they could not have won without UK assistance and have hurriedly and unorganizedly withdrawn to India, where they were placed under the leadership of American General Joseph Stilwell.
Most of the remaining China forces tried to go back to Yunnan through secluded mountain woods, at least half of which were killed. The Thais and Japanese also agree, in accordance with the Thai Army Alliances with Japan initialled on 21 December 1941, that Kayah State and Shan State should be under Thai rule.
Burma's remaining territory should be under Japan's rule. On May 10, 1942, the leaders of the Thai Phayap army traversed the Shan states. The retiring 93rd China Air Force, led by three Thai Armored Intelligence units and backed by the Royal Thai Air Force, deployed three Thai Army Corps members and one Russian Army Corps.
General Phin Choonhavan, the Thai Army Government of Shan State, ordered on July 12th to take over the 3rd division of the Phayap Army from the southern Shan State and the 55th Army of Thailand. There was no way for the China forces to withdraw, as the Thai and Japanese control the route to Yunnan.
Japan did not resume its attack after the tsunami. The latter established a nominationally autonomous regime under Ba Maw and regularly overhauled Burma's Independence Force more than the country's national force under General Aung San. Specifically, both the administration and the armed forces were closely monitored by the Japan administration.
For the Allies, the surgeries in Burma during the rest of 1942 and 1943 were a survey of armed frustrations. In Bengal and Bihar there were violence-stricken "Quit India" protests, which demanded a large number of UK forces for repression. The effort to enhance the formation of the Alliance forces took some perseverance, and in the front areas bad ethics and indigenous diseases were mixed to decrease the power and efficiency of the combat forces.
First was a small attack into the Burmese coast province of Arakan. India's eastern army wanted to re-occupy the Mayu and Akyab islands, which had an important-airport. One of the divisions moved to Donbaik, just a few kilometres from the end of the penninsula, but was held up by a small but well-established team.
In this phase of the conflict, the Allies were lacking the means and tactics to conquer heavily built Japan shelters. Repetitive UK and Indian assaults fail with severe losses. The Allies had made the Allies invious of Japan's fortifications from central Burma, crossing streams and mountains to strike the Allies' prominent lefthand side and run across several of them.
Fatigued British could not keep any defences and were compelled to give up a lot of gear and almost drop back to the border with India. With Brigadier Orde Wingate's orders, a long-range penetrating force known as the Chindits invaded the front line of Japan and invaded Burma deeply, with the original goal of severing Burma's most important north-south railroad in an op code-named Longcloth.
About 3,000 men came to Burma in many lines. The Japanese in North Burma were damaging their communication and cut the railroad for possibly two whole week, but they were suffering severe losses. Although the results were called into question, the mission was used for publicity, especially to persuade UK and India forces to be as effective in living, moving and fighting as the Japanese are in the jungles, which does much to re-establish moral standards among the Alliance Forces.
Between December 1943 and November 1944, the Burma campaign's strategy changed dramatically. The XV Indian Corps resisted a counter-attack from Japan in the Arakan and then aborted it, while the invading Japan led to intolerably high casualties in India and the retreat of the Japans across the Chindwin River.
Under the Fourteenth Army under Lieutenant General William Slim, the formation, armament, health civilian and moral standards of the British Fourteenth Army have been improved, as has the capability of the communications line in north-eastern India. One of the innovations was the comprehensive use of airplanes to carry and provide supplies for the forces. Its main task was to construct the Ledo Road by American qualified China forces of the Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC) under General Joseph Stilwell.
It was controversial that Orde Wingate received permission for a vastly enlarged Chindite troop to support Stiwell by interrupting the line of the northfront. Among the British Fourteenth Army, the Indian XV Corps was preparing to resume its advancement in the provinces of Arakan, while the IV Corps started a temporary advancement by Imphal in the middle of the long front to divert Japan's interest from the other forays.
At about the same epoch as SEAC was founded, the Japanese founded the Burma Area Army under Lieutenant General Masakazu Kawabe, who took charge of the Fifteenth Army and the new Twenty Eight Army. Lieutenant-General Renya Mutaguchi, the new Fifteenth Army Commandant, wanted to launch an attack against India.
The Burma Area Army initially rejected this concept, but found that their leaders at the Southern Expeditionary Army Group headquarters in Singapore were very interested. Convinced that the Southern Expeditionary Army was naturally dangerous, they found that the Imperial Headquarters in Tokyo was for Mutaguchi's use.
Stilwelle's armed services (known as X Force) originally comprised two American-equipped China departments with a Chinese-occupied M3 Light Tank Bataillon and an US long-range Penetrations Braigade known as "Merrill's Marauders". Under the leadership of Sun Li-jen of Ledo, Assam, the China 38 Division began to move to Myitkyina and Mogaung in October 1943, while US engineering and India workers expanded the Ledo Road behind them.
Marauders flanked the Japan 18. division on several occasions and endangered it by encircling it. The Chindits should be supporting Stylwell in Operation Thursday by banning Japan's communication in the Indaw area. At the beginning of March, three more Royal Air Force units were flew into the landings behind Japan Airlines and the USAAF built defences around Indaw.
The Yunnan Front (Y Force) attacked from the second half of April, with almost 75,000 soldiers passing across the Salween on a 300 km long front. Soon, about twelve of the 175,000 men  from China under General Wei Lihuang attacked the 56.
Japan's armed services in the north were now battling on two front lines in North Burma. Now the Chindits were moving from the backs of Japan to new ports nearer to Stilwell's front and received extra work from Stilwell for which they were not outfitted. On May 17, two of China's Regiment, Unit Galahad (Merrill's Marauders) and Kachin guerillas, also conquered Myitkyinaairport.
The Allies did not immediately succeed and the Japanes could strengthen the city, which only collapsed after a long besiege until August 3rd. Heavy supportive forces from Japan then attacked and stopped the rise of China. At Arakan, the Indian XV Corps under Lieutenant General Philip Christison resumed its conquest of the Mayu Peninsula.
Sharp mounds channeled the march into three assaults each by an India or Westafrican group. On January 9, 1944, the Fifth Infantry of India conquered the small harbour of Maungdaw. Then the Corps was preparing to conquer two rail tunnel connecting Maungdaw with the Kalapanzin River but the Japanese attacked first.
Infiltration of Allied forces from the 55th Division of Japan to assault the Seventh Indian Infantry Division from behind and overrun the Division's headquarters. The Sikhs of the seventh Indian division at an observing station on the Ngakyedauk Pass, February 1944. During the Battle of the Admin Battle from February 5-23, the Japans focused on the administrative area of the XV Corps, which was mainly protected by communications forces, but they could not handle armour that supported the defense, while Ngakyedauk Pass was broken by Fifth Indian Division forces to exonerate the defense of the Battleground.
Though the losses in the fight were about the same, the Japanes suffered a severe loss. They hadn' t panicked their invasion and encircling policies, and since the Japs were not able to conquer hostile reserves, they were starving. In the next few days, the XV Corps attack ended when the Allies focused on the Central Front.
The XV Corps stopped during the rainy season after the rail tunnel was captured. The IV Corps, under Lieutenant General Geoffrey Scoones, had advanced two units to the Chindwin River. There was one detachment in standby at Imphal. Evidence showed that a great Japan attack was developing. The Slim and Scoones were planning to retreat and compel the Japs to struggle with their logistic beyond the Bounda.
But they have wrongly estimated the date on which the Japs should strike and the force they would use against some targets. Japan's Fifteenth Army was made up of three fleets of soldiers and a brigade-sized force ("Yamamamoto Force") and at first a regime of the Indian National Army. Mutaguchi, the army commandant, was planning to remove and demolish the front division of the 4th Corps before taking Imphal, while isolating the 31 st Imphal division of Japan by taking Kohima.
on March 8th. Scoone (and Slim) were slowly withdrawing their front forces and the seventeenth Indian infantry section was severed in Tiddim. He struggled his way back to Imphal with the help of the Scoones spare department, which was provided by parachutists.
In Sangshak, just off Imphal, the 50-th Indian Parachute Brigade was beaten by a riot of the Japanese-st Division on its way to Kohima. Imhal was susceptible to an assault by the 15th Division of Japan from the northern hemisphere, but since the distraction assault by the Japanes had already been vanquished in Arakan, Slim was able to take over the rank 5.
The Garrison Hill Battleground, the keys to UK defence at Kohima. At the end of the first weekend of April, the IV Corps had focused on the Imphal low. In the course of the months, the Japanes started several attacks that were fended off. In early May, Slim and Scoones started a counteroffensive against the 15th Division of Japan just outside Imphal.
The progress was sluggish as monsoons made the move more complicated and the IV Corps was shortage. At the beginning of April the 31 st division of Japan under Lieutenant General Kotoku arrived at Sato Kohima. Rather than isolate the small Britains there and penetrate Dimapur with his principal strength, Sato decided to take the mountain terminal.
The new headquarters, the Indian XXXIII Corps under Lieutenant General Montagu Stopford, now took over the operation on this front. On May 15, the second British infantry division launched a counter-offensive and had praised the Japs themselves in front of the Kohima Ridge. The XXXIII Corps resumed its attack after a break in which further Alliance reinforcement came in.
Meanwhile the Japanese were at the end of their perseverance. They were hungry (especially the Fifteenth and Seventh Division), and the illness quickly became widespread among them during the rainy season. Lieutenant General Sato had informed Mutaguchi that his department would leave Kohima at the end of May if it were not delivered.
Leaders of Corps IV and Corps XXXIII gathered on June 22 at Milestone 109 on Dimapur-Imphal Street, and the besiege of imphal was increased. Division and Yamamamoto Force have made numerous attempts, but by the end of June they had sustained so many victims through struggle and illness that they could not make any headway.
Imphal was eventually abandoned in early July and the Japanes withdrew to the Chindwin River Across the Chindwin River, when it was nearing its conclusion, less than 12 hrs after Kalewa was taken by the 14. This was the biggest loss in Japan's entirety.
The Fourteenth Army followed the Japanese to the Chindwin River during the August to November monsun. Whilst the eleventh East Africa Division descended the Kabaw Valley from Tamu, the fifth Indian Division moved forward along the hilly Tiddim Strait. Allied forces started a range of aggressive missions in Burma in the end of 1944 and the first half of 1945.
The eleventh Army HQ was superseded by the Allied Land Forces of Southeast Asia and the NCAC and XV Corps were housed directly under this new HQ. And the Japanese have also made great changes in their commands. Most importantly, the Burmese army had General Kawabe succeeded Hyotaro Kimura.
On January 21, 1945 on Ramree Island, UK forces in a jetty go onshore. At Arakan, the XV Corps continued its march on Akyab Island for the third series. The Japanese were much less strong this year and withdrew from the Allies' constant advancement. On January 3, 1945, as part of Operation Talon, the amphibian landings in Akyab, it was invaded without opposition by the XV Corps.
The boat had now arrived at the theater, and the XV Corps started amphibian raids on the Myebon Penninsula on January 12, 1945, and ten day later in Kangaw during the Battle of Hill 170 to chop off the retiring Japanese. Until the end of the last months there were fierce battles in which the Japanese sustained serious losses.
A major goal for the XV Corps was the takeover of Ramree Island and Cheduba Island to build aerodromes to assist Allied forces in central Burma. The largest part of the Jap onese military base was killed during the Battle of Ramree Island. On-shore XV Corps operation was restricted to free airlift planes in assistance of the Fourteenth Army.
The NCAC began its rise again at the end of 1944, although it was increasingly undermined by the departure of China's forces to the forefront. At the 10th of December 1944, the thirty-sixth British Infantry Division on the right side of the NCAC contacted Fourteenth Army forces near Indaw in northern Burma. It was five and a half day later that China forces conquered Bhamo on the commando's lefthand side.
It was a strike against Britain's plan as it threatened the chances of getting to Yangon before the start of the month of May when the monsoons were foreseen. UK Prime Minister Winston Churchill directly called on US Joint Chiefs of Defence George Marshall to stay in Burma for the airlift that had been allocated to the NCAC.
An U.S.-led guerilla troop, OSS Detachment 101, took over the rest of the NCAC's armed forces. Fourteenth Army, now composed of the Fourth and XXXIII Corps, took the major attack in Burma. Though the withdrawal of Japan via the Irrawaddy compelled the Allies to totally alter their intentions, this was the Allies' physical overriding.
The 4th Corps was secretly moved from the right to the lefthand side of the armed forces and sought to traverse the Irrawaddy near Pakokku and conquer the Meiktila Communications Center of Japan, while the XXXIIIth Corps was able to take control of the city. In January and February 1945, the XXXIII Corps confiscated transitions across the Irrawaddy River near Mandalay.
Fierce battles were fought that drew the country's resources and drew its heed. At the end of February, the seventh Indian division, which heads the IV Corps, confiscated the Nyaungu transitions near Pakokku. They were followed by the seventeenth Indian division and the 255nd Indian tank brigade to Meiktila. This troop overcame the Japanes in the open country of central Burma and landed on Meiktila on March 1.
First the Japanese tried to exonerate the military guards in Meiktila and then reconquer the city and demolish its defense. Until the end of March the Japanese had sustained severe losses and were losing most of their ordnance, their most important anti-tank Weapons. Corps XXXIII had resumed its assault on Mandalay. On March 20, it came down to the 19nd Indian division, although the Japanese kept the former fortress, which the British named Fort Dufferin, for another whole weekend.
Many of Mandalay's historic and cultural assets have been burnt to the ground. 4. Although the Allies successfully entered the country, it was important to take the Rangoon harbor before the tsunami to prevent a logistical war. However, in the early 1945s, the other element in the Rangoon run was years of preparations by the fraternity organization Drive 136, which led to a nationwide insurgency within Burma and the overflow of the whole Burmese army to the Allies.
Aside from the advancement of the Allies, the Japanese now found themselves facing an open insurgency behind their line. The XXXIII Corps assembled the Fourteenth Army's subsidiary propulsion in the Irrawaddy River Valley against the rigid opposition of the Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army. The IV Corps was the major assault on the Railway Valley, which was also followed by the Sittaung River.
It began with an attack on a late Japan retardation stance (held by the remains of the thirty-third army of Japan) in Pyawbwe. At first, the attacking forces were stopped by a powerful defence behind a arid strait, but a supporting train of armour and mechanized fleets hit the Japs from behind and smashed them to pieces.
A Karen guerrilla rebellion stopped the Fifteenth Army of Japan from entering the main street center of Taungoo before the Fourth World War. On April 25, the allied leaders encountered Japan's rearguard just south of Bago, 40 leagues (64 km) east of Rangoon. Kimura had shaped the various services forces, navy staff and even civilian Yangonese into the 105 Independent Mixed Brigade.
Until April 30, this scratching formations stopped the UK march and evacuated the Rangoon area. Discharging a boat landed with forces and vessels of the Fifteenth Indian Corps at Elephant Point, just South of Yangon at the beginning of the Dracula mission, May 2, 1945. Originally, the idea to recapture Burma was for the XV Corps to carry out an amphibian attack on Rangoon long before the Fourteenth Army arrived in the capitol to solve supplies issues.
Fearing that the monsoons would put the Fourteenth Army into a catastrophic position, Slim said the Yangon would be defending Rangoon to the last man. Maritime force for the Phuket assault was rerouted to Operation Dracula, and XV Corps troops were disembarked from Akyab and Ramree. A Gurkha paratroopers' corps was set down at Elephant Point on May 1 and the Yangon River estuary was freed from the hands of the Yangon people.
Next morning, the army's army arrived the next morning by boat. Following the retreat of the Yangonites, Yangon had seen an odyssey of plunder and outlaws, similar to the last British era in the town in 1942. The monsoons began raining in the afternoons of May 2, 1945.
Leaders of the seventeenth and twenty-sixth division of India gathered in Hlegu, 28 leagues (45 km) south of Rangoon, on May 6. After the conquest of Rangoon, a new Twelve Army HQ was moved from the XXXIII.
After retreating from Arakan and resistance to the XXXIII Corps in the Irrawaddy River Basin, the Japanese Twenty-Eighth Force had withdrawn to the Pegu Yomas, a series of low, jungle-covered mounds between the Irrawaddy and Sittang River. You were planning to escape and return to the Burmese military. In order to prevent this outbreak, Kimura ordered the Thirty-Third Armies to launch a distraction attack over the Sittang, although the whole force could hardly find the power of a single one.
The 3rd of July they assaulted UK position in the Sittang Bend. After an almost completely submerged war for the land, both the Japanese and the Allies retired on July 10. It was too early for the Japanese to attack. Sakurai' s twenty-eighth army was only prepared to begin the outbreak on 17 July.
They had ambushed or concentrated gunfire on the Japanese use. This eruption took the Japanese almost 10,000 men, half the size of the Twenty-eighth Army. The number of Britons and Indians killed was very low. The Fourteenth Army (now under Lieutenant General Miles Dempsey) and XV Corps had come back to India to schedule the next phase of the Southeast Asian recapture phase.
The XXXIV Marine of India, under Lieutenant General Ouvry Lindfield Roberts, was reared and reassigned to the Fourteenth Army for further missions. Launching the nuclear bomb prevented this mission, but it was the fastest way to bring occupying forces to Malaya after the conflict. On the allied side, the Burma campaign's results in terms of both force and politics were controversial.
Militarily, the Japs kept Burma under full command until the outcome of the election was not relevant to Japan's destiny. Acknowledged by many US agencies and later US scholars, the camp was a "minor issue" and (apart from the fact that some of Japan's ground troops were distracted by China or the Pacific) did not help Japan's failure, although Burma's rebound was seen as a victory for the British Indian army.
In the aftermath of the end of the war, the Bamar people's pre-war movement for Burma's independency and financial collapse during the four-year program made it virtually unfeasible to resume the former government. Both Burma and India were self-sufficient within three years. In 1944, the attempt to invade India was started against this criticism under unrealist conditions and led to the greatest failure the entire army of Japan had known.
Following the Singapore fiasco and the Burma losses of 1942, the Brits were forced to protect India at all cost, as a failed Russian army attack by the Emperor's army would have been catastrophic. Since then, the defensive actions at Kohima and Imphal in 1944 have assumed an enormous symbolism as the turn in Britain's fate in the East Wars.
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